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Full text of "The Welsh vocabulary of the Bangor district"

THE 

WELSH VOCABULARY 

OF THE 

BANGOR DISTRICT 

BY 

O. H. FYNES-CLINTON, M.A. 

PROFESSOR OF FRENCH AND ROMANCE PHILOLOGY AT THE 
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH WALES, BANGOR 



HUMPHREY MILFORD 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW 

NEW YORK, TORONTO, 'MELBOURNE, BOMBAY 



OXFORD : HORACE HART M.A. 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 






I/iA- j 



PREFACE 

MY aim in the present book has been to make an accurate 
record of the words in colloquial use in one clearly defined 
district in Wales. In a language like Welsh, which at 
present has no recognized spoken standard, no hard and 
fast line can be drawn in the spoken language between 
literary words and those which belong purely to the domain 
of dialect ; and there are probably few words which in their 
form, use, or pronunciation could be said to be precisely 
identical in all parts of the country. Hence my design has 
been not to compile a glossary of a particular dialect but 
rather a vocabulary of spoken Welsh as represented by the 
usage in a particular district. It appeared to me that such 
a compilation, however imperfect and incomplete, could 
scarcely fail to be of service for comparative purposes to 
workers in other dialects as well as to those who desire to 
obtain a knowledge of colloquial Welsh, and at the same 
time might possibly be the means of preserving some words 
and expressions which are now rapidly becoming obsolete 
and are known only to the older inhabitants. I have spared 
no pains to make the work as accurate as possible, but it 
would be vain to pretend to any hope that I have always 
succeeded. The number of words still in use might probably 
be largely extended but I am unwilling to delay further the 
publication of a work which has already occupied me for 
nine years. 

Like all compilers of dictionaries I have been frequently 
beset with difficulties as to which words to omit and which 
to include. On the one hand are literary or book words 
such, for instance, as have obtained a kind of semi-colloquial 
standing through their frequent use in the Bible or by their 



ii Preface 

common occurrence in newspapers ; and on the other hand 
are English words with which some speakers, especially the 
younger, plentifully interlard their conversation. The 
general criterion I have employed in such matters is the 
usage of older speakers. Among words which might be 
described as literary, I have included all such as are in 
frequent and indispensable use, especially those which offer 
any point of interest with regard to meaning or pronuncia- 
tion, but omitting, as a rule, long compounds. As to English 
words, I have included those which differ in a marked way 
as to pronunciation or meaning from present English 
standard usage, such as grdt ' grate ', stowt ' plucky ' ; those 
which have demonstrably formed part of the language for 
several centuries and those of very common and indispen- 
sable use. If I appear sometimes to have acted arbitrarily 
or inconsistently, I must plead as an excuse the extreme 
difficulty of deciding in many such cases. 

In marking out the boundaries of the district I have 
chosen, I was chiefly guided by convenience, but they are 
also, in the main, geographical. The district extends from 
Bangoralong the coast eastwards to the point where Penmaen- 
mawr meets the sea, thence along the northern slopes of the 
hills past Llanfairfechan, Aber, and Llanllechid to Bethesda, 
Rhiwlas, and the village of Pentir. From Pentir to Bangor 
an arbitrary line had to be drawn somewhere and I have 
adopted roughly the road between the two places, which 
runs almost due north. 

The symbols I have employed are, with a few exceptions, 
those of the Association Phonetique. In the alphabetical 
arrangement I have placed e with e, and o and with o in 
order to facilitate reference, since e\ o and are, almost 
without exception, merely the first elements of diphthongs. 
In all matters connected with the sounds of the language 
I have continually referred to Sweet's article on Spoken 
North Welsh in the ' Philological Society's Transactions ' for 
1882-4 (reprinted in 'Collected Papers of Henry Sweet', 
Oxford, 1913). In all cases in which I have arrived at 



Preface \\\ 

a different conclusion, it has only been after the most careful 
consideration. I regret that I was only able to make use of 
Professor Morris Jones's grammar at the latter end of the 
book. 

I deemed it desirable, wherever possible, to give the 
orthography of each word according to some recorded 
instance previous to the nineteenth century. To obtain as 
much uniformity as possible I give the form employed in 
Davies's Welsh-Latin and Latin-Welsh Dictionary (1632). 
If the word does not occur here I have had recourse to the 
Bible (ed. 1620) or, failing this, to various other books 
especially of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, and to the unfinished dictionary of Silvan Evans. 
Failing these again I have used Richards's, and finally Owen 
Pughe's dictionary. It is beyond the scope of the work to 
give the forms occurring in older literature, except where 
any analogy occurs with modern colloquial usage. As 
regards words of English origin, which are usually omitted 
in dictionaries, I give a greater number of examples of 
their occurrence, particularly if they are words of long 
standing in the language. The nature of the subject has, 
I need hardly mention, necessitated references to books of 
very varying authority. The whole of this part of my 
work would require a much greater expenditure of time 
than I have had at my disposal to bring it to anything like 
completion. 

I will now mention the names of my principal informants, 
to all of whom I am deeply indebted for their patient 
and ready help. The groundwork of the book represents 
the speech of the following, in the order in which I made 
their acquaintance. I refer to them under their initials in 
the course of the work, wherever this seemed desirable. 

My late landlady, Miss Elizabeth Jones (E.J.), of 
Cooldaragh, Bangor, born at Pentir on Oct. 25, 1859, whose 
obiter dicta form a not inconsiderable part of the volume. 
She has also given me much valuable information as to the 
meaning of some of the more unusual words. 



iv Preface 

Mr. John William Jones (JJ.) of Tan 'r Allt, Aber, born at 
Aber on June 8, 1839. He had received no education and 
was unable to speak English, but was a self-taught man 
who had read a considerable amount of Welsh literature. 
He also had a very wide knowledge of the place-names of 
his district. During my frequent visits I obtained from him 
a large amount of information, particularly as regards terms 
used in farming and in slate-quarries, he having worked 
many years in the latter at Bethesda. He took the greatest 
pains in supplying all the details I sought until a short 
time before his death, which occurred on August 18, 1909. 

Mr. Owen Hughes (O.H.), who lived in a small two-roomed 
cottage at Blaen Nant Isaf, Nant y Felin, Llanfairfechan, 
born at Llanfairfechan on January 6, 1835. I made his 
acquaintance late in 1909 at the recommendation of Mr. J. W. 
Jones. He was entirely ignorant of English. During my 
weekly visits of four hours extending over the greater part 
of three years he imparted to me an extraordinary amount 
of information of every kind and in particular terms con- 
nected with farming and the sea. His knowledge of place- 
names was also very extensive. I attach especial im- 
portance to the information obtained from him, as he was 
the oldest of my informants, was the least affected by 
literary influences, and I had had more than five years' 
experience with the dialect when I made his acquaintance. 
He died after a very short illness on November 3, 1912, in 
full possession of his mental and physical powers, only ten 
days after my last visit to him, and when the present work 
was already in the press. 

I must also add the name of Mr. Richard Jones, 48 Foun- 
tain Street, Bangor, who supplied me with most of the 
names of fish. 

My sincerest thanks are also due to my father-in-law, the 
Rev. W. Hughes (W.H.), Vicar of Llanuwchllyn, who 
supplied me with many words and phrases and grammatical 
minutiae ; to Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Hughes of Bangor, who 
have always been most ready to clear up any doubtful 



Preface v 

point during the reading of the proofs and have given much 
further information ; it is to them that the word ' (Bangor) ' 
usually refers in the text ; to Professor T. Hudson-Williams, 
who has read all the proofs from page 193 onwards, and by 
his frequent references to Carnarvon usage enabled me to 
make some important additions, whenever this coincided 
with that of Bangor ; and especially to Mr. Ifor Williams 
(I.W.), Assistant Lecturer in Welsh at the University 
College of North Wales a native of Tregarth near 
Bangor for his indispensable aid in supplying me at the 
beginning with a large number of words which formed the 
nucleus of the rest, for clearing up many difficulties during 
the course of the work, for reading the greater part of my 
MS. and the whole of the proofs also. I have also received 
much valuable aid and advice from Professor J. Morris 
Jones. Lastly, I have pleasure in expressing my debt in 
various ways to Miss Grace Ellis, Mr. J. E. Griffith, Mr. W. 
Hopkins Jones, Mr. W. J. Parry of Bethesda, the Rev. T. 
Shankland, Professor P. J. White, and Dr. J. Lloyd 
Williams. 

O. H. FYNES-CLINTON. 



Sept. 22, 1913. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND BOOKS 
CONSULTED 

A. A collection of ballads, songs, etc., of the eighteenth century by 
various writers, at the Library of the University College, Bangor, bound 
together in one volume, in a somewhat imperfect state. It is impossible 
to give exact references. 

Anwyl. A Welsh Grammar for Schools by E. Anwyl, M.A. . . . 
Third Edition. London. 1907. 

B. A collection of ballads, songs, etc., of the eighteenth century at 
the Library of the University College, Bangor, of the same character as 
A, but in a more imperfect state. 

B.B.C. The Black Book of Carmarthen, reproduced and edited by 
J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli. 1906. 

B.C. Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc (by Ellis Wynne). Llundain- 
1703. Reprint ed. by J. Morris Jones, Bangor. 1898. 

B.H. Bown o Hamtwn, edited from the Hengwrt MSS. by the 
Rev. Robert Williams, M.A. London. 1878. 

Bible. References in all cases are to the edition of 1620. 

C. A collection of ballads, songs, etc., of the eighteenth century at 
the Library of the University College, Bangor, of the same character 
as A and B. 

C.C. (Canwyll y Cymry) Y Pedwarydd Ran o waith Mr. Rees 
Prichard Gynt Ficcer Llanddyfri yn Shir Gaerfyrddyn. Y nawr gynta 
yn Brintiedig . . . Llundain . . . 1672. 

C.Ch. Campeu Charlymaen, edited from the Hengwrt MSS. in the 
Peniarth Library by the Rev. Robert Williams, M.A. London. 1878. 
(Date of MS. 1336.) 

C.C.M. The Cefn Coch MSS. Two MSS. of Welsh Poetry, 
written principally during the eighteenth century. Edited by the 
Rev. J. Fisher, B.D. Liverpool. 1899. 

C.F. Cymru Fydd (Periodical printed and published by E. W. Evans, 
Dolgelley) : Llafar Gwlad Llanfair Pwll Gwyngyll by J. M. Jones, B.A., 
1889, pp. 438-440 ; Llafar Gwlad Bethesda by J.Owen Jones, Bala, 1889, 
pp. 676-679 ; Llafar Gwlad Niwbwrch, Mon., by the Rev. Robert 
Hughes, 1890, pp. 331-334. 

C.L.C. Cymdeithas Lien Cymru. I. Carolau : gan Richard Hughes. 
Caerdydd. 1900 [c. 1590-1638]. II. Hen Gerddi Gwleidyddol. 
Caerdydd. 1901 [1588-1660]. III. Casgliad o Hen Ganiadau 
Serch. Caerdydd. 1902 [MSS. date from 1599 to 1638]. IV. 



viii List of Abbreviations and Books Consulted 

Casgliad o Hanes-gerddi Cymraeg. Caerdydd. 1903 [seventeenth 
and eighteenth century]. V, VI. Caniadau yn y Mesurau Rhyddion. 
Caerdydd. 1905 [1450-1700]. 

D. Antiquae Linguae Britannicae, Nunc vulgo dictae Cambro-Britannicae 

. . et Lingvae Latinae Dictionarium Duplex . . . Londini, Impensis 
Joan. Davies SS. Th. D. An. Dom. 1632. [References to the Botanology 
are indicated by (Bot), to the List of Proverbs by (Prov.).] 

D.F. Deffyniad Ffydd Eglwys Loegr (Jewel's Apology) . . . Wedi 
ei gyfieuthu o Ladin, yn Gymraeg, drwy waith M. Kyffin . . . Llunden. 
1595. Reprint ed. by Wm. Prichard Williams. Bangor. 1908. 

D.G. Barddoniaeth Dafydd ab Gwilym o grynhoad Owen Jones 
a William Owen. Llundain. 1789. 

D.P.O. Drych y Prif Oesoedd gan Theophilus Evans. [2nd ed. 
Shrewsbury. 1740.] Reprint ed. by Samuel J. Evans, M.A. Bangor 
and London. 1902. 

F.N. Y Flodeugerdd Newydd. Casgliad o gywyddau'r bedwaredd 
ganrif ar ddeg, y bymthegfed a'r unfed ar bymtheg. Wedi eu golygu 
gyda nodiadau gan W. J. Gruffydd, M.A. Caerdydd. 1909. 

Forrest. The Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales by H. E. Forrest. 
London. 1907. 

G.C. The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan. The Welsh Text with 
Translation, Introduction and Notes, by Arthur Jones, M.A. Man- 
chester. 1910. [Date, middle thirteenth century.] 

G.I. Detholiad o waith Gruffydd ab leuan ab Llewelyn Fychan, 
edited by the Rev. J. C. Morrice, M.A. Bangor Welsh MSS. Society. 
1910. (fl. 1500-1525.) 

G.O. The Poetical Works of the Rev. Goronwy Owen . . . edited 
... by the Rev. Robert Jones, B.A. ... in two volumes. London. 
1876. (Vol. I contains the Poems; vol. II contains Life and Corre- 
spondence.) b. 1723, d. 1769. 

G.R. A Welsh Grammar and other Tracts by Griffith Roberts. 
A Fac-simile Reprint Published as a Supplement to the Revue Celtique, 
1870-1883. Paris. Contains among other matter: Dosparth Byrr ar y 
rhann gyntaf i ramadeg cymraeg . . . [Milan.] 1567. (Griffith 
Roberts employs ' d ', '!', and 'u' with a diacritical mark under them 
for the usual * dd ', ' 11 ', and ' w '. For purposes of convenience I have 
employed the usual orthography in these cases. The numbers in 
brackets refer to the pages of the introduction.) 

Griffith. The Flora of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire by John E. 
Griffith, F.L.S., F.R.A.S. Bangor. (No date.) 

H.D. Welsh Botanology ; . . . a Systematic Catalogue of the Native 
Plants of the Isle of Anglesey, in Latin, Welsh, and English ... by 
Hugh Davies, F.L.S. London. 1813. 

H.S. Gwaith Barddonol Howel Swrdwal a'i fab leuan edited by 



List of Abbreviations and Books Consulted ix 

the Rev. J. C. Morrice, M.A. Bangor Welsh MSS. Society. 1908. 
(fl. 1430-1460.) 

I.D. Casgliad o waith leuan Deulwyn edited by Ifor Williams, 
M.A. Bangor Welsh MSS. Society. 1909. 

I.G. Gweithiau lolo Goch gyda nodiadau hanesyddol a beirniadol 
gan Charles Ashton. Croesoswallt. 1896. 

lolo MSS. : lolo Manuscripts. A Selection of Ancient Welsh 
Manuscripts, in prose and verse, from the collection made by the late 
Edward Williams . . . Llandovery. 1848. 

J.M.J. A Welsh Grammar ... by J. Morris Jones, M.A. Oxford. 



K.H. (Kyfreithau Howel Da). The Laws of Howel Dda, edited by 
Timothy Lewis, M.A. London. 1912. 

L.A. The Elucidarium and other tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr 
Agkyr Llanddewivrevi, A.D. 1346, ed. by J. Morris Jones, M.A., and 
John Rhys, M.A. Oxford. 1894. 

L.G.C. The poetical works of Lewis Glyn Cothi, edited by the 
Rev. Walter Davies . . . and the Rev. John Jones, M.A. . . . Oxford. 

1837. 

M.A. The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales ... 3 vols. London. 
1801-1807. 

Medd. An. Y Meddyg Anifeiliaid : yn cynnwysachosion, arwyddion 
a thriniaeth afiechyd sydd ar wartheg, ceffylau a defaid. Wrexham. 
No date. 

M.F. Myrddin Fardd (J. Jones). Gwerin-eiriau Sir Gaernarfon : eu 
hystyr a'u hanes. Pwllheli. 1907. 

M.LI. Gweithiau Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd. Vol. I, ed. by Thomas 
E. Ellis. Bangor and London. 1899 ; vol. II, ed. by John H. Davies. 
Bangor and London. 1908. b. 1619, d. 1659. 

N.E.D. A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, edited 
by James A. H. Murray, LL.D. Oxford. 1888- 

O.P. A Dictionary of the Welsh Language by W. Owen Pughe, 
D.G.L., F.A.S. 2nd ed. Denbigh. 1832. 

Pedersen. Vergleichende Grammatik der Keltischen Sprachen von 
Holger Pedersen. Gottingen. 1908- 

P.G.G. Pattrwm y Gvvir-Gristion neu Ddilyniad lesu Grist . . . 
Wedi ei droi yn Gymraeg Gan W.M. A.B. Argraffwyd yn' Ghaerlleon 
. . . 1723. Reprint ed. by H. Elvet Lewis. Bangor. 1908. 

P.P. Promptorium Parvulorum [1440]. Early English Text Society. 
1908. 

R. Antiquae Linguae Britannicae Thesaurus being a British, or 
Welsh-English Dictionary ... by Thomas Richards, Curate of 
Coychurch. Bristol. 1753. 

R.B. (Red Book). Y Llyvyr Coch o Hergest. Vol. I (The 



x List of Abbreviations and Books Consulted 

Mabinogion). Edited by John Rhys, M.A., and J. Gwenogvryn Evans. 
Oxford. 1887. 

R.B. II. Do., Vol. II. The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book 
of Hergest. Edited by John Rhys, M.A., and J. Gwenogvryn Evans. 
Oxford. 1890. 

Rhys. Celtic Folklore Welsh and Manx, by John Rhys, M.A., 
D.Litt. Oxford. 1901. (In two volumes.) 

Rowland : A Grammar of the Welsh Language ... by Thomas 
Rowland . . . Fourth edition. Wrexham (1876). 

S. Strachan : An Introduction to Early Welsh. By the late John 
Strachan. Manchester. 1909. 

S.E. A Dictionary of the Welsh Language by D. Silvan Evans, 
Carmarthen. 1893-1896. A to Ennyd. [An asterisk denotes that a 
quotation is given indicating the use of the word at least as early as the 
seventeenth century.] Also An English- Welsh Dictionary by D. Silvan 
Evans. Denbigh. 1852. 

S.G. Y Seint Greal . . . Edited . . . from the copy preserved 
among the Hengwrt MSS. . . . by the Rev. Robert Williams, M.A. . . . 
London. 1874. 

S.J.E. Studies in Welsh Phonology by Samuel J. Evans. London 
and Newport. 1909. 

Sweet. Spoken North Welsh in the Transactions of the Philological 
Society, 1882-4. (Pt. III.) pp. 409-484. 

T.G.G. Transactions of the Guild of Graduates (of the University 
of Wales). Cardiff. 

T.N. Gwaith Thomas Edwards (T\vm o'r Nant). Liverpool. 
1874. b. 1735, d. 1810. 

Welsh Orthography. The Report of the Orthographical Com- 
mittee of the Society for utilizing the Welsh Language. [Reprint.] 
Carnarvon. 1905. 

W.LI. Barddoniaeth William Llyn a'i Eirlyfr, ed. by the Rev. J. C. 
Morrice, M.A. Bangor. 1908. b. 1535, d. 1580. 

W.M.M. A Glossary of the Demetian Dialect of North Pembroke- 
shire (with Special Reference to the Gwaun Valley) by the Rev. W. 
Meredith Morris, B.A. Tonypandy. 1910. 

W.S. A Dictionary in Englyshe and Welshe by Wyllyam Salesbury. 
[1547.] (Reprint by the Cymmrodorion Society, 1877.) 

Yny Ihyvyr hwnn. Yny Ihyvyr hwnn a Ban o gyfreith Howel. 
Dan olygiaeth John H. Davies, M.A. Bangor and London. 1903. 
(The original title-page of the first tract reads : Yny Ihyvyr hwnn y 
traethir. Gwyddor kymraeg. Kalandyr. Y gredo, ney bynkeu yr ffydd 
gatholig ... 15^6.) 

All words from English dialects have been taken from Wright's 
English Dialect Dictionary, except when otherwise stated, and, needless 
to say, I have also constantly referred to Murray's Dictionary. 



INTRODUCTION 



THE signs I have employed are the following : 



Mgn 


Usually 
written 


As in 


Sign 


Usually 
written 


As in 


a 


a 


rhan 


y 


ng 


sang 


b 


b 


bara 


y 


ng 


ngenau 


d 


d 


da 


y 


ng(h) 


nghof 


8 


dd 


lladd 


y 


ng(h) 


nghefn 


e 


e 


pen 








lion 


e 


e 


gwneud 





o 


coeden 


f 


if 


ffa 





a, y 


mawnen, 


g 


g 


gardd 






cywarch 


g 


g 


genau 


p 


P 


pen 


h 


h 


haf 


r 


r 


garw 


i 


i 


dim 


r 


r(h) 


rhaw 


1 


i 


iawn 


s 


S 


saith 


f 


i 


hiaith 


/ 


si 


siarad 


k 


c 


coll 


ff 


si 


trwsio 


H 


c 


ci 


t 


t 


tad 


X 


ch 


llwch 


e 


th 


nyth 


I 


1 


malu 


u 


w 


pwll 


I 


1 


clo 


V 


f 


barf 


i 


11 


lie 


w 


w 


gwyn 


m 


rn 


mam 


w 


w(h) 


whatch 


m 




m(h) 


mhen 


y 


u,y 


dull, llyn 


n 


n 


nyth 


9 


y 


dynion 


n 


n(h) 


nhad 


g 


z,s 


Eng. azure 



pleasure 

: indicates that the preceding vowel is long, e. g. ta:d, tad. 

before a syllable indicates that that syllable is stressed, e. g. 
hm'ra.'ig, Cymraeg. This sign is not used when the stress is 
regular, i. e. on the penultimate. 

_ below a consonant, i. e. /, r, indicates that that consonant is 
long, e. g. kahn, calon ; tori, torri. 



xii Introduction 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Welsh in this district is spoken on a higher key than English. 
The syllable following the stress often has a tendency to rise, and 
is pronounced with much greater force than in English. The 
organs of speech are slightly tenser than in English, but not nearly 
so much so as in French. The soft palate is pressed back so that 
nasalization is extremely slight. It is in fact possible to close the 
passage of the nostrils without causing any appreciable effect on 
the sounds, except, of course, those of the nasal consonants. 

THE VOWELS. 

Vowels in monosyllables may be long or short. In stressed 
penultimates, vowels are appreciably longer before a single voiced 
consonant than before voiceless or double consonants. 
We take the vowels in the following order : 
Back vowels : a, o, u. 
Mixed vowels : y, e, o, 3, 0. 
Front vowels : /, e. 



Back Vowels. 

a. Sweet's mid-back-wide-outer. Slightly more forward than 
English ' a ' in ' father ', but not so much as French ' a ' in ' rage '. 
In unstressed syllables a often tends towards the obscure sound of 
9 as in gaveyloft, gafaelodd, * he took hold '. 

a: is the same sound lengthened. This sound often represents 
' ae ' in monosyllables, as la:6 beside la:yB, llaeth, ' milk '. This, 
however, is not the case when ' ae ' form the last letters in the 
word, except in ma:, sometimes for may, mae, ' is '. 

o is the rounded form of a, nearly the same as Eng. ' o ' in 
' boy ', or French ' o ' in ' note '. 

o: is the same sound lengthened, but somewhat closer. The 
difference, however, is only slight, and not nearly so appreciable as 
I have heard it from some speakers from South Wales. Intermediate 
between o and o:, both as regards length and closeness, is o before 
a single voiced consonant in a stressed penultimate, e. g. dona, 
bonau, ' stumps '. I have used only one sign to represent these 
1 o ' sounds, because the difference between them is slight, and is 



Introduction xiii 

always governed by fixed rules, o: often represents ' oe' (= o:y) 
in monosyllables, as 0:8 beside o.yd, oedd, ' was '. This, however, 
is not the case when the letters ' oe ' are final, as in noy, noe, ' a 
dish used in making butter '. 

u. Sweet's high-back-narrow-round, like French ' ou ' in ' tout ', 
but less rounded. This sound often represents * wy ' in final 
syllables, as eglus beside egluys, eglwys, ' church ' ; annul beside 
annuyl, anwyl, 'dear*. This is sometimes the case even when 
' wy ' is final, e. g. eyru, aerwy, ' a cow-house yoke ' ; 'deydsonu, 
1 dywedasant hwy, ' they said '. 

u: is the same sound lengthened. This sound occasionally 
represents ' wy ' in monosyllables, e. g. du:n beside du:yn, dvvyn, 
* to steal '*. This is never the case when ' wy ' is final except in 
.'j hwynthwy, ' they '. 



Mixed Vowels. 

y. Sweet's high-mixed-narrow, i.e. the middle of the tongue 
comes into close contact with the palate. The lips are in the i 
position. 

y: is the same sound lengthened. A slightly lowered and rounded 
form of this sound is sometimes heard in the exclamation dy:! t 
a euphemism for dyu t Duw, ' God '. 

e. Sweet's mid-mixed-narrow. The middle of the tongue is 
lowered from the y position. This sound only occurs in the 
diphthongs e'i and ey. [See diphthongs.] 

o. Sweet's mid-mixed-narrow-round. This is a rounded form 
of e. It occurs, properly speaking, only in the diphthongs oi t by, 
but sometimes it represents o in stressed penultimates, especially 
before syllables containing o or u, as doduy, dodwy, ' to lay (eggs) '. 
It also sometimes represents * oe ' in the stressed penultimates of 
compound words, as trodva> troedfedd, ' foot ' (measure) ; kosnoQ, 
coesnoeth, ' bare-legged '. 

3. Sweet's low-mixed-narrow. This is the short form of the 
vowel sound in Eng. ' sir ', and quite distinct from Eng. * u ' in 
' but '. For the sake of convenience I have used the same sign to 
express the so-called irrational vowel which occurs so frequently in 
unstressed antepenultimates, e. g. hfila, ceffylau, ' horses ', as it is 
difficult to analyse these very short unstressed vowel sounds. The 

in Eng. 



xiv Introduction 

' better ', but slightly more advanced. Sweet (' Spoken North 
Welsh ') often omits the vowel in these cases, but, though such 
pronunciations do no doubt sometimes occur in quick speech, they 
are not, in my opinion, characteristic of this district, except in 
certain combinations of letters, e. g. Igada, ' eyes '. 

0. I use this sign to express two very similar ' o ' sounds. The 
first is a rounded form of 9 (Sweet's low-mixed-narrow-round), 
which represents ' y ' before a consonantal ' w ' in stressed pen- 
ultimates, e. g. I0wyd, bywyd, ' life '. Otherwise it only occurs in 
diphthongs. The other sound may be described as a rounded 
form of the first element in the diphthong ' ow ' in Eng. ' how ' 
(Sweet's low-mixed-wide-round). This sound represents ' aw * in 
stressed penultimates. [See diphthongs.] 

Front Vowels. 

z". Sweet's high-front-narrow, like French ' i ' in ' dit ', but 
slightly lower (more open). 

i: is the same sound lengthened. 

c. Sweet's mid-front-wide, very slightly lower (more open) than 
Eng. ' e ' in ' pen ', as hef, ' hat ', meQy, methu, ' to fail '. Before 
a single voiced consonant in stressed penultimates the sound is 
slightly higher (more closed) than English ' e ' in ' pen ', as gweny, 
gwenu, ' to smile ', meSul, meddwl, ' to think '. As in the case of 
o I have used only one sign to represent the sounds, because the 
difference is very slight and is always governed by fixed rules. 

e: is the lengthened form of the second of the above-mentioned 
sounds, but perhaps slightly more closed. 

THE DIPHTHONGS. 

The diphthongs are ai\ a:i, an, a:u, ay, a:y, eu, e:u, ez, ey, iu, i:u, 
oi, oy, o:y, oi, oy, 011, m] u:i, uy, u:y, yu, y:u. 

ai represents ' ai ' in monosyllables, e. g. taid, ' grandfather '. 
It occurs also in a few final syllables, as in arwain, ' to lead '. 
Final ' ai ' usually becomes a. 

a:i represents ' ae ' before ' g ', as in fo?n'ra:ig, Cymraeg, ' Welsh '. 

au represents ' aw ' in monosyllables ending in a consonant, 
e. g. maur, mawr, 'great'. It also occurs in a few final syllables, 
as darlau, darllaw, ' to brew ' ; distau, distaw, * silent '. It some- 
times represents ' ow ', as in taur, towr, ' thatcher ' ; traur, trowr? 



Introduction xv 

' ploughman '. It does not generally occur in stressed penultimates 
except before /, e. g. kaujo, bancawio, ' to fasten (a fish-hook) to 
the gut '. It is heard, however, in tauson, and some other forms 
from tewi, ' to be silent '. 

a:u represents ' aw ', when final, in monosyllables, e. g. la:u, 
Haw, ' hand '. It occurs also in nosta:ux, nosdawch, ' good night '. 

ay represents * au ' in monosyllables, e. g. hayl, haul, ' sun ' ; 
and in final stressed syllables as ka'say, cashau, ' to hate'. It 
represents ' ai ' in bayx, baich, ' burden ', and brayx, braich, ' arm '. 

a:y represents ' ae ' in monosyllables, e. g. hay I, hael, ' generous ' ; 
* au ' in a few cases as pa:yn, paun, ' peacock ' ; and sometimes Eng. 
1 a, ai ', as payn, ' pane ' ; playn, ' plain ' ; pa:ynt, ' paint '. 

eu represents ' ew ' in monosyllables, except when final, and in 
stressed penultimates followed by a consonant, as teux, tewch, ' be 
silent * ; teudur, tewdwr, ' thickness '. It occurs in a final syllable 
in fatten, ' stiff ' (of liquids) ; pendeu, pendew, ' thick-headed, dull '. 

e:u represents 'ew' when final in monosyllables, as te:u t tew, 
' fat '. 

ei represents ' ei ' in stressed penultimates, as Ke'mjog, ceiniog, 
< penny ' ; ' ae, eu ' in stressed penultimates when followed by a 
consonant -f i or J, as gwe'tdi, gwaeddi, ' to cry out ' ; deigjan, 
deugain, ' forty ' ; ' ai ' in a few monosyllables, zsrhet, rhai, * some ' ; 
ne'td, naid, ' leap ' ; and Eng. ' i ' as preivat, ' private '. In mono- 
syllables the <? element is very distinct, but in stressed penultimates 
the i is generally predominant. Thus gw'e'Mjo, peidjo often sound 
to an unaccustomed ear like gwi:Bjo, pi:djo. Sometimes the e' 
undoubtedly disappears, as in ista, eistedd, * to sit ' ; if f o, eisieu, 
' want ' ; tri:o t treio, ' to ebb ', ' to try '. 

ey represents ' ae ', ' eu ' and ' ey ' in stressed penultimates (but 
see under ei), as eylod, aelod, ' member ' ; beydy, beudy, ' cow-shed ' ; 
deyd t dweyd, dy wedyd, ' to say '. It occurs also in a few mono- 
syllables, as gwey, gweu, ' to weave ' ; hey beside hay, hau, ' to sow '. 
In monosyllables the e element is very distinct, but in stressed 
penultimates the y is predominant. Sometimes the e disappears, 
as mfry.'O) ' to quarrel ' (Eng. ' fray ', ' arTray '). 

iu represents ' iw ' and ' y w ' and Eng. * u ' and ' ew '. The 
existence of the sound iu in Welsh (though contrary to the opinion 
of Sweet, 'Spoken North Welsh/ p. 417) is sufficiently proved 
by the literary word * gwiw ', which is undoubtedly pronounced 



xvi Introduction 

gwi'u, and could scarcely be pronounced otherwise. This sound 
may be distinctly heard when it occurs initially as in ms, 
' use ' ; iuf'o, ' to use ' (but jurx, iwrch, ' roebuck '). Other 
examples are niul (which Sweet writes njuul, i. e. nju:l) t niwl, 
* mist ' ; liu, lliw, ' colour '. This diphthong has replaced yu in 
a great number of words, as //', lly w, ' helm ' ; rhiu, rhyw, ' some '. 
m also occurs in diujol, duwiol, ' godly '. Cf. also ?di, ydyw, ' is '. 
The literary 'yw', 'is', is always pronounced iu. On the other 
hand we have said njurnod, saith niwrnod, ' seven days '. 

i:n occurs in /ri;ux, triwch, ' try ' ; gwm':ux, ' sew ', etc. 

oi represents ' oi ' in monosyllables, as /roi, troi, ' to turn '; and 
in stressed final syllables as para'toi, paratoi, ' to prepare '. 

oy occurs very rarely as representing ' oe ' in final syllables in 
compound words, e. g. in kraxgoyd^ crachgoed, ' the shoots which 
grow out of the stump of a tree which has been sawn off'. Even 
in such cases oy more often tends to become o or oy. 

o:y represents ' oe ' in monosyllables, as ko.yd, coed, ' wood '. 
The consciousness of incorrectness in substituting o: for o:y (see 
under o:), e. g. kro:n for kroyn, croen, ' skin ', sometimes leads to 
the opposite process of substituting o:y foro:. Thusfo.ys is a very 
common pronunciation of fo:s. I have also heard bo:yn for &o:n, 
bon, 'stump, stem' (J.J.). 

oi represents ' oi ' in stressed penultimates, as lota, lloi, ' calves ', 
and ' oe ' in stressed penultimates followed by a consonant or 
consonants 4- i or/ as koidjo, coedio, ' to timber '. 

oy represents ' oe (oy) ' in stressed penultimates (but cf. bi\ as 
koydan t coeden, ' tree ' ; kdysa, coesau, ' legs '. This is the pre- 
vailing pronunciation of the district, but uy is sometimes heard 
instead, thus kuydan, kuysa (O.H. had uy very frequently). The 
forms moyBa and muyBa appear also in literature, viz. ' moethau ' 
and ' mwythau '. On the other hand oy is occasionally heard for 
uy, as hoylys for huylys, ' convenient '. Before ' u ', oy tends to 
become ey^ as gleyu beside gloyu, gloy w, ' bright ' ; kreyu beside 
kroyu, croyw, ' clear '. 

0u. For the two varieties of this diphthong cf. under er. The 
first variety where is a rounded form of ^ (Sweet's low-mixed- 
narrow-round) represents 'yw ; in a stressed penultimate before 
a consonant, as bmjog, by wiog, ' lively ' ; rherujog, rhy wiog, ' kindly '. 
The second variety where is approximately a rounded form of 



Introduction xvii 

the first element of the Eng. diphthong ' ow ' in ' how ' (Sweet's 
low-mixed-wide-round) represents (i) 'ow' in monosyllables, as 
d#ux, dowch for deuwch, ' come ' ; rh0ud> rhowyd for rhoddwyd, 
pret. pass, of rhoddi, 'to give*. (2) 'aw' followed by more than 
one consonant in mmrd, Mawrth, ' March ', and dy: merurQ, dydd 
Mawrth, ' Tuesday '. (3) It is heard also in k0uk, ' one of the 
turned down ends of a horse-shoe ', and rhmik, ' a rut '. (4) It 
generally represents ' aw ' in stressed penultimates, as merunan, 
mawnen, ' a piece of peat '. (5) Eng. ' ou ', as stout, ' plucky '. 

ui represents vocal 'w'+'y' before a consonant + i or/, as 
rhutdi, rhwydi, ' nets' ; luidjon, pi. of luyd, llwyd, 'brown'. 

n:i represents ' ywi ' in klu:is, clywais, ' I heard '. 

uy represents vocal 'w' + 'y' in all positions except in mono- 
syllables and the cases mentioned above under ui. Final ' wy ' 
followed by a consonant, however, often becomes u (see under 11). 
'Ydwyf always becomes (i)du. The change from uy into u 
sometimes, by a contrary process, produces a change from u into 
uy (cf. under o:y\ e.g. manuyl, manwl, ' careful, detailed '. 

u:y represents vocal 'w' + 'y' in monosyllables, as du:y, dwy, 
'two'. u:y occasionally becomes u: (except when final) or u: 
followed by a glide. An instance of the contrary process is hwynl, 
hwnt, ' beyond '. 

yu represents 'uw' and 'yw'. Cf., however, under iu the 
large number of cases in which ' yw ' is represented by iu. A 
slightly lowered form ofjy is often heard in dyu, Duw, ' God '. Cases 
otyu representing ' yw ' are byu, byw, ' to live ' ; klyu, klytix, clyw, 
clywch, 'hear ; . 
y:u occurs in dy:u\, duwch, ' blackness '. 

THE CONSONANTS. 

Preliminary remarks. The voiced consonants are more complete 
in their vocality, especially when initial, than their English equiva- 
lents, and approach very nearly the corresponding French sounds. 
(Cf., as regards d, Rousselot, 'Principes de Phon&ique expeVt- 
mentale ', vol. i, pp. 500-1.) For exceptions to this general rule 
see below, especially as regards sb t sg, and final b, d, g in mono- 
syllables after a short vowel. Final consonants in monosyllables 
after a short vowel are long. 



xviii Introduction 

We deal with the consonants in the following order : 

(a) h, j\ f, w, w. 

(b) the liquids and nasals, /, /, /,* n, n, r, r, m, m, y, y, o y, c y. 

(c) the spirants, 8, 6, /, v, X, s, /, f, g- 

(d) the labial, dental, and guttural stops, />, b, /, d, k, K, g, g. 
h does not differ materially from the Eng. ' h ', but is pronounced 

rather more forcibly in monosyllables, whether initially or after m, 
n, y, c y, and r. When enclitic, as in hi after a noun, the h is very 
slight, and often disappears. ' H ' following b, d, g, and sometimes 
v, causes these letters to become voiceless, and the * h ' itself, when 
not stressed, disappears. Thus we have i mha:p 2] ' her son ' ; 
i 6a:i i, ' her father ' ; i \e:k z, ' her mouth ' (or, more correctly, 
/ mha: pi, etc.) ; grieyt hyn, ' to do this ' ; drakftin, from ' drwg ' 
and ' hin ', ' bad weather ' ; f hy:n, fy hun, ' myself ; kr?f-hay, 
cryfhau, ' to strengthen '. When i follows h the tongue is so close 
to the palate that friction is set up. 

/ is the consonant corresponding to ?", and differs from Eng. ' y ' 
only in the greater tenseness of the tongue (' narrow ' instead of 
' wide '). 

f is the voiceless sound corresponding to j. It undoubtedly 
occurs sometimes, as in i hfaiO, ei hiaith, ' her language ', but it 
appears to be rather an individual peculiarity than the general 
rule, and the ear is satisfied whether j or f is used. Instances 
where the sound may occur are, moreover, very rare. 

w is the consonant corresponding to u. It differs from English 
k w ' only in the tongue being tenser and the lips more rounded. 
For the pronunciation of^w before a consonant see^. 

w is the voiceless form of w, like the sound sometimes heard in 
Eng. ' what ', but it is always followed by a distinct h sound. This 
sound is very rare, and only occurs in the mutation of words 
beginning with w derived from English, as i what/, ' her watch '. 

The liquids and nasals, /, /, I, 1 n, n, r, r, m, m, y, y, y, y. 

It should be stated that when a voiced consonant stands after a 
stressed syllable between two vowels the preceding vowel is slightly 
lengthened, and the consonant, which opens the next syllable, is 
naturally short (except in the case of m, which is always doubled 

1 / is really a spirant, but it will be more convenient to treat it with the 
other / sounds. 



Introduction xix 

in this position and the preceding vowel short). But among voiced 
consonants / and r have the peculiarity that they may be either 
long, preceded by a short vowel, or short, preceded by a slightly 
lengthened vowel. Hence, in the case of these two consonants it 
is necessary to mark the length when it occurs (/, r). n, on the 
other hand, may be either single, preceded by a slightly lengthened 
vowel, or double, preceded by a short vowel. 

/ differs little from Eng. f 1 '. The back of the tongue is raised, 
producing (but in a lesser degree) the " dull " sound of the letter 
as heard in English, but the tip of the tongue is nearer the upper 
teeth than in the English sound, and is more spread out. Long / 
occurs in only a few words, as kalon, calon, * heart ' ; kalyn, canlyn, 
' to follow ' ; kolyn, colyn, ' sting ' ; kula, cwla, ' poorly ' ; lolyn, 
fern, lolan, ' a foolish talker'; talax, comp. of lal, 'tall'; dali6 t 
3, s. fut. of dal, ' to hold '. It is also distinctly heard after a short 
vowel at the end of monosyllables before the enclitic pronouns 
i and o, as i nali, i 8alo, ' to hold me, hold him '. A variety of / 
occurs after 5 and 6, the point of contact being the surface of the 
tongue a short distance from the tip instead of the actual tip, e. g. 
ftilon, ffyddlon, ' faithful ' ; meySlon, maethlon, ' nutritious'. 

/ is the voiceless sound corresponding to /, resembling the sound 
used by some French speakers in such words as ' peuple ', ' cycle '. 
This sound occurs after k, p, /, mh, nh, yh, as kly:st, clust, ' ear ' ; 
ply:, phi, 'feathers'; tlaud y tlawd, 'poor'; 9 mlhi:6, ymhlith, 
' among ' ; 9 nlhodi, fy nhlodi, ' my poverty ' ; 9 glhy.st, ' my ear '. 
The h in these latter instances, it will be observed, follows the /. 

/ is a voiceless ' 1 ' sound with no corresponding voiced sound. 
The tip of the tongue is in the same position as for /, but the back 
of the tongue is not raised. The lips are in the i position. The 
sides of the tongue come into contact with the upper teeth, and the 
air is emitted through the teeth on one side, generally on the right, 
but in the case of some speakers, on the left. 

n is the same as English ' n ' except that the tip of the tongue is 
nearer the teeth, n is completely voiced after k and />, as in knaud, 
cnawd, ' flesh ' ; pnaun, prydnawn, ' afternoon '. The use of nn 
corresponds very closely with older literary usage, except that the 
doubled letter only occurs after a stressed syllable, nn is also 
distinctly heard when n occurs at the end of a monosyllable after 
a short vowel, and is followed by one of the enclitic pronouns i or 

C 2 



XX 



Introduction 



o, as P mhcnm, fy mhen i, * my head ' ; i benno, ei ben o, ' his head *. 
As in most languages n normally becomes m before p and and y 
before /& and g, especially in very common connections, as 9m &ra:v, 
yn braf, ' fine ' ; Kiyglettad, cyn caleted, ' as hard '. Even hem bobol, 
hen bobl, ' old people ' ; hogam ba:x, hogen bach, ' little girl ' 
(with a very short ui) are occasionally heard. Before d and 6 the 
point of contact is the surface instead of the tip of the tongue, as 
in hogan da:, hogen dda, ' good girl '. 

n is the voiceless sound corresponding to n. It is always followed 
by a full, distinctly enunciated //, as (.?) nha:d, fy nhad, ' my father '. 
nh however does not always correspond to Welsh ' nh ', e. g. 
brenhmob, brenhinoedd, ' kings '. n is not affected when it precedes 
the verbal termination -'hay, as tmhay, tynnhau, D., 'to tighten'; 
nor by the stressed prefix an-, as 'arrhuylys, anhwylus, ' incon- 
venient '. Even when an- is followed by an etymological ' nh ' no 
n is heard (except possibly in the case of unusual emphasis), as 
aivheilum, annhcilwng, 'unworthy' unless the second element 
consists of a monosyllable, as an'nhe.-g, annheg, ' unfair '. Nor 
does nh occur in an unstressed syllable in the body of a word, 
e. g. inanoll, manhollt, in ky:n manolt, ' a fine-splitting chisel '. Cf. 
also a/ii-d, ' difficult ', from ' an- ' and ' hawdd '. ' Nhr ' is pro- 
nounced nrh, as .' nrhoyd, fy nhroed, ' my foot '. Occasionally the 
;; is not heard in such cases, and we have 9 rhoyd. 

r is the sound of Eng. ' r ' in ' parallel ', but the point of contact 
with the tongue is slightly further back, r represents a long or 
trilled r. Its use corresponds very closely to the 'rr' of older 
literary usage. 

r is the voiceless sound corresponding to r. It occurs after 
/', />, and /, as kro:yn, croen, ' skin ' ; prin t prin, * scarce ' ; tro:yd^ 
troed, 'foot 7 . Otherwise r only occurs at the beginning of a 
word or stressed syllable (or after initial m or ), where it is always 
followed by a full, distinctly enunciated h. The verbal termina- 
tion -'hay does not affect r, e. g. forhqy, byrhau, ' to shorten '. 

m resembles very closely Eng. ' m '. After a stressed syllable 
between two vowels m is always doubled, except after a diphthong. 
A variety of m sometimes occurs in which the lower lip comes into 
contact with the upper teeth (instead of with the upper lip) as 
frequently in German in such words as Kampf, fiinf. etc. (cf. 
Jesrersen, { Lehrbuch der Phonetik ', p. 19). This sound may be 



Introduction xxi 

not unfrequently heard when n precedes v, as in di:ol\ m vaur, 
diolch yn fawr, ' thank you very much '. 

m is the voiceless sound corresponding to m, and is always 
followed by a full, distinctly enunciated h. It occurs only initially 
as the mutated form of/, and in a few aphetic forms such as 
mhary, amharu, ' to injure ' ; mheyQyn, amheuthun, ' dainty ' ; 
and sometimes in mharan, maharen, ' ram '. When followed by n 
or r the h follows these sounds, as 9 mnhelin^ fy mhenelin, ' my 
elbow'; 3 mrhe:s, fy mhres, 'my money'. When unstressed m 
sometimes takes the place of mh. O.H. had tm mulhdi, ym 
Mhwllheli, < in Pwllheli '. 

y is the sound corresponding to ' ng ' in Eng. ' rang ', but the 
point of contact between the back of the tongue and the palate is 
somewhat further back. 

y is formed in the same way as the above but much further 
forward, the middle of the tongue coming into contact with the 
middle of the hard palate. It is followed by a slight /-like sound. 
y occurs only before the vowels e, e\ and /, and before a in the 
mutation of words derived from English beginning with g, as 
yamjo from gamjo, ' to make fun ' = Eng. ' game '. 

g is the voiceless sound corresponding to y, and represents 
' ngh ', but only occurs initially as the mutated form of /', as 
y whalon^ fy nghalon, ' my heart ' ; but "ayhovjo, anghofio, ' to 
forget ' ; ayrfredin, anghyffredin, ' uncommon '. y is always 
followed by a full, distinctly enunciated //, but when followed by 
n or r, the h follows these sounds, as 9 gnhaud, fy nghnawd, 
4 my flesh ' ; 9 vrhy.s, fy nghrys, ' my shirt '. 

q is the voiceless sound corresponding to y, and occurs only 
before e, e\ and z', and sometimes before a in certain words derived 
from English, as the mutated form of Like y, o y is always 
followed by h. 

The spirants, d, 6, /, v, x, s, /, /', g- 

8 is a sound resembling the Eng. ' th ' in ' the ', but the tip of 
the tongue touches the back of the lower teeth while the surface of 
the tongue comes in contact with the points of the upper teeth. 
The contact, however, is slight, hence its tendency when final 
to disappear, as in ista^ eistedd, ' to sit ' ; gar beside garb, 
gardd, ' garden ' ; for beside ford, ffordd, ' road '. Final dv, 



XX11 



Introduction 



which occurs in the semi-literary words dedv, deddf, 'law, ordi- 
nance', and Ie8v t lleddf, 'flat' (in music), is pronounced with 
gradually falling breath, and does not in the remotest degree 
suggest two syllables. 

6 is the voiceless sound corresponding to 5, but is pronounced 
with more force. It resembles the sound of Eng. ' th ' in ' thin '. 

/ is the same sound as Eng. <f ', but pronounced with slightly 
greater force. 

v is the same sound voiced, but the contact between the upper 
teeth and lower lip is very slight. When final and not preceded 
by a consonant it generally disappears. It remains, however, as 
a rule in the first pers. pres. sing. fut. when standing alone or 
following na:(g) in answering a question, as neuxi fanny hun? 
Ziia:v, ' will you buy this ? Yes '. It remains also in a few other 
words, as bra:v, braf, ; fine ' ; do:v, dof, ' tame ' ; gwi.-v, gwif, ' lever ' ; 
rhuyv, rhwyf, ' oar '. In final vn t vr, as in Kevn, lyvr, the sound 
gradually dies away, and the two letters do not in the slightest degree 
produce the impression of forming two syllables. This is, however, 
not the case with 7 1 /, as in gwevl. Here the v and / have practically 
equal stress, as in the Eng. ' level '. 

X is the voiceless guttural spirant like the German ' ch ', formed 
with the back of the tongue against the soft palate. The friction 
is very strong. In the combination \w the w is pronounced quite 
separately. 

s. In this sound the tip of the tongue is close behind the upper 
teeth, and the breath passes along the centre of the blade of the 
tongue and between the upper teeth. It has a much " softer " or 
less hissing sound than Eng. ' s ', and is slightly aspirated. In 
the treatment of s followed by a labial, guttural, or dental stop 
I have followed the recommendation of Professor J. Morris Jones, 
Welsh Orthography', pp. 26, 27, and write sb, sg, but st. In 
sb and sg the b and g. instead of having the usual full vocality, 
have a voiceless on-glide like that heard in English ' b ' and 
' g ', especially when initial. In st the / is entirely voiceless, 
but it loses its strong aspiration and resembles French ' t '. When 
the order is inverted I write bs, ks, and ds. In these cases b and 
d have a voiceless off-glide, while k retains its voiceless character 
like / as stated above, but without its usual strong aspiration. 

/,/'. These sounds are in a state of transition. They are of 



Introduction xxiii 

late introduction, and individuals are still occasionally to be met 
with who are unable to pronounce them, and substitute s or sf. 
The prevailing pronunciation of f resembles very closely that of 
Eng. 'sh', but the point of contact is slightly further forward, i.e. 
on the arched rim instead of behind it. Before a, o, and u in final 
syllables the tongue is slightly more arched, producing the palatalized 
soundy 7 . Other speakers seem to pronounce f exactly like Eng. 
'sh', and these make no distinction between f andy 7 . After the 
borrowed sound ^/appears never to be palatalized. 

g is the voiced sound corresponding toy^ but it is never palata- 
lized. This sound occurs only in the combination dg, as in 



The labial, guttural, and dental stops, p, b, /, d, /', #, g, g. 

Note. When Old and Middle Welsh ' p '. ' t ', ' c ' form com- 
binations with one another in the body of a word, the first letter 
remains voiceless (losing, however, its strong aspiration) ; but the 
second becomes voiced with a voiceless on-glide. But when ' t ' 
forms the second element, though it remains voiceless, it loses its 
strong aspiration and resembles French ' t'. I write, therefore,//, 
pg, tb, tg, kb, kt. 

When the tenues follow voiceless spirants (including /) the same 
phenomenon takes place, except that after 6 we have d preceded by 
a voiceless on-glide instead of /. Thus we have lb } Ig, U ; 6b, 0g, 
&d ; /by fg, ft ; x&, Xg, Xt ; sb, sg, st (cf. Morris Jones, ' Welsh 
Orthography', pp. 25, 26). See also under s. 

When final b, d, g come before a word beginning with the same 
letter respectively, both letters frequently become voiceless, especially 
among old speakers (cf. the well-known rule in cynghanedd), e.g. 
po:p pluyfyn (O.K.); ne:p pyQ (O.K.); gubot tim (J.J.) ; n to:P, 
onid do? (J.J.); dim mt tu:r y dim ond dwr (O.K.) ; wat tu:r 
(O.K.); sslryt tru:g (O.H.) ; klu:at tim (O.H.) ; nmivat ty$ (O.K.) ; 
deyt tawinjaQ (O.H.) ; tebik Kin t, tebyg genyf, ' I suppose '. g also 
becomes k in rhak kwitib /, rhag cywilydd !, ' for shame ! ' 

p is like Eng. < p ', but the lips are more tightly compressed and 
the emission of breath is much greater, and the consequent 
breath-glide (except in the cases mentioned above) is much more 
marked, and renders completely voiceless a succeeding / or r. This 



xxiv Introduction 

strong emission of breath does not, however, produce the impression 
of ' h '. as in Irish. At the end of a stressed syllable, between 
two vowels (except after a diphthong), / is always doubled. 

b is the same sound voiced, but the strong aspiration is, of course, 
absent. When final after a short vowel, b is very short, and has 
a voiceless off-glide, e.g. heb, ' without '. In final bl the two letters 
are sounded with practically equal stress, e.g. nobl, Eng. c noble '. 
The same is the case with the semi-literary gwobr t ' reward, prize '. 

/ is pronounced by contact of the tip of the tongue with the 
upper teeth. As regards breath, all that has been said with regard 
to/ applies equally to /. Even when final, a strong breath-glide 
is heard after it. This is one of the most noticeable points to an 
English ear in Welsh speakers of English. 

d is the same sound voiced, but the strong aspiration is, of course, 
absent. According to Rousselot, ' Principes de Phone'tique experi- 
mentale ', p. 596, d is pronounced with greater lingual energy than 
/. When final after a short vowel d is very short and has a voiceless 
off-glide, e. g. sad, ' firm '. In final dl the two letters are sounded 
with practically equal stress, e.g. anadl, 'breath', banadl, 'broom'. 

k. In this sound the contact of the back of the tongue with the 
palate is slightly further back than in English, but not so far back 
as in Irish. As regards breath all that has been said about p and / 
applies equally to k, and like them it is doubled at the end of a 
stressed syllable, between two vowels, except after a diphthong. 

K is the same sound as /', but the contact of the tongue and the 
palate is much further forward than in English, and is followed by 
a /-like glide (not to be confused with kj). % occurs only before 
the vowels e, e\ and /, and before a in certain words derived from 
English. The glide above mentioned is always noticeable before 
i', e, and z, but before a it varies considerably in different speakers. 
In kj the k seems to occupy an intermediate position as to the 
palate between the ordinary k and K ', and the same may be said 
when k is preceded by e or i and is followed by He or Hi as in 
pikHin. 

g is the same sound as /', but voiced, and without its strong 
aspiration. When g is final, in a monosyllable, after a short vowel, 
it is very short, and has a voiceless off-glide. Final g after s is 
whispered (cf. Sweet, 'Spoken North Welsh', p. 420). In gw 
before a consonant the g is pronounced with the lips in the w 



Introduction xxv 

position. After i a very slight glide may be heard before g in 
deliberate pronunciation, as e.g. in Ki:g. 

g is the same sound as #, but voiced, and it occurs in the same 
positions. 

NOTE AS TO DOUBLE LETTERS. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that /, p, t, and m are doubled 
at the end of a stressed syllable before a vowel, and that the 
doubling of these letters in general written usage until recently 
represents an actual fact. The use of nn also coincides very 
closely with the older spelling. The difference between n and nn 
is marked by a difference in the preceding vowel also. Before nn, 
as already stated, the vowel is very short ; before n the vowel is 
half-long, and in the case of e and o, closer than before the doubled 
letter. Any native with an ear for sound can distinguish between 
n and nn without hesitation. At the same time the distinctness of 
these double letters is not nearly so great as e. g. in Italian, because 
the first element is shorter. It is certainly not the case, as Sweet 
implies ('.A Primer of Phonetics ', 159), that the doubling of the 
/ sound, e. g. in etfo, is merely apparent the effect produced upon 
the ear by a fresh stress or a new impulse beginning on the 
consonant. The stress on the e and the second / is, it is quite 
true, nearly equal, but the other / before the latter is as distinctly 
heard as e. g. in Eng. ' a right to '. Thus the Welsh pronunciation of 
the Eng-. ' pretty ' is certainly pritti. In ' cadw ' (kadu\ the instance 
of " open stress " mentioned by Sweet, the case is quite different. 
The k and d here also have almost equal stress, but the a is half 
long, and there is nothing which suggests doubling of the consonant, 
whereas in etto the first vowel is extremely short. 

In the case of /, r (after short consonants), and the voiceless 
spirants, the matter is not so easy to decide, as length and doubling 
in these sounds are more difficult to distinguish. In old usage ' s ' 
was generally doubled, but there were obvious reasons against 
doubling such digraphs as ' ch ', *ff', '11', and *th f . My own 
conclusion is that these letters are long (not doubled) in the stressed 
position, but that owing to the relatively strong stress with which final 
syllables are pronounced, they are occasionally doubled in cases of 
unusual emphasis ; and the same may be said of k, p, t,f, when 
preceding a liquid or/, as byttra, Kikkjo, for bytra and Hikjo. 



xxvi Introduction 

THE VERB. 
gweld, gwelad, ' to see '. 

Present and Future. 



Sing. 


i. 


gwela(v) 




2. 


gwelt 




3- 


gweliB, gu 


PL 


i. 


gwelan, gi 




2. 


gwelux 




3* 


gwclan 






Imperfect. 


Sing. 


i. 


gwelun 




2. 


gwelat 




3- 


gwela 


PI. 


i. 


gwelan 




2. 


giuelax 




3* 


gwclan 






Preterite. 


Sing. 


i. 


gwelis l 




2. 


gwehst 




3- 


gweloti 


PI. 


I. 


gwelson 




2. 


gwdsox 




3- 


gwelson 






Pluperfect. 2 


Sing. 


i. 


gwelsun 




2. 


gwelsat 




3- 


gwelsa 


PI. 


i. 


gwelsan 




2. 


gwclsax 




3- 


gwelsan 



1 Very rare instances of -as occur as ksdjas, tomtiutas. 

- I retain this name for purposes of convenience, but the tense is used only 
in a conditional or past conditional sense. 





Introduction xxvii 


Pres. Subjunctive. 


Sing. i. 


[gnelo(v)\ from gneyd 


2. 





3- 


[gnelo] 


PI. i. 


[gnelon] 


2. 


[gnelox] 


3- 


[gnelon] 




Imperative. 


Sing. i. 





2. 


gwe:l, gwela 


3- 


gwelad 


PI. i. 


gwelun 


2. 


gwelux 


3- 


gwelan 




Passive. 


Present 


gwelir 


Imperfect 


\klu:id{\vm klu:a</ \\\\.\\ pret. meaning] 


Preterite 


gweluyd 



Pluperfect 1 [lesid from 



1 I retain this name for purposes of convenience, but the tense is used only 
In a conditional or past conditional sense. 



a 



a, conj. and prep., ag before vowels, the letter j, may, mi 
(particle), nid, r (particle yr), vel, ve/y, and sometimes wedi and 
wedyn. [a \wedi, a xwedyn are also still often heard among old 
people. Cf. also a x^no vo by the side of a gmo vo = a ganddo fo.] 
The radical is often heard after a instead of the spirant mutation. 

I. 'and', written 'a' and generally 'ac' at all periods, but 
sometimes 'ag': gwi:r a xeluyft, 'truth and falsehood'; klo: a 
xlikjad, ' lock and latch '; trol a xtfyl, 'cart and horse '; day a Qair, 
'two (shillings) and three(pence) ' ; bara kaus (xaus\ 'bread and 
cheese'; a fe:6 aral, 'and what is more'. Occasionally a:, a:g 
when emphatic: i vjaun a:g alan, 'inside and outside'. (2) in a 
verbless clause, the whole having a relative or adjectival force, 
' and, with ' : dy:n a Qavod de:u (te:u) gzno vo, ' a thick-tongued man ' 
(i.e. a man who speaks thickly) ; het a Oolk zni hi, 'a dented hat'; 
mi 8o:0 o adra ag ifo bu:yd arno vo, ' he came home hungry ' ; kmtlad 
ba:x a i gwasgy n dyn (den], ' a small armful, pressed well together '. 
(3) 'when, while, though, on condition of*, considering that' : r o:d 
?y gwiliS 180 vo beidjo taly a gmo vo gimmint o arjan, ' it was a shame 
for him not to pay considering that he had so much money ' ; pu:y 
vasa n medul 2 va:Q be:B a vmta mor wastadf, ' who would have 
thought such a thing, considering that he is such a steady-going 
individual ? ' ; xtmmun i lawar a tri:o i axyb o, ' I would not try and 
save him for a great deal ' ; a minna y govyn 280 vo am beidjo bo:d 
m hi:r heb alu etto, ' though I asked him to call again soon ' ; a i 
gzmmyd o i gi:d t ' taking it all together '. 

II. ' as ', generally written ' ag ' before vowels in Mod. Welsh. 

(a) before nouns, infinitives, or pronouns after Kin, mor, 'as', ry:n, 
' the same ', etc. : Kinluyttada kalxan (xalxan), ' as pale as a sheet ' 
(lit. piece of lime) ; mor haub a tinny la:u hydd gwynab, ' as easy as 
winking ; ; (gan mod i] mor hy: a govyn, ' if I may make so bold 
as to ask'; r y: va:6 a vi: (mi:, vinna, minna], 'the same as I' ; 
daxi ' gistal hmro a vinna, 'you are as good a Welshman as I am '. 

(b) before finite verbs. (Here a stands for ac + a, relative. Cf. W.B. 
col. 22. 20. kymeint ac a ercheist) : dim n agos Kimmint a v^da, 
' not nearly as many as there used to be ' ; kmtad a 'v&uxi m barod, 
' as soon as you are ready '. (c) before a clause : / 9di r ta:n Sim ?y 
fonna ksstal a pen vy:d 2 du:yb 3n sy:x, ' the fire does not light so well 
as when the weather is dry '. 

1432 B 



2 a abuyd 

III. 'with'. In Old and Mid. Welsh 'a', f ac'; in Mod. Welsh 
generally ' a ', ' ag '. (a) expressing instrumentality : tori a fladyr, 
' to cut with a scythe ' ; /foro sgidja a saim, ' to grease boots ' ; after 
gneyd: be daxi wedi neyd a vo: (hevo vo}P, 'what have you done with 
it ? ' (b) ' in company with, together with ', used with verbs of motion 
to express bringing or taking : d0ux a vo: ilaur, ' bring it down ; ; mi 
a: i a vo: n i o:l, ' I will take it back ' ; do:s a vo: le Keisti o, l take it 
back where you found it ' ; Kerux a glo: i vmy d grif'a, ' take some 
coal upstairs '. (c) in phrases Tike ifur a vo:, ' away he went ' ; adra 
a vo:, etc. (d) with certain verbs as kwarvod, ' to meet ' ; kayl 
madal, ' to get rid (of) '; meQy, ' to fail ' ; peidjo, ( to cease ', aspeidjux 
a kaboli (x^boli], 'do not talk nonsense'; daxi ' wedi kal madal 
a x annuyd?, 'have you got rid of your cold?'; mi veQis a xa-'I, 
1 1 failed to get '. (e) with certain adverbs as Iron, digon, dgest, 
gwastad, kuderbyn (kdverbyn), etc., q.v. Cf. also gid a. 

a, relative, a, D., ' who, which '. Scarcely used in popular speech, 
except in proverbs and a few other stereotyped expressions. It 
usually, however, leaves its trace in the mutation of the verb as 
hmny na:6 i, ' (it is) this (which) she did '. When the omitted 
words are 'a'i' (i.e. relative + ' ei ' ' his ', 'her', { it ') there is 
no mutation, e.g. hmny kodob o, '(it is) this (which) caused it'. 
Where literary ' a'i ' or ' a'u ' would occur before a verb beginning 
with a vowel, h is prefixed to the verb, as rvo: horftrob hi, 
' (it is) he (who) ordered it '. Examples of a are : bed bsnnag a 
neuxi (= bed bdnnag neuxi}, 'whatever you do'; m0ur& a la:b, 
ebril a vliy (prov.), ' March slays, April flays ' ; r he:n a u:yr a r 
ivayk a dsbja (prov.), ' the old man knows, and the young man 
thinks (he knows) ' ; dy:n a i helpo /, ' God help him ! ' ; dy:n a i 
stir jo /, ' poor fellow ! ' (lit. ' may God consider him '). 

<2, inter]., ah, D., s.v. ' ehem ' ; ' ah ! ' 

abal, adj., abyl, W.S. ; abl, D. ; cf. D.G. ccxxxix. 10; 'able': 
dy.n abal, 'able man' ( galy:og}] dim 3n abal i mnil i tammad, 
' not able to earn their living '. 

abar, s., aber, D., 'confluence'. Except in place-names this 
word is only used by fishermen, etc., when referring to the mouth 
of the river Saint at Carnarvon, e. g. krotsi r abar. 

abuyd, s.m., abwyd, D. (i) 'a bait for catching fish or setting 
a trap ' ; may o wedi mynd a r abuyd i gi:d, ' it (the fish) has 
carried off the whole bait ' ; gosod abuyd i Sal luynog, ' to set a trap 
for a fox'. (2) ' lug-worms' (Arenicola piscatoria). Two varieties 
are distinguished, abuyd dy: and abuyd lu:yd, the difference in colour 
depending on the nature of the shore ; abuyd melys, ' large worms 
found in the sand of the sea-shore and used as bait' (Eunice 
sanguinea). (3) ' shred, particle, vestige ' : / o:s na 8i'm abud o hono 
vo, may o wedi mynd, ' there is not a trace of him, he has gone ' ; mi 
gdmmis i u:y valwan dy: a cbmma vi n dgobjo nu nes o:d na dim 



a:d adra 3 

aluyd o 'honynu (O.H.), ' I took two slugs and squashed them (in 
my hands) until there was not a whole particle of them left' (as 
a remedy for warts). Cf. T.N. 169. 37. 

a:d (I.W.; O.K.), aid (E.].),ja:d (J.J.; W.H.), s.m., iad, D., 

* the vault of the head '. 

adag, s.f., pi. adega, adeg, D., ' time, a stated time or season '; r y:n 
adag daxi y kzmmyd brekwasl vory ?, ' will you have breakfast at the 
same time to-morrow ?' ; adag Kinjo, adag te: } 'dinner time, tea time' ; 
mi 80:6 o r y:n adag a \i:, ' he came the same time as you ' ; / oy^un 
i dim 9y gubod pa: adag o.y8 2, na le: r oybun T\ na dim by:d, ' I didn't 
know what time it was, nor where I was, nor anything ' ; r adag ma 
vory, ' this time to-morrow ' ; daxi wedi penny r adag ?, ' have you 
settled the time ? ' ; ar 9r adag honno, ( at that time ' ; daxi y gweld 
9r adag m hi:r ?, ' does the time seem long to you ? ' ; ma r adag 
9m pa/'o y gynt u6 i mi 8u:ad i 8eyd streyon, ' the time passes 
quicker when I come and tell stories ' ; adag 'a'nivir jaun ar 9 
vluybyn, ' a very unpleasant time of year ' ; may m burn ar adega, 
4 it is raining at intervals '. 

adan, s.f., adain, D., but aden, s.v. ' ala' pi. adenyS : (i) 'wing' 
(but asgal is commoner) ; adenj'd plug, ( the feathers of a plug ' 
(in slate-quarrying, etc.). (2) 'fin'. (3) = stilan t>rt:8, 'mould- 
board of a plough '. (4) pi. edyn, hedyn, ' spoke '. (O. H. always 
uses this word, but sboksan is more generally employed.) 

adar, s.pl., sing, deryn, m., adar, D., f birds ' : adar (/] to:, 
' sparrows ' ; adar (zr) eira, ' fieldfares (Turdus pilaris) ' ; deryn 
korf= d2j[y:an, 'owl'; deryn buy, 'aderyn y bwn j 'bittern' (but 
remembered only as in use long ago as a term of reproach. O.H.); 
adar pefiwaig, applied to terns of all species = gwenoljad 9 mo:r ; 
deryn sgbv'e'yBys, ' bird of prey ' ; adar di:ar&, ' migratory birds ' ; 
deryn an sevyl ar 9 vn'gan, ' a bird sitting on the branch ' ; mm 
deryn., expletive ; gwel y:n deryn meun Ja:u na day meun lu:yn 
(prov.), * a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush ' ; la:8 day 
Seryn ag y:n ergid (prov.), ' to kill two birds with one stone ' ; 
ma na adar dy:on 9m mho:b taluyQ (prov.), ' there are black sheep 
in every family '. 

adeiljad, s.m., adeilad, D., s.v. ' aedificium ' ; ' building ' (semi- 
literary = bildiri). 

adeiljady, v., adeiladu, D., s.v. ' aedifico ' ; 'to build ' (semi- 
literary = bildjo). 

adtoS, s.m., adladd, D., ' aftermath '. 

adnod, s.f., pi. adnoda, adnod, D., ' verse of the Bible ' : pbgy 
r adnod i r drevn, ' to twist a verse of the Bible to make it fit the 
system '. 

adra, adv., adref, D., ' home ; at home ' : mynd adra, ' to go 

B 2 



4 aduy agor 

home ' ; tdi o adra ?, ' is he at home ? ' ; taly r exuyn adra, ' to 
retaliate ' = taly r pu.yO m o:L 

aduy, s.f., pi. aduya, aduy on, adwy, D., 'gap ', e.g. for a way to 
pass through ; aduy i lidjart, ' a gap for a gate ' ; tori aduy i vildjo 
ty:, ' to take down a piece of wall or hedge to build a house ' ; kay 
aduy boljon, gneyd aduy wry:sg, ' to close a gap by means of fixing 
stakes in the ground and twining branches between them '. Fig. 
may o 9m mho:b aduy, ' he is to be depended upon in any 
emergency '. Cf. bulx. 

aduyQ, s.m., adwyth, D., ' hurt, disease ' : ma: riu aduyd arno 
vo j may o wedi had riu aduy 6. 

adyn, s.m., adyn, D., 'a poor wretch, a pitiable creature ' : wedi 
kay I i adal zny.n adyn ar i ben i hy:n ; adyn tryenys. 

aba, Adda, ' Adam '. aba g eva (i.e. ' Adam and Eve '), a plant- 
name (O.H.). I am informed that this term is applied here to 
'monkshood' (Aconitum Napellus), but in Anglesey it is applied 
to the ' cuckoo-pint ' (Arum maculatum), and in S. Carnarvonshire 
to the ' early purple orchis ' (Orchis mascula) ; maip ada, ' the 
roots of the black bryony ' (Tamus communis) ; dagra ada, 
' Sedum sieboldi '. 

abewid, s.f., addewid, D., ' promise ' : tori, kadu adewi'd, ' to 
break, keep a promise '. Cf. gafto. 

abod, addod, D. u:y abod, 'nest egg' (I.W.). 

aboli, v., addoli, D., ' adore, admire highly ' : du i n leikjo ka:l 
v aboli, ' I like to be admired '. 

abuvn, adj., addfwyn, D. ; addwyn, W.LI. liv. 89, 'gentle': 
abityn vel o:yn. 



abvad, adj., comp. abveitaXi addfed, D., ' ripe '. 
abvedy, v., addfedu, D., 'to ripen '. 

afiiu ; wafliu (O.H. frequently), s., afHiw, S.E., ' shred, particle': 
du i wedi losgi vo i gi:d, t o:s na bi??i afliu o hono vo, ' I have burnt it 
all, there is not a shred of it left' ; tori rulaQ m afliu ; dim afliu 
o ivynt, ' not a breath of wind ' ; / o:d o bim 9771 brivo r y:n afliu^ 
' it did not hurt in the slightest ' ; / 0:8 na bim afliu o hono vo, 
' there were no signs of him (he had absolutely disappeared) '. 

agan^ s.f., pi. agenna, agen, D., 'a natural cleft, e.g. in a rock or 
in the earth ' : may o wedi tori agan ar i la:u, ' he has cut his hand 
open '. Also hagan (O.H.). 

agor, agoryd, v., agori, D., but egoryd, agor, s.v. ' aperio '. 
Fut. S. i.gora, 2. gori, 3. goriB. PL \.goran, 2. gorux, 3- goran. 
Fret, gon's (no pi.). Imperative, agor; gorux, 'to open (in all 
senses) '. agor dru:s, fenast, boks, ' to open a door, window, 
box ' ; agor Ki:l dru:s, ' to put a door ajar ' ; agor tfe:g, ' to gape ' ; 



agor akkar 5 

loy wedi agor truibi, ' a ship completely split open ' ; toy wedi agor 
in buy, ' a ship split in two ' ; mi goroft 3 pot m 8qy, ' the pot came 
in two '. 

agor, s.m., pi. agoryS, (in slate quarries) ' the opening of a 
bargain ' : y:n medrys o r agor i r kar, * a workman who is skilled 
in all the operations of a slate quarry (from the opening of a 
bargain to the tipping of the rubbish) '. 

agor ad, gorad, adj., agored, D., 'open': wel i \i beidjo gadal 
dfenast dn agorad, ' you had better not leave the window open ' ; 
loft agorad, ' loft open to the air ' ; gadux 9 dru:s ay gi:l gorad, 
' leave the door ajar ' ; bdan gorad, ' wide open ' ; hu:x gorad = 
hu:x vagy, ' brood sow '. 

agos, adv., comp. (a)gosax, agos, D., ' near, close ; nearly ' : ista, 
mynd, m agos i r ta:n, ' to sit, go, near the fire ' ; mi vasa hmny 
n agosax i r gwi:r,~ ' that would be nearer the truth ' ; m agos 
i bymp, ' nearly five (o'clock) ' ; er s n agos i $u:y vhna, ' since 
nearly two years ' ; planny n rhy: agos, ' to plant too close ' ; dim 
n agos kdstalfort o weiBjurs, i not nearly such good workmen '. 

ai, ai, D. (i) interrogative particle. Very often used in the 
expression ai ye/, 'really!', 'you don't mean it!', e.g. du i n 
mynd vory. Ans. ai ye ! Sometimes occurs also before nouns and 
adjectives as : ai kany may of, 'is he singing ? ' ; ai ko:\ di o P, 
' is it red ? ', to express emphasis instead of the ordinary 9di o y 
kany, etc. It is, however, far more often omitted in such cases. 
(2) in dependent questions, 'whether', in sentences of the form: 
on i Sim dy gubod ai rvo: o:y o, ' I did not know whether it was 
he '. (3) conj. representing the second ' ai ' in ' naill ai . . . ai ', 
Lat. ' an ', used only with peidjo to express * or not ' after ' whether ' : 
wj'8a hi dim 0:8 o dmma ai peidjo (feidjo), * she did not know 
whether he was here or not '. 

ail, adj., ail, D., ' second ' : ail u:r, ail wraig, ' second husband, 
second wife ' ; bo:b m ail, ' alternately ' (Anglo- Welsh, ' every 
other'); bo:b 3n ail durnod, 'every other day'. Prefixed to verbs 
to express repetition of an action, e. g. -ail 'dri:o, ' to try again ' ; 
'ail'dummo, ' to warm up again ' ; 'ail'neyd, ' to make again ', etc., 
e. g. wedi ail i neyd, ' made over again ' ; rhaid i mi -ail'neydo vory, 
1 1 must cook it again to-morrow ' ; wedi 'ail'ga:l annuyd, ' to have 
caught cold again ' ; wedi ail i ga:l o, ' to have caught it again '. 



l, v., ' to change one's mind '. 

ais, s.pl.. sing, eisan, f., ais, D., ' laths, esp. those to which slates 
are attached on a roof, and which themselves are attached to the 
sbaraitf! 

akkar, s.m.f., pi. aKeri, acr, T.N. 9. 39, ' acre ' : akkar o di:r, ' an 
acre of land ' ; akkar o wair (di:r gwair), ' an acre of hay '. 



akku axyb 

akku, when enclitic aku, dku, ku, adv. accw, D., ' there, yonder ' : 
ty: akku daxi n veul ?, ' is it that house you mean ? ' ; vluxi * 'ty: 



aku ?, ' do you see that house ? ' ; akku 3m maygor, ' over in Bangor ' ; 
d ru:m i vdny ku, ' the room upstairs there ' ; be sy -gin ti ku ?, 
' what have you got there ? ' Often equivalent to ' at home ' : syt 
ma: r t'eyly aku ?, e how are you all at home ? ' 

ak'seis, s., ' exercise '. 

akseifo, v. (i) 'to exercise, drill'. (2) ' to challenge, incite by 
throwing the arms about ', etc. : akseif'o dy:n i gufjo, ' to incite a 
man to fight '. 

aksis, s., acsus, G.O. ii. 194. 2 i, Eng. (Dial.) access. Cf. Fr. acces. 
Only in the exp. krsnny r aksis, ' a fit of the ague '. Cf. kry:d. 

a:x, s., pi. a\a ; ja:x, \&-jax& (O.H.) ach, D. ; iach C.C.M. 90. 24 ; 
385.26; G.R. 9. 10, generally used in the plural: 'origin, ante- 
cedents'. "tasaxi y gubod i haxa 'vasaxi im zn troi n i my.sg, 'if 
you knew their antecedents you would not associate with them ' ; 
holi axa vo, ' to inquire about his antecedents '. 

ax, interjection implying disgust : ax (?) boxi! (used in speaking 
to children). 

axan, sometimes for vaxgan, 'my lad'. 

a\lod, s.f., achlod, T.N. 322. 15, only in the interjection r axlod 
vaur ! implying surprise = nearly, di:ar annul I 

axfyst, s., achlust, R., ' report, vague rumour ' : ka:l axlyst = ka:l 
riii 0ugrym, riu grap. 

axos, s.m.; pi. axtf'on, achos, D., 'cause': hcb raid nag axos 280 
neyd o, * without any cause or necessity for him to do so '; / o:s dim 
axos i x* gwyno am mo:d i n hu:yr heno, ' you have no cause for 
complaint because I am late to-night ' ; also in religious sense : 
gwe'3i:o am luibjant ar dr axos, ' to pray for success for the cause '. 
Conj., ' because ' : may y:n o r sgoljon wedi xay axos bo:d d vre:x 
go:x ogumpas, 'one of the schools has been closed because there 
are measles about ' ; axos bod nu y kay gweiQjo, ' because they won't 
work'. Cf. R.B. 114. 14; L.A. 158. 4. 

axost, v., achosi, S.E., ' to cause '. 

axuyn, v. 7 achwyn, D., s.v. ' queritor '. Pret. xuinis, xunis, ' to 
tell tales ' : ma: r plant m axuyn 9 nail ar ^ lal, ' the children tell 
tales about one another ' ; kail bara me:l am axuyn, ' to get bread 
and honey for telling tales ' ; peidjux axuyn arno vo, ' don't split on 
him'. 



axyb, v., achub, D. Pret. S. (i) xibis, (2) \ibist , (3) xybob. PI. 3 
xybson. Imperatively^, (i) 'to seize': axyb 2 hvleystra, 'to 
seize the opportunity'; axyb d bla:yn, 'to anticipate, forestall'; 
bla:yn 9 rheuja, ' to forestall the frost ' ; axyb i gam, ' to defend 



alar\ am 7 

oneself ne:s i axyb 3 gham hevo vo, 'I defended myself from him 
(e.g. by striking first)'. (2) 'to save': axyb i V0wyd, 'to save his 
life'. 



) s.m., pi. elyrx, alarch, D., * swan '. 
ali, s., alei, W.S. [alley] ' passage between seats in a chapel '. 
aljokar, s., 'yellow-ochre'. 
altrad, s.m., 'alteration'. 

altro, v., altro, C.C. 88. 15; T.N. 187. 27, 'to alter, change' 
(either for good or bad) : may r d0wy wedi altro heibju am la:u, 
' the weather has changed to-day for rain ' ; may o wedi altro n 
aru, ' he has changed very much ' ; altro i su:n, ' to change its 
sound '. 

alan, adv., allan, D., ' out ' : mynd alan, ' to go out ' ; may o 
a Ian, ' he is out ' ; 0:8 alan, ' on the outside ' ; alan o le:, ' out of 
place, wrong', e.g. ma na rubaQ alan o le: \ alan o r going, 'out 
of sight ' ; ty: ^wiQig a!an, 'wrong side out'. 



a:lt [ga:lt\. 

altidio, v., alldudiaw, C.Ch. 46. 5 ; alltudo, D., 'in exilium pellere '. 
Used as a threat with no definite meaning attached : mi altidja i di 
os griei di o (O.H.). 

am, prep., am. With pronouns : S. i. am dana (i\ 2. am 'danat(f), 
3. am dano (vo}, am dani (hi). PI. i. am 'danon(i},a?n 'danan(i], 
2. am 'danox(i)-, am 'danax(i\ 3' am 'danyn(u) t Followed by the 
vocalic mutation, except in am byQ. 

i . ' around, round ' : kbmmy am, ' to twist round (of a creep- 
ing plant) ' ; tmny 9 kro:yn 0:8 am rubaQ, ' to take the skin or peel 
off something ' ; mi ro:Q o bappyr am d lyvr, ' he put paper round 
the book '. Esp. with regard to articles of clothing : may hi tj 
gwisgo am dani, ' she is getting dressed ' ; rhaid i ni ivisgo am 
danan, ' we must get dressed ' ; rhoid sgidja am 9 nrhayd, ' to 
put boots on'; rh0u\ ?x kap am vxpen, 'put your cap on' ; tznny 
yho:t o:d am dana, ' to take my coat off ' ; mi dmnis i golar 0:8 
am t u8u vo, ' I took his collar off'. 

2. ' on the other side of : may o m byu am d parad a vi:, ' he 
lives next door to me ' ; am 3 for a ni:, ' on the other side of 
the road to us '. 

3. ' about, concerning, of : 'glu:soxi so:n am dano vo /, ' have 
you heard (speak) of him ? ' ; deyd d gwi:r am dano vo, i to tell the 
truth about him '. 

4. ' with regard to ' : may o n lukkys am waiB, ' he is lucky with 
regard to (getting) work'; r 0:8 znle: dajaun amy:n pe:6, 'it was 
a very good place for one thing '. Cf. also the adjectives 'ano'beidjol 
am, ' in despair at ' ; garu am, ' fond of, great at ' ; ha.yl am, 



8 am 

' generous with ' ; da: am, ' good at ' ; wayQ am dano vo, ' never 
mind '. 

5. ' at (of time) ' : am bay (o r glo:\), * at two (o'clock) ' ; am 
vaint o r glo:x 'gwimuxi de: .?, ' at what time will you have tea ? ' 

6. 'lor, for the space of (referring to time)': am dridja, 'for 
three days ' ; gweitjux am vynyd, ' wait a minute ' ; am vaint (f) pariQ 
o etto . p , ' how much longer will it last ? ' ; am byQ, k for ever '. 

7. 'for, for the distance of: mi auni am viltir etto, l we will 
go (for) another mile '. Cf. mynd am dro:, ' to go for a walk'. 

8. ' for ' (of a number of times) : am d fro: kmta. 

9. ' for ' (of price) : be daxi y godi am d rhei n ?, ' how much do 
you charge for these ? ' 

10. 'for, in exchange for, instead of: ga: i ay yivc:x am 
su:llP } 'may I have two sixpences for a shilling?'; ka:l bar a me:l 
am axuyn, ' to get bread and honey for telling tales ' ; be di r fottrra:ig 
am . . . ?, ' what is the Welsh for . . . ?' 

11. 'for' (indicating direction): mynd am i garfra, 'to make 
for home ' ; troi i vmy am y w/a:d, ' to turn up (out of a high road), 
to get into the country ' ; mynd am vaygor, ' to make for Bangor '. 

12. without a verb of motion, implying a desire of getting 
something or of going somewhere, expressed sometimes in English 
by ' for ', as ' are you for London ? ' = daxi am lyndan ? ; daxi am 
<ghtys, am gappalP, 'are you going to church, to chapel?'; vcl 
ka:B am levn'O, ' like a cat after milk ' ; daxi am xwanag . p , ' are you 
going to have some more ? ' (lit., ' are you for more '). 

13. followed by a verb, 'about to': may hi am vuru, 'it is 
going to rain ' ; daxi am vynd ahm ?, ' are you going out ? ' ; daxi 
am dmig heibju />, ' are you off anywhere to-day ? ' ; / o:yd ne:b am 
vcntro, ' no one would venture '. 

14. without a verb expressed, implying an occurrence im- 
pending, especially in connexion with the weather : may hi am la:u, 
' there's rain coming ' ; may hi am xwanag o eira, ' there's more 
snow coming ' ; may hi am urnod po:y6, ' it's going to be a hot day '. 

15. ' for, for the purpose of : pe:6 garu ddi darlan am godi if'o 
kysgy, ' reading is a dreadful thing for making one sleepy ' ; mido:6 
o am vcnBig hla6, ' he came to borrow a knife ' ; am 9 gora, ' in 
emulation' (Fr. 'a qui mieux mieux ', Anglo-Welsh, 'for the best '), 
e. g. rhedag mo am d gora, ' to see who can get there first ' ; mynd 
am or a ra:s hevo mi, ' to run a race with me ' ; so also : gweibi 
am dr yxa, ' to shout in emulation ; to see who can shout the 
loudest ' ; xwara am 9 sala, ' to play a rotten game '. 

1 6. 'for, as far as concerns': ta iva.yO am fanny, 'for the 
matter of that ' ; ' if that is anything ' (lit. if it were worse as concerns 
that) ; am un i, ' as far as I know, for (what) I know '. 

17. 'at the risk of : kovja am d3 v0wyd! ' mind you remember' 
(i.e. if you value your life). 

1 8. ' because of : am (i) mo:d inmeSul, ' because I thought ' ; 



am 'am'hosi'bilruyb 9 

also used as a conjunction before na(d) am na vedrun du:ad zy 
gynt, ' because I could not come sooner '. 

19. with ben, 'over ; at' : r o:d hi n tavly du:r am 9 mhenni, 
1 she was pouring water over me ' ; x^^rBin am i benno, ' to laugh at 
him ' ; gneyd sbort, ka:l hu:yl am i benno, ' to make fun of him '. 

20. after certain nouns as di:olx am, 'thanks for'; ovn am, 
1 fear for ', etc. 

21. after certain verbs difficult to classify, as -ayhovjo am, * to 
forget about ' ; deyd uB nu:in am . . ., ' to tell somebody to . . , ' ; 
disgul am, ' to wait for ' ; edrax am, ' to see (some one), to call upon, 
to look for ' ; galu am, ' to call for ' ; gobeiQjo am, ' to hope for ' ; 
govaly am, 'to take care of; govyn am, 'to ask for '; govyn i ru:in 
am . . . , ' to ask some one to . . .'; gwe-i:o am, ' to pray for ' ; gweld 
bat am, ' to blame for ' ; gweld 9 werdon am, ' to wait long for, to 
long for ' ; hireyQy am, ' to long for ' ; kovjo am, ' to remember 
about ' ; xwiljo <*M, ' to look for ' ; morol am, ' to bear in mind to ' ; 
medul am, 'to think of, etc. 

ambal, adj. and adv., ambell, D., s.v. 'rarus'; 'now and then, 
occasionally ' (but always with a substantive) : ambal i 8y:n, ' here 
and there a man ' ; ambal (z) dro:, ' occasionally ' ; ambal y:n, 
' an occasional one ' ; may hi m bra:v a?nbal i fturnod, ' it is fine on 
occasional days ' ; may hi n wel ambal i usnos na i gili, ' it is 
better some weeks than others'; may hi y gneyd ambal i gavod, 
' there is a shower now and then ' . 

amdo, s.f., amdo, D., ' shroud '. 

amdifin, v., amddiffyn, D. Fut. am&fma, ( to defend': ambifin 
i blaid, ' to stick up for his party '. 

amfttvad, adj., amddifad, D., s.v. 'orphanus'; 'destitute' (fol- 
lowed by the preposition o) : plenlyn amdivad, * orphan '. 

amdivady, v., amddifadu, D., s.v. ' orbo ' ; ' to deprive ' : amftivady 
o jexid, venyyd. 

amgorn, s.m., amgarn, D., ' a ring of metal round the handle of 
a scythe or knife where the blade meets it ; round the end of the 
handle of a hammer ; round the tip of a cow's horn ', etc. ; also 
' ferrule ' : amgorn ar vla:ynfon. 

am-heyaQ, s.m., ammheuaeth, D., s.v. ' dubitatio ' ; ' doubt ' : / o:s 
na dim am'heyaB am dano vo, ' there is no doubt about it ' ; meun 
amheyaQ, ' in doubt '. 

am'heys, adj., ammheus D., s.v. 'dubitosus'; 'doubtful': may 
o n am'heys o hona i, ' he is doubtful of me ' ; r 0:8 o n istau, ve/y 
r 0:8 o n am'heys 'gmonu, ' he was quiet, so they did not know what 
to make of him '. 

-am-hosib, adj., ammhosibl, D., s.v. * impossibilis ' ; ' impossible '. 
am'hosi-bilruyft, s.m., ' impossibility '. 



i o amkan ammuys 

amkan, s.m. ; pi. amkanjon, amcan, D., (i) ' purpose, object ': 
ma: gin i riu amkan i vynd, ' 1 have some object in going ' ; be 
o:d 9\ amkan u6 vynd />, ' what was your object in going ? ' ; mynd 
dno dan ar amkan o i weld o, ' to go there with the object of seeing 
him ' ; may o wedi drzsy dn i amkanjon bidol, ' his affairs have 
become embarrassed ' ; wedi medy i amkan, ' to have failed in one s 
object '. (2) ' conjecture, guess, inkling ' : ma: gin i riu amkan puy 
sy wedi dry o, ' I have some idea who sent it ' ; 'wyboxi amkan le 
may o?, 'have you any conjecture as to where it is?'. (3) 'con- 
jecturing faculty ' : amkan 9 Iraur ddi i bgad o, c the conjecturing 
faculty of the ploughman is in his eye ' ; so also amkan go: ; 9 go: 
9y gweiQjo u8 i amkan} amkan bgad. 

amkanys, adj., amcanus, M.A. ii, 255. 39, ' resourceful, deft ': 
may o n reit amkanys, ' he has a very good idea how to set about 
things', said e.g. of a beginner = sgilgar. 

amlug, adj., amlwg, D. (i) ' clear, evident': may n amlug jaun 
heiftju, ' it is very clear to-day ' (of an object) ; gweld 9n amlug, ' to 
see clearly ' ; may n amlug ( = eglyr) i mi, ' it is clear to me ' : 
klu:ad m amlug, ' to hear clearly '. (2) ' exposed ' : le: amlug le: 
amlug i r gwynt. Cf. G.R. 3. 12. 

ambgy, v., amlygu, D. (i) 'to explain, make plain': 'vedru\i 
ambgy vi ? (for 'i mi'), 'can you enlighten me?' (2) 'to dis- 
close ' : paid ti ambgy dim am 3 pe:Q du i n i eyd. 

amma, v., ammau, D., s.v. ' dubito '. Pret. amheyis. (i)'to 
doubt ' : / zdu i dim dn amma na neiQ i gh'rfo, ' I don't doubt it will 
clear up ' ; / 9du i Sim m amma na grieyd m jaun ary o, ' I don't 
doubt he did right ' ; / ddu i dim an amma na rieiQ o m ono vo, ' I 
don't doubt he will not do it '. With a person as direct object : 
may o ?i v amma z', 'he doubts me'. (2) 'to suspect, expect, 
imagine ' : r zdu i n amma, ' I dare say it is ', 'I expect it is '. 

animal, adv., ami, D., comp. amlax, ' often ' : may hi n digu 
m ammal vely, ' it often happens so ' ; dma be glu:\i ami a, ' that's 
what you hear most often ', ' that is the expression generally used ' ; 
rhan amla, * for the most part '. 

atnmod, s.f., ammod, D. (i) 'agreement, covenant, condition': 
gneyd ammod i neyd rubad, ' to make an agreement to do some- 
thing ' : ar sr ammod o du:ad (280 vo 8u:ad) m o:l am u:yO, ' on 
condition of his coming back at eight ' ; ammod prjodas, ' promise 
of marriage ' ; tori ammod prjodas, ' breach of promise '. (2) used 
of a cow expected to calve : ammod byu\ i du:ad a lo:\ pry:d may 
ihammoti?, 'when is she expected to calve?'; may hi bron ar 
ben i hammod. Cf. D.G. ex. 5. 

ammuys, adj., amwys, D., 'ambiguous, equivocal ': riu air 
ammuys ddi o, ' it is an ambiguous expression ', e. g. it need not 
necessarily be taken in a bad sense. Also of persons : dy:n 



ammyd anduyo 1 1 

ammuys jaun adi o, distau, ar i ben i hy:n, 'he is a man you can 
make nothing of, quiet, keeping to himself. 

ammyd, s., amyd, D., ' far, frumentum ' ; only in bara ammyd, ex- 
plained by JJ. as bread made of wheat or barley as distinguished 
from that made of oats or rye. 

amrant, s.f., pi. amranta, amrant, D., ' eyelid '. 
amriu, amryw, D., ' several ' : amriu o eirja. 

amsar, s.m. (but r amsar hunnu, honno, or hmny], pi. amsera, 
amserod, amser, D., ' time ' : na i Parian o pey ga: i amsar, ' I will 
read it when I have time' ; ^ mhen amsar, 'after a certain time'; 
ma: r amsar dgest i ben, ' the time is just up ' ; may amsar garu, 
' there is plenty of time ' ; vaint o amsar rieiQ o bara ?, ' how long 
will it last ? ' ; amsar Kinjo, ' dinner time ' ; ar o:l i amsar, ' late ' ; 
o vla:yn i amsar, 'early'; i r amsar, 'punctual', e.g. da\i i r 
amsar hetiju, ' you are punctual to-day ' ; mi do:6 m bgad i amsar, 
'he came at the nick of time'; bo:b amsar, 'always', e.g. may 
r vre:x go:x zy gadal rubaQ ar i hod bo:b amsar, ' measles always 
leave some effect behind them '. 

an-, an- : a negative prefix always bearing full stress. Before 
another ' n ' the ' n ' is doubled when the word is pronounced with 
unusual emphasis, as 'an'nivir, otherwise 'a'nivir. 

ana, s.m., anaf, D., 'deformity': 'vtianu y hmmyd ne:b a riu 
ana no vo, ' they take no one who has any deformity ' ; may ana 
arno vo er i enedigaQ, ' he is deformed from birth '. 

anadl, s.f., anadl, D., ' breath ' (more often expressed by gwynf). 
anadly, v., anadlu, D., ' to breathe '. 

anair, s.m., anair, D., * calumny' : rhoid anair i ru:in, ' to calum- 
niate some one, to blacken some one's character '. 

'an-ammal, adv., anaml, D., s.v. 'raro'; 'seldom': dm by:r 
'an'ammal, ' very seldom '. 

ana-tirjol, adj., annaturiol, C.C.M. 157. 31, 'unnatural'. 

anavys, adj., anafus, D., 'painful': ma nu n anavysjaun; 3di o 
n anavys jaun gin ti? Cf. navod, navy. 

andros, s., andras, D.G. ccxx. 42, mild equivalent of djaul, 
' deuce ' : mynd vel zr andros, ' to go like the deuce ' ; ywara r 
andros, ' to play the deuce ' ; ma r andros m i gori o, ' the devil is 
in him '. 

anduyo, v., amdwyo, M.LI. i. 5. i ; andwyo, C.C. 148. 15; T.N. 
47. 28 ; 138. 16 (Eng. ' undo '), ' to spoil, injure ' : ma: r gwynto:yr 
ma wedi handuyo nu, 'this cold wind has spoilt them' (e.g. the 
flowers) ; anduyo plentyn, ' to spoil a child ' = dveQa plentyn hevo 
moyQa. 



1 2 anduyol 'a'nidig 

anduyol, adj., andwyol, S.E., 'harmful, injurious': ma na day 
be:6 m anduyol i r y:d. 

a-neduvd, -a'nzduyb, adj., annedwydd, D., 'unpleasant, disagree- 
able', in the old saying tri: fe:6 -a'niduyb ty: mdglyd, devni, gwraig 
rinktyd (O.H.), 'three disagreeable things a smoky house, drops, 
and a scolding woman'. Cf. Prov. xxvii. 15; M.A. iii. 259 a. 31. 

'an'esmuyQ, adj., anesmwyth, W.B. col. 59. 23. (i) 'uneasy, 
anxious ' : 'an'esmuyQ dn v? mebul ; mynd 9n 'an'esmuyQ ar 9 vh0unt i. 
(2) 'uncomfortable': kry:s 'awesmuyQ. 

'ane'smuyQo, v., anesmwytho, R., ' to become uneasy, anxious '. 

'a-neSa, adj., annethe, T. N. 4. 16 ; 73. 16 ; 405. 23; anneheu, 

D., s.v. ' sinister ' ; ' bungling ' = LyuxwiB, x^^og- 

'an'favrjol, adj., anffafriol, S.E. ; anffafrol, C.C. 454. 31, 
' unfavourable '. 

'anfortynys, adj., anffortunus, S.E.*, ' unfortunate '. Seldom 
used 'an'lukkys. 

'an-happy 's, adj., anhappus, 2 Esd. xv. 59. Cf. D.G. cli. 15, 
' unhappy '. 

an'hebig) adj., annhebyg, D., s.v. * dissimilis' ; ' unlike '. 

an'hcilum, 'an-heihnj, adj., annheilwng, D., s.v. ' indignus '. 
(i) 'dishonest': mynd an aw he Hum a pc:6. (2) 'gained by dis- 
honest means ' : Keinjog 'awheilum eiQ a du:y a hi: (prov.), ' a 
penny dishonestly gained will take away two with it ', i. e. ' honesty 
is the best policy '. 

an'h0usfar } s.m., anhawsder, D., ' difficulty '. 

airhuyldab, s.m., anhwyldeb, S.E. (i) 'a derangement of the 
functions of the body or mind ' : riu 'an'hiiyldab 081 vjaun ido vo; 
'an'huyldab ar gefyL (2) 'unpleasantness', e.g. such as might 
arise though a dispute : pobol ay grieyd 'an'huyldab dn 3 gwaiB. 

'an'huylys, 'an'hoylys, adj., anhwylus, D. (i) ' difficult to manage 
or deal with ' : dy:n, Kefyl 'an'huylys. (2) said of tools, etc., which 
work badly: gwciBjo n 'an'huylys. (3) 'inconvenient': may n 
'an'huylys jaun i mi vynd. Cf. 'ayrvleys. 

an'hwryd, adj., anhyfryd, D., s.v. ' insuavis ' ; ' unpleasant'. 

' a' nib an ^ adj., anniben, D., 'slow, dilatory' : Kerftad dn 'a'niban, 
'a'niban m ddsgy, 'a'niban i vynd i r kappal, gweiQjo n 'a'niban ; 
mendjo n 'a'niban, ' to improve slowly (in health) '. 

'a'niban, adj., anniddan, D., s.v. ' illaetabilis ' ; ' dull, not enter- 
taining ' : dy:n 



a-ntfag, adj., anniddig, R., ' cross, bad-tempered, crabbed', esp. 
of children. 



a'niujol annuyl 1 3 

-a-niujol, adj., annuwiol, D., s.v. ' impius ' ; ' ungodly, profane '. 
Used also facetiously as an intensifying adverb as bli:n 'a-niujol, 
1 terribly peevish '. 

anival, nival, s.m., pi. aniveiljad, niveiljad, anifail, D., ' animal ' : 
may o vel nival, ' he is a brutish man '. 

a'nivir ) adj., anifyrr, D., s.v. ' iniucundus '. (i) ' nasty, un- 
pleasant ' : le 'a'nivir ar i ben i hy:n, ' an unpleasant lonely place ' ; 
durnod smit 'a'nivir, ' an unpleasant rainy day ' ; dy:n 'a'nivir, ' an 
unpleasant man'; = dy:n ka:s, dy:n bli:n. (2) 'uncomfortable 
(in mind) ' : o:n i n teimlo n 'a'nivir jaun, 1 1 was feeling very 
uncomfortable '. 

anjal, adj., anial, D., ' deserted, lonely ' : le: anjal. 

anjalux, s.m., anialwch, D., 'wilderness', e.g. a place overgrown 
with trees in their wild state: dim ond anjalux a drssni; ko:yd ag 
anjaiux- (Perhaps a scriptural reminiscence, but frequently used 
by O.H. Cf., however, the true popular form njalux-) 

anjo'bevol, adj., annioddefol, S.E., 'unbearable'. 

a'njolxgar, adj., anniolchgar, D., s.v. ' ingratus ' ; ' ungrateful '. 

'an'luk, s.f., anlwcc, C.C.M. 43. 33, ^bad luck, mishap': 
o. 



an-lukkys, adj., anlwccus, C.C.M. 451. 20, ' unlucky '. 

awbgys, adj., anolygus, D., s.v. ' indecens ' ; ' unsightly ' : bar a 
'di:'olug, 'an'bgys ; dy:n 'an'hgys dn debig i vugan brain, 'an ugly 
fellow like a scarecrow '. 

'an'nhe:g, adj., annheg, M.A. i. 490 a. 28, ' unfair '. 

annos, hannos, v., annos, D. (i) 'to set on': annos Hi:. As 
compared with fofo, hannos Hi: is to make a dog drive the sheep 
on (m i bleynd] or away from some place, hyfo is to make him catch 
hold of them (ga:l 280 vo gsdjad -ynynu). In the first case the dog 
barks, in the second he does not (O.H.). Cf. also koidi. (2) 
Also used of the act of driving, e. g. hannos nu alan o r ti:r pori, 
' to drive them (by means of a dog) out of the pasture '. 

'an'nrhevn, s., annhrefn, D., ' disorder '. 

anrniyd, s.m., annwyt, W.B. col. 6. 21; anwyd, D. (i) 'a 
cold ' : du i wedi ka:l annuyd (sometimes r annttyd), ' I have caught 
cold ' ; may o wedi ka:l annuyd dn o: drum, ' he has caught rather a 
bad cold'; annuyd dn i dru.yn, 'a cold in his nose'. (2) 'cold 
(generally) ' : krmny gin annuyd, ' to shiver with cold ' ; o:s nax* 
annuyd?, ' are you cold ? ' 

annuyl, adj., anwyl, D. (i) 'dear'. (2) 'pleasant, delightful, 
e. g. of weather'. (3) ' lovable, lovely ' : ma: na rubaB annuyl jaun 
dn iforS o, ' there is something very lovable in his ways ' ; gwynab 
annuyl, ' a lovely face '. (4) with variations of the word dyu as an 



1 4 "an 'obaiQ antirjo 

exclamation of surprise (cf. du lieber Gott !), dyu annul!, dyuks 
annul /, di:ar annul /, pobol (bobol] annul /, ta:d annul /, taid annul /, 
' good gracious ! ' (The form in u occurs especially often in the last- 
named expressions.) 

-an-obaiQ, s.m., anobaith, D., ' despair ' : r oybun i wedi mynd 
i -atrobaiQ am -danoxi, ' I had begun to despair about you '. 

ano'leityO) v., anobeithio, D., 'to despair'. 

ano'leiQjol, adj., anobeithiol, D., ' hopeless ' : wedi mynd dn 
ano'beiBjol (of a sick person), ' beyond hope of recovery '. 

flw0&, hanob, adj., comp. anos, 'an'h0uax, sup. 'an'h0ua, 
-an'h0usa, anhawdd and anodd, D. (cf. anawd, L.A. 90. 26), 
' difficult ' : may kdm'ra:ig dn anos na fo:b jaiQ aral, ' Welsh is 
more difficult than any other language ' ; ma: n anod kodi sn 9 bora, 
' it is difficult to get up in the morning ' ; du i n ano8 9 mhlef'o, 
1 1 am difficult to please ' ; anoft tdnny kast o he:n gefyl (prov.), ' it 
is difficult to cure an old horse of tricks ' ; anod tmny dy:n o:d ar 
i ddluyQ (prov.), ' what is bred in the bone will come out in the 
flesh '. 

an'rhevnyS) adj., annhrefnus, D., ' disorderly ; in disorder '. 

awrheyBol, adj.. annhraethol, D., s.v. ' inenarrabilis ' ; 'inex- 
pressible ' : 'an-rheydol o dry:d, ' excessively dear '. 

ansad, adj., ansad, S.E., ' unsteady ' (e. g. of a vase) : ansad 
i vebul, l wavering of mind '. 

ansa'Bredtg, adj., ansathredig, S.E., geirja 'ansa'Bredig, ' out-of- 
the-way words '. 

an'sbar&ys, adj., annosparthus, D. (i) 'turbulent ' (of persons). 
(2) of something done in a rough, awkward, haphazard fashion : 
tynnu gwla:n o: ar davad sn 'an'sbardys. 

anse'v?dlog, adj., ansefydlog, D., s.v. ' inconstans ' ; ' unsteady, 
unsettled ' : ma: r dvwyft m 'anse'wdlog, ' the weather is unsettled ' = 
'an'wadal. 

an'st0walj, adj., anystywallt, D. ; cf. also D., s.v. 'ferox', 
' infraenus ' ; ' churlish, unmanageable ' : dy:n aivstewalt = anob 
i dri:n. 

an'stirjaQ, s.m., anystyriaeth, B.C. 141. 4; 'thoughtlessness, 
heedlessness, inconsiderateness '. 

atvshrjol, adj., anystyriol, D., s.v. ' inconsiderans ' ; ' thoughtless, 
heedless, inconsiderate '. (Fr. dtourdi.) 

antirjaQ, s.f., anturiaeth, D., s.v. 'temeritas'; 'enterprise, 
venturesomeness, speculation ' : antirjaQ i ventro pre:s, ' venture- 
someness in risking money '. 

antirjo, v., anturio, D., 'to venture ' = menlro : antirjo i wla:d 
aral, ' to go abroad as a speculation '. 



antyr anmad 1 5 

aniyr, s., antur, D., ' venture ' in the phrase ar antyr, ' as 
a venture '. 

anuydog, adj., anwydog, D., ' sensitive to cold '. 
anuydys, anwydus, S.E., ' sensitive to cold '. 

an-vanias, s.f., anfantais, S.E. ; anfontais, D.P.O. 30. 4, 
' disadvantage '. 

-anvan'ieif'ol, adj., anfanteisiol, S.E., ' disadvantageous '. 

anvarQ, anvaB, adj., sup. verQa, anferth, D., s.v. ' mon strum '; 
' monstrous, enormous, terrible ' : pentur anvaB, gwynt a gla:u 
anvarti, karag vaur anvarO ; r hu:yl verQa welis i ri'o:yd, ' the 
greatest fun I ever saw ' ; helynt verQa vyu, ' a terrible row '. 

an-vodlon, adj., anfoddlawn, D., but anfodlon, s.v. ' offensus ' ; 
{ discontented '. 

anvod, s., anfodd, D., ' unwillingness ' in phrase o i anvob, 
' against one's will '. 

anvon, v., anfon, D., s.v. 'mitto'. Pret. S. anvom's, etc. No 
plural. Plup. anvonsun. Imperative S. 2. anvon. (i) 'to send' 
(more often gny). (2) 'to take, accompany' (Anglo- Welsh 'to 
send ') : anvon ru:in i r stef'on, ' to take some one to the station '. 

awwadal, adj., anwadal, D., 'inconstant, changeable': tu:y 
'an'wadal gwy:lt, ( stormy, unsettled weather'; dy:n 'an'wadal an 
i waiQ. 

'an-warad, adj., anwaraidd, S.E., ' savage, uncivilized ; wild 
(e. g. of untrained horses) ; brutal (e. g. of one who illtreats 
animals)'. (J.J., O.K., frequently.) 

'an-wedig, adj., enwedig, D., s.v. ' praesertim ' ; anwedig, H.S. 
25. 4 j G.R. (3). 5 ; 57. 3 : * -an-wedig, 'especially'. 

arrwiraft, s.m., anwiredd, D., s.v. ' iniquitas ' ; * falsehood, lie ' : 
deyd 'an'wirad = deyd Keluyft. 

anwybodaQ) s.f., anwybodaeth, D., s.v. ' inscitia ' ; * ignorance '. 

'anwybodol, adj., ? anymwybodol, S.E. ; ' unconscious ' : mi a:6 o 
n 'anwybodol o hono i hy:n, * he became unconscious '. 

anwybodys, adj., anwybodus, R.B. II. 392. 20, 'ignorant'. 

anwybzfys, adj., anwybyddus, S.E., ' unconscious ' : 'anwybsbys 
o hono i hy:n (O.H.). 

anyyyft, adj., anufudd, D., s.v. ' inobsequens ' ; 'disobedient'. 

-anrmynol, adj., annymunol, S.E., ' unpleasant ', esp. of persons ; 
dy:n 'anz'mynol dy:n ka:s. 

anmad, adj., anynad, D., ' peevish, morose, crabbed ' (under- 
stood, but seldom used). 



1 6 ay a ayo 

aya, s.m., angau, D., ' death '. As distinguished from marwolaO, 
aya is generally death more or less personified, but not always, 
e. g. mi do:Q 2 aya 3n szdynjaun. Cf. marwolad. 

ayal, s.m., pi. ayrtjon, angel, D., ' angel '. 

ay an, s.m., angen, D. (i) ' need, necessity ' : may n ay an rhoid 
zdi hi, may hi n djoBa if f o, 'it is a necessity to give to her, she is 
suffering from want ' ; meun gwi:r ayan am dano, ' in real want of 
it '. (2) ' want ' : lugy o ayan, ' to be dying from want '. 

ayanrheidjol, adj., angenrheidiol, D., s.v. ' necessarius ' ; 
' necessary '. 

aygar, s.m., ager and agerdd, D., ' steam, vapour, exhalation ' ' 
pen ma nu y grieyd h: i gadu gwair, ma nu y gneyd riu fnestri ba:x, 
ga:l i r ay gar vynd alan, ' when they make a place to keep hay in, 
they make some small windows to let out the vapour ' ; ma: na riu 
aygar o:yr ay kodi 081 ar varig ne avon, ' there is a sort of cold 
vapour rising from hoar-frost or a river ' ; po:by:nm z aygar i hy:n, 
' every one " stewing in his own juice " ' ; so, aygar 9 bobol. 

-ayhafal, s.m., anghaffael, S.E.*, ' difficulty, hindrance, e.g. such 
as would prevent the carrying out of an engagement ' ; os na da:u 
riu -ayhafal, ' if no difficulty arises ' ; o:ys na riu 'ayhafal arno vo 
ru:an S, ' is he in some difficulty now ? ' Cf. T.N. 305. 18. 

ayhenyS) ayhennys, adj., anghenus, D., ' needy '. 

ctyhoiljo, v., anghoelio, D., s.v. 'dubito'; 'to disbelieve': da\i 
n 'ayhoiljo i)i ? 

ayhovjo, v., anghofio, D., s.v. ' obliviscor '. Pret. S. i. 'ayhovis, 
3. 'ayhovjoft. Imperative 'ayhovja; 'ayhovjux, 'to forget': 
'gu:soxi r sgidja P na: do: wi:r, reit bni:g, dary mi 'ayhovjo n la:n. 
mi a: i vory, reitfu:r, ' did you get the boots ? ' ' No, indeed, I am 
very sorry : I entirely forgot. I will be sure to go to-morrow ' ; 
du i wedi 'ayhovjo am 9 lu:y, ' I have forgotten the spoon ' ; 
'ayhovjo ary mi roi glo: arno vo, ' I forgot to put coal on it '. 

aylminas, adj., anghynnes, D., s.v. 'frigidus'; 'repulsive, 
loathsome '. Cf. P.G.G. 71. 22. 

ayhysbal, adj., anghysbell, D., ' out-of-the-way, remote ' : le: 
ayfosbal. 

ayfosyr, s.m., anghyssur, D., s.v. ' deinissio ' ; ' discomfort '. 

aylod, s.m., anglod, D., s.v. ' ignominia ' ; ' disgrace ' : / 0:8 hi dim 
9n anlod 180 vo, ' it was no disgrace to him '. Emphasized : y:n 
9y ka:l klo:d a r lal dy ka:l 'aynlho.'d. 

aynhesol, adj., anghynhesol, S.E., ' repulsive '. 

ayo, s., angof, D., s.v. 'obliuio'; in phrase gulun ayo (i.e. 
gollwng yn angof), ' to forget '. 



ay or ar 17 

ayor, s.m., pi. ayorjon, angor, D., ' anchor '. 
ayori, v., angori, S.E.*, ' to anchor '. 

ayrhedy, v., anghredu, D., ' to disbelieve ' : daxi n 'ayrhedy vi? t 
' do you disbelieve me ? ' 

ayrhjadys, adj., anghariadus, D., (Prov.) ' uncharitable '. 

-ayrfredin, adj., anghyffredin, D., s.v. 'rarus'; 'uncommon, 
extraordinary*. Often used adverbially to intensify an adjective, 
e. g. ay glu:s 'ayrfredin, ' uncommonly pretty '. [Occasionally pro- 
nounced 'ayfredm, with strongly breathed voiceless glide between 
y and _/".] 

ay9'frtys> adj., anghyffyrddus ; cf. angonffordd, W.S. [Discon- 
fort], ' uncomfortable '. [For pronunciation cf. above.] 

ayzlas, s.f., angyles, G.I. xxiv. 53, 'angel* (as term applied to 
a woman). 

'ayrsyrys, adj., anghyssurus, M.LI. i. 115. 7, 'uncomfortable': 
le: -ayrsyrys. 

ayrvTeyS) adj., anghyfleus, Acts xxvii. 12, ' inconvenient ': ty: 
ayrvleys, ' an inconvenient house, e. g. as to position ' (but ty: 
an'huylys, 'inconvenient as to internal arrangements', etc.); may 
n 'anrvleys i mi vynd, ' it is inconvenient for me to go ' (as to 
circumstances). Here 'an'huylys would imply, rather, bad com- 
munication. 

appad [at fab]. 

ar, prep. ar. With pronouns. S. i. arna (i), 2. 'arnat(f), 
3. arno .(vo), ami (hi). PI. i. 'arnon(t), 2. m arnox(t), 'arnax(f), 
3. "arnyn(u). Emphasized : arna i:, etc. PI. 2. arno'xi:, arna'xi:, 3. 
arnynhu:. Shortened enclitic forms: S. i. na i, 2. nati, ant(i), 
3. no vo, ni hi. PI. i. nam, 2. nox(i], nax(i), axi, 3. nynu. (For the 
use of these see below r , i (b).) Followed by the vocalic mutation ; 
but tgjan, ' twenty ', takes h as day ar higjan. 

i , ' on '. (a) ' on ' (of rest or motion) : sevyl ar 9 graig, ' to 
stand on the rock ' ; kodi ar i dra.yd, ' to stand up ' ; ar ben, 
' on the top ', as ar ben r a:lt, ' on the top of the hill ' ; ar 9 &v, ' on 
the right ' ; ar 9 ywi:Q, ' on the left '. Where English usage requires 
* in ', as ar i helu, ' in his possession ' ; ar i we8i, ' in his prayer ' ; 
ar i bregad, ' in his sermon ' ; rhoi du:r ar 9 levriQ, ' to put water 
in the milk'. Where English usage requires 'by': vain/ i o r 
glo:x ar s\ waif xi- ?, ' what time is it by your watch '. (b) after 
nouns expressing want, desire, hunger, thirst, fear, etc. : be s axi 
if'o ?, be s naxi ifo ?, be sy nox if'o . p , i. e. beth sydd arnoch chwi ei 
eisieu ?, ' what do you want ? ' ; ma na i ifo, ' I want ' ; alan sy no 
vo if'o mynd, ' he wants to go out ' ; os noxi if'o rubaB ?, ' do you 

1432 C 



1 8 ar 

want something ? ' ; ma na i if'o bu:yd, di:od, ' I am hungry, 
thirsty ' ; ma na i ovn, ' I am afraid ' ; ma na i vly:s o, ' I have 
a great desire for it'; o:s anti annuydP, 'are you cold?' (c) 
after nouns expressing colour, shape, taste, smell, etc. : may gwaur 
la:s ar ar awyr, ' the sky has a blue tinge ' ; / o:s na dim ly:n arno 
vo, ' it has no shape ' ; ma na vla:s halan arno vo, ' it tastes of 
salt ' ; ma na hogla dru:g arno vo, ' it has a bad smell '. (d) after 
nouns expressing character, disposition, humour, state, etc. : syt 
hu:yl sy -arnoxi heno ?, ' how do you feel to-night ? ' ; similarly : 
dymma syt d may arna i:, ' that is how / am situated '. (e) after 
nouns expressing appearance : may golug eira ami hi, ' it looks like 
snow ' ; faf'un olug 0:8 arno vo ?, ' how did he look ? ' ; similarly : 
"casim i dim m ??ie$ul hmny ami hi, ' I should not have thought that 
by the look of her '. (f) after nouns expressing fault or blame : rhoi 
lai ar, ' to blame ' ; arno'xi: ma r bai, ' it v$>your fault '. (g) after 
nouns expressing hurt, illness, disease, defect, etc. : be s anti i* } 'what 
is the matter with you ? '; / o:d dim by:d arno vo, 'there was nothing 
the matter with him ' ; may attal deyd arno vo, ' he stammers '. 
(h) after nouns expressing name, reputation, etc. : / o:ys dim enu 
ami hi, ' it has no name ' ; enu dru:? ar dmas, ' a disparaging term 
ior a woman', (i) after nouns expressing duty, care, etc. : govol 
9 ru:m o:y8 ami hi, ' she had to look after the room '. (j) after 
a verbal noun whether of transitive or intransitive force. In the 
iormer case this usage is restricted to negative clauses of the form 
/ o:ys na bim Iroi arno vo, ' he is a resolute man ' (lit. ' there is no 
turning him ') ; / o:ys na dim tusy na Bagy arno vo, ' he is impos- 
sible to deal with ' (lit. ' there is no leading him nor choking him'). 
An example of the latter is may mu:y o vynd -arnynu, ' there is 
more demand for them ' (lit. ' go on them '). 

2. with nouns expressing time or w r eather, considered in 
their relation to a person : may hi wedi bo:d m hi:r jaun llm de\ra 
r ha: 'arjwni, i the summer has been a long time coming ' ; mi ei& 
m no:s arno vo Kin do vo u:ad, ' it will be night before he comes ' ; 
ddmma hi n niul arna i, ( I was caught in the mist '. 

3. with certain adjectives : may n bru:g ar i rhieni, ' it is hard 
on their parents ' ; may n wel arno'xi: nag arnynhu:, ' you are 
better off than they are ' ; ka:s jaun 'arnoxi, ' very nasty for you ' ; 
ma n vain jaun arno vo, ' he is in very straitened circumstances ' ; 
may n wel arno vo ru:an nag o.yd hi ri'oyd, ' he is better off 
now than he ever was'; may hsnny n o le:u arna i, 'I am all 
right as far as that is concerned '. Somewhat similar is the expres- 
sion may hi wedi darvod arno vo, ' he is done for '. 

4. 'on the point of: du i -ar 'darvod ru:an, 'I am just 
finishing now ' ; pen o:n i 'ar 'ritiyt hdnny, ' when I was on the 
point of doing that '. 

5. with an infinitive expressing potentiality : dma le: vasa 
(basa) vo ar ga:l, ' that is where it would be likely to be found '. 



ar 19 

6. expressing an object for which a thing is intended: ar osod, 
1 to be let ' ; ar werQ, ' to be sold '. 

7. expressing the means for the attainment of an end : ford 
ar i hagor nu, ' a way to open them '. 

8. expressing debt : vaint sy arna i?, ' how much do I owe ?'; 
may arna i buy geinjog i \i:, ' I owe you twopence '. 

9. of time or weather, 'on, at, in' : ar ar y:n adag, ' at the 
same time ' ; ar dy ly:n, ' on a Monday ' ; ar dnvyd po:y&, ' in hot 
weather '. 

10. ' on, of, concerning, about ' : farad ar, l to speak about ' ; 
gneyd ka:n ar, ' to make a song about '. 

11. t for, as far as concerns ' : wa:y& bo\ti wedi kodi am u:y& 
ar 8im r u:ti wedi neyd, 'you might just as well have got up at 
eight for anything you have done '. 

12. in numerals before de:g, pzmQag and igjan, as tri ar de:g, 
pedwar ar famQag, pymp ar higjan ; or takes the place of ar in 
y:n or de:g, ' eleven '. 

13. sometimes ar expresses the relation of a part to the 
whole : r adag amma ar 9 vluyftyn, * this time of year ' ; zn ista 
? 'van ma ar 9 bur, ' sitting at this part of the table '. 

14. where in English the direct object is followed by an 
adverb of quantity, etc., the latter is expressed by a substantive 
followed by ar, as berux dippin arno vo, ' boil it a little ' ; na i if'o 
kobljo tippin ar 9 sgidja, ' 1 want to cobble my boots a bit '. The 
order may also be reversed, e. g. berwi arno vo dippin. Similarly : 
da\i dim wedi bytta lawar arno vo, 'you have not eaten much 
of it'. Cf. L.A. 51. i. 

15. in conjunction with nouns, forming prepositions or ad- 
verbs (or, their equivalents), e.g. ar i ben i hy:n, ' alone ' ; ar vry:s, 
'in a hurry'; ar draus, ( across'; ar dsd, 'on the point of; ar 
Samwam, ( by chance ' ; ar ganol, ' in the middle of ; ar garlam, 
'at full speed'; ar g0unt, 'because of; (mynd) ar got, Most'; 
ar i ora, ' in best form ' ; ' straining to the utmost (and barely 
succeeding) ' ; ar gruydyr, ' wandering ' ; ar gwar, ' against ' ; 
ar gwyl, ' near ' ; ar hy:d, ' along, throughout ' ; ar laur, ' down ' ; 
ar i later, ' downwards ' ; ar le:d, ' breadthwise ' ; ar le:s, ( for the 
good of; ar o:l, 'after, behind'; ar oriwarad, 'down'; ar i 
vsny, ' upwards ' ; ar vi:n> ' on the point of, on the brink of ; ar 
weyQa, ( in spite of ; ar wi:b, ' at a run ' ; ar 3 kmta, ' at first ' ; ar 
(*X) injon, ' straight on ' ; arynwaQ, ' at once ', etc., etc. 

1 6. after various verbs or verbs in connexion with nouns, 
e. g. avlondfy ar, ' to disturb ' ; byu ar, ' to live on ' ; dexra ar, ' to 
begin (something)'; di:al ar, ' to take vengeance on' ; divlasy ar, 
1 to get tired of ; dslanwady ar, ' to have an influence on ' ; edra\ 
ar, ' to look at ' ; efeiBjo ar, ' to have an effect upon ' ; galu ar, ' to 
call, to wake ' ; gneyd mis far ar, ' to master ' ; bo:d m gamblar ar, 
' to be skilful in ' ; gneyd trevn ar, ' to set to rights ' ; gweidi ar, 

c 2 



2O a:r ardal 

' to shout to ' ; kay i burn ar, ' to shake one's fist at ' ; kodi kwilib 
ar, ' to make ashamed ' ; kodi ovn ar, ' to frighten ' ; koli arno i 
hy:n, ' to lose control of oneself ' ; krevy ar, ' to implore ' ; hmmyd 
manias ar, 'to take advantage of '; la:d ar, 'to run down, de- 
preciate ' ; manteifo ar, ' to have the advantage over ' ; nabod ar, 
' to know by ' ; rhoi enu ar, ' to name ' ; rhoi fiery o ar, ' to reprove ' ; 
rhoi kick ar (;? maud), ' to snap (the fingers) ' ; rhoi klep ar, ' to 
bang '; rhoimi:n ar, 'to sharpen ' ; sbi:o ar, ' to look at '; tendjo ar, 
* to attend '; tori ar, ' to shorten, interrupt ' ; etc., etc. 

a:r, a:yr, s., ar, D. (i) in ti:r a:r, ' ploughed land'. (2) (in the 
game of rounders) ar zr a:yr, 'at the post' (I.W.). 

ara, adj., araf, D., ' slow ' (generally with the addition of de:g) : 
mi 8a:u hi n ara de:g, ' she will come along slowly ' ; 9n ara de:g 
may mynd 9 mhel (prov.), ' slow but sure wins the race ' ; k3inma n 
ara ' take your time ' ; an ara de:g /, ' gently ! ' 

arad, s.m., pi. eryd, aradr, D., ' plough '. (For parts of plough see 
arnoft, durn, gwadan, kly:st, korn, kultur, stdlan, su:x*} This word is 
used in Aber and Llanfairfechan, but gwy:ft takes its place in 
Pentir and Tregarth. 

aral, occasionally araQ (I.W.), adj., pi. eril, arall, D., 'other': 
dy:n aral, ' another man ' ; 9 dy:n ami, ' the other man ' ; i ben aral 
3 durd, ' at the other end of the table ' ; Kimmint aral, ' as many 
again ' ; ru\in aral, ' some one else ' ; rubaQ aral, ' something else ' ; 
adverbially : dim by:d aral, ' nothing else ' ; be nauni aral ?, ' what 
else shall we do ? ' ; as pronoun : weiBja vel hyn, weidja vel aral, 
' sometimes one way, sometimes another ' ; Del aral = also ' other- 
wise ' : ma: nu y grieyd vel aral, mebul vel aral. 

aran, s., pi., rcnna, aren, D., ' ren ' ; ' testicle '. 

araQ, s.f., araith, D. (i) 'speech, language': ma: gmo vo araQ 
ru:g jaun, dy kably a rhegi, ' he uses very bad language, cursing 
and swearing'. (2) 'a speech': gneyd araQ, 'to make a speech'. 
(3) ' delivery ' : araQ dila, araQ wantan, ' feeble delivery '. 

arbad, v., arbed, D., ' to spare ' : peidjo arbad i hy.n, ' not to 
spare oneself ; rhaid i ti arbad da Jiy:n ne mi ladi di da hy:n, ' you 
must spare yourself or you will kill yourself '. 

ardal, s.f., pi. arda/od, ardal, D., ' district, neighbourhood ' : 9n zr 
ardal ( = hmdogad) wima, ' in this neighbourhood ' ; meun ardal 
wledig) ' in a country district '. 

ar&al, v., arddelw, D., 'to acknowledge ' ; na: i m o i arbal o, ' I 
won't acknowledge it ' ; gu:r bnebig dim 9n leikjo ardal riu he:n 
gardottyn tlaud sy m perQyn tdo vo, ' a gentleman not liking to 
acknowledge some poor old beggar who is related to him ' ; dyu m 



arbeljad arnoft 2 1 

arbal i wa:s, 'God acknowledging his servant' (i.e. by giving him 
unction). 

arbeljad, s.m., arddeliad, S.E., 'unction' (e.g. of a preacher): 
farad dan arbeljad rieytty:ol, ( to speak with peculiar unction '. 

arberxog, adj., ardderchog, D., ' splendid, magnificent ' : t0wy 
arfterxog, ' magnificent weather' ; for arderxog i seiklo, ' a splendid 
road for cycling '. 

ardur, s.m., arddwr, D v ' ploughman ' traur, trvur. 
arciQjo, v., areithio, D., ' to make a speech '. 
arfad, s., arffed, D., ' pudenda ' = gwendid. 

argay, s., argae, D., ' dam ' : rhoid argay ar draus dr avon, ' to 
dam the river '. 

argjan, s.f., in exclamations of astonishment, etc., as dr argjan 
vaur ! ; dr argjan annul, na:K i ! ; dn enu r argjan vaur ! 

argluyft, s.m., pi. arglmbi, arglwydd, D., ' Lord '. 

arjan, arian, D. (i) s.m. 'silver': arjan fyu, 'quicksilver'; 
dail arjan, ' silverweed ' (Potentilla anserina). (2)5. pi., ' money ' : 
arjan pre:s ( = arjan ko:x, seldom used), ' copper coin ' ; arjan 
gunjon, ' silver coin ' ; arjan melyn, ' gold coin ' ; arjan szxjon, 
' cash ' ; wedi znm'l arjan ne wedi ka:l rei, ' having made money 
or having obtained some ' ; os fy:8 gin ti arjan, paid a i siykjo nu 
n d9 bokkad(Q.H.}, * if you have money do not let it lie by ' ; rhoid 
arjan maur 9n venQig ido vo, ' to lend him a large sum of money ' ; 
may hi m byu ar i harjan, ' she has private means, she lives on her 
own means ' \ ma: gmo vo arjan ar 9 ti:r, ' he has a mortgage on 
the land ' ; newid dn arjan ma:n, ' to change into small coin ' ; 
knilo arjan, sbarjo arjan^ troi arjan heibjo, ' to save money ' ; 
gwarjo arjan, ' to spend money ' ; gwastrafy arjan, ' to squander 
money '. 

arx, s.f., pi. eirx, arch, D., ' coffin '. 

arxol, s.f., pi. arxol/on, archoll, D., ' wound ' : may o wedi tori 
arxol vaur ar i ben (O.K.). [The usual word for ' wound ' is briu.~] 

arxva, s.f., archfa, B.C. 88. 15, 'a bad smell': may na arxva 
dru:g ?n 9 ru:m ma, ' there is a bad smell in this room ' ; daxi y 
klu:ad sr arxva />, ' do you notice the smell ? ' ; riu arxva drom. 

ad, s., archwaeth, D., s.v. ' gustus ' ; ' taste ' in the sense dim 
at vu:yd, * no taste for food '. 

arlais, s., pi. arleif'a, arlais, D., ' temple ' (of the head). 
arloisi \loisi\. 

armal, s.m., armael, O.P. ; S.E. ; armel, S.E., ' the second milk 
at milking time '. Cf. bleinjon, tikkal. 
arnod, s.m., arnodd, D., ' plough-beam '. 



2 2 aron arvar 

aron, s., pi. arons, ' the common guillemot ' (Urea troile). 

aros, v,, aros, D. Fut. S. 3. rhosiB. Pret. rhost's. Imperative, 
aros ; rhosux- (i) 'to stay, stop': aros dn 3 ty: t 'to stop in 
the house ' ; aros tan dy (fy) sadurn, ( to stay until Saturday ' ; wa:y6 
gin i aros nafeidjo, ' it is all the same to me whether I stay or not ' ; 
aros dros 2 no:s, ' to stay overnight '. (2) ' to wait for ' : m aros i r 
deyar gnesy, ' waiting for the earth to get warm ' ; brextan i aros 
pry:d, ' a piece of bread and butter to keep one going till a meal is 
ready ' ; / aros, ' meanwhile ' (Anglo- Welsh : * to wait '). 

ar:s (Eng. ' airs '), s., ' animal spirits ' : laun a:rs. 

arsuyd, s.m., arswyd, D., ' terror ' : ma na i (gin i) arsuyd mynd, 
1 1 am afraid of going ' ; kodi arsuyd ar, ' to terrify ' ; / 0:8 na i 
dim arsuyd ovn, ( I had no fear '. 

arsuydo, v., arswydo, D. (i) ' to be terrified ' : wedi klu:ad rubad 
nes may o n arsuydo. (2) 'to be filled w r ith horror'; kayl i arsuydo 
uB weld riu bamwain. 

arsuydys, adj., arswydus, D., s.v. ' formidolosus ' ; c terrible ' : 
ma: n o:yr arsuydys, ' it is terribly cold ' ; o:d dm be6 arsuydys, ' it 
was terrible '. 

ar6, s.f., pi. eirB, arth, D., ' bear ' : ml r arB wy.lt o r ko:yd (J.J.), 
'like a wild bear out of the wood', i.e. raging. 

arBas, s.f., arthes, D., s.v. 'ursa'; 'a noisy, surly woman, who 
shouts at one' (J.J.). 

arBgi, s.m., arthgi, S.E.*, ' a noisy, surly fellow, who shouts at 
one' : ta:u r he:n arBgi gwirj on (O.H.). 

ar0jo, liarBjo, v., arthio, S.E., ' to shout at, to speak loud and 
gruffly ' = giveibi n hyl a fzrnig (O.H.) ; may o n arBjo arna i; 
paid ag arBjo. 

arBrag, s.f., i. e. arthwraig = arBas \ hem arBrag o hc:n dmas 
(O.K.). 

arujyd, s.m., pi. aruid/on, arwydd, D., ' sign ' : aruy gla:u. 

arva, s.pl., sing, ervyn, arf, pi. arfau, D., ' implements '. 

arvar, s.f., arfer, D., 'habit, custom': modiharvar, 'according 
to their custom ' ; adverbially : may o n huyrax nag arvar, * he is 
later than usual', 

arvar, v., arfer, D., s.v. ' consuesco '. (i) ' to be accustomed, to 
be used (to) ' : r oybim i n arvar kayl vannoft nes ba&in i dgest a 
mynd o yho: (la:s), ' I used to get toothache so badly that it used 
nearly to drive me mad ' ; du i n dexra arvar hevo vo, ' I am be- 
ginning to get accustomed to it '. (2) Transitively : arvar dz hy:n i 
neyl hznny, ' get accustomed to do that ' . (3) ' to use ' : '/ vdani dim 
n arvar z gair 3na, ' we don't use that word'. 



arverjad asgurn 2 3 

arverjad, s.m., arferiad, W.LI. xlii. 98, ' custom ' : hem arverjad, 
'an old custom'. 

arverol, adj., arferol, D., s.v. ' usualis ' ; ' usual ' : vel arverol, ' as 
usual '. 

arvod, s.f., pi. arvoda, arfod, D., 'ictus teli'; 'what is cut by one 
sweep of a scythe reckoned forward ' (cf. gwana) : mi doris i v) 
hy:d ar dair arvod, ' I have cut my length in three strokes ' (so 
said an old man to O.H.); fommar di arvod go ve\an t ' take a 
moderate sized stroke'. 

arwain, v., arwain, D., ' to lead ' (not very frequent, and semi- 
literary, cf. tusy) ; arwain kany, ' to lead singing '. 

arwin, adj., ? gerwin, D., ' terrible ' (as intensifying word) : rhiu 
glc/yan arwin o hy:d (J.J.), ' a terrible clattering continually' (O.H. 
does not know this word). For gerwin, cf. T.N. 222. n, Dyna 
f'yntau 'n troi 'i fontin, tan ddiawlio yn erwin. Also 115. 29; 
137. IS- 

arwinol, adv., Parwynol, W.LI. (voc.),dihafarch. Cf. D. *arwynawl, 
' terrible ' (as intensifying word) : ma: n o:yr arwinol, l it is terribly 
cold '. 

aryBrol, adj., aruthrol, D., 'terrible' (as intensifying word), 
' extremely ' : r o:d m ward pry i fanny aryQrol, ' it was looked upon 
as a terrible disgrace at that time ' ; 9n bivrivol aryOrol, ' extremely 
serious ' ; aryQrol o va:n, ' extremely small ' ; m yu\ i vmy peQ 
aryQrol, ' ever so much higher up '. 

as, er ys, as /alum, ' long ago '. 

asan, s.f., pi. senna, asen, D., ' rib ; rib of a boat or basket ' : dma 
be seviQ at zx senna xi> ' that will set you up ' ; asan vra:n, asan 
vra:s, ' spare rib '. 

asgal, s.f., pi. esgil, asgeti, asgelo8,&sge\l,D. (i) 'wing' (this is 
the common word, cf. adan) : asgal arjan, ' chaffinch ' (Fringilla 
coelebs) pu:ynt\ kdy i esgil, ' to spread the wings ' : fig. 'to put 
on airs of importance, to show off ' ; kodi esil, ' to take wing '. 
(2) ' fin '. (3) asgal 9 korur, ' the beater of a churn '. (4) ' sail ' 
(of a windmill). (5) ' thistle ' (corruption of ' ysgall '). (6) asgal 
3 wyntyL 

asgan, s.f., ? asgen, D., ' noxa, laesio '. (i) 'tendency, natural 
inclination ' : ma na riu asgan mo vo ri'o:d i 8u:n (O.H.), ' he has 
a kind -of natural inclination to steal' (= elvari); asgan gweiQjo, 
'love of work' (I.W.). (2) he:n fy>:n 9m pigo pobol (O.K.). (3) 
hem asgan ydt o, 'he is a tough customer' (I.W.). (4) 'a wiry 
person ' (I.W.). 

asgurn, s.m., pi. esgyrn, asgwrn, D., ' bone ' : dim ond kroyn ar 
dr asgurn^ ' nothing but skin and bone ' ; may i esgyrn dgest tru i 



2 4 asgurn at 

groyn ido vo, 'his bones are almost through his skin, he is like 
a skeleton'; asgurn pen, 'skull'; asgurn ko:yl, 'the bone of 
divination', i.e. 'the shoulder-blade of animals' also of human 
beings (so called, according to E.J., because supposed to indicate 
whether a baby about to be born will be a boy or a girl), esp. ' the 
shoulder-blade of a sheep, formerly placed over the door of a house ' 
(O.H., who, however, was unable to give any clear account of its 
supposed occult powers); r esgyrn zy gustun, referring to the 
hind hip-bones of a cow before calving ; asgurn pssgodyn, ' fish- 
bone ' ; may o n asgurn o dj:n, 'he is a strong man ' ; mzn ar asgurn!, 
asseveration ; may o wedi kayl asgurn i gravy arno n van na, said 
of some one who has married a worthless wife, or has gone to live 
in some poor position. 

afad, s., asiad, D., s.v. ' ferrumen ' ; ' a join '. 

af'o, v., asio, D., s.v. ' ferrumino ' ; ' to join '. 

at, prep., at. With pronouns S. i. atta i, 2. *attat(f), 3. atto 
(TO), atti (hi). PI. i. -atton(i), 2. -attox(i), 'aita\(i), 3. 'attyn(u). 
Takes the vocalic mutation, i. 'to, towards': "denotes prox- 
imity, but not entrance ; hence it is used before persons ; and 
also before places and things, when entrance into them is not 
implied : ' i ' = ' to ', ' into ', denotes motion towards a place or object, 
into which an entrance is made." " 'At' is opposed to ' oddi wrth ' ; 
4 i ' is opposed to ' o ' " (Rowlands, 'Welsh Grammar', 4 ed., pp. 213, 
2 1 4, 7 36). mynd i r gwcly, ' to go to bed ' ; my ml at y gwely, ' to go 
to the bed ' ; mynd i r trcn, ' to get into the train ' ; mynd at ? trcn, 
' to go to the train ' ; mynd i r mo:r, ' to go to sea ' ; mynd at J mo:r , 
' to go to the sea ' ; mynd i r dre:, mynd at adre\, ' to go to the town ' ; 
d0ux ?mma at ? ta:n, ' come here to the fire ' ; mieifim nc:s atto vo, ' I 
went nearer him ' ; krtsbas wlanan nesa at 9 kroyn, ' a flannel shirt 
next the skin ' ; troi 3 dicr at i velin i hy:n, ' to turn the water to 
one's own mill ', i.e. ' to turn something to one's own advantage'; mi 
a:nu at i gihb ctio, ' they will make it up again '; kreybux at d tattus, 
' reach to the potatoes', i.e. 'have some ' ; hel at i gtlib, ' to shrink up, 
to huddle together ' ; kayl ? daj' pen limn at i gilib ' to make two 
ends meet ' ; rhaid i xi gayl megin atto vo, ' you must get a pair of 
bellows to it '. 

2. ' against a certain time, by ' : hurax mi a:u i godi at y 
pnaun, 'perhaps it will clear up by the afternoon'. 

3. ' for, as a provision for ' : da\i if'o Ki:g at 2 sy:l? t ' do you 
want meat for Sunday ? ' 

4. ' for, for the purpose of, in the interests of, as a remedy for ' : 
dim mforty'o su:lt at rubaQ, ' not being able to afford a shilling for 
something ' ; ka:l pc:B at vyu, ' to get something to live upon ' ; 
rhoid arjan at axos da, ' to give money for a good cause ' ; may 
sn lyndan vc&gtnjaO at bo:b pe:0 ond rhak hiraB, ' in London there is 
a remedy for everything except for longing '. 



at attal 25 

5. ' about, round about, towards' : hogyn at v o:yd i, ' a boy 
of about my age ' ; hogyn at i vaint o, ' a boy of about his size ' ; 
at glaygeya, 'about, towards the thirteenth of November'. Simi- 
larly, kodi at 3 tattus, ' to earth up potatoes '. 

6. ' up to, as far as ', generally preceded by d (hy:d) : dani 
wedi ka:yl terwyft da: d at hyn, ' we have had fine weather so far ' ; 
may o y koxi (d) at i gh'sfja, ' he is blushing to the roots of his 
hair ', lit. ' to his ears ' ; mi b\iB <? t0wy ma at 9 kro:yn, ' this 
weather wets to the skin ' ; r o:d zr eira n du:ad at gorn 3 guftu, 
' the snow was up to the neck '. 

7. preceded by ty: ag, ' towards, with regard to ' : wedi grieyd 
9 yora ty: ag atto vo, ' having done my best for it '. 

8. after certain verbs, as d^xry?i a ^ <to ^ e frightened at'; 
kovjo at, ' to remember (somebody) to ' ; sgwenny at, ' to write to ' ; 
smny at, ' to be astonished at '. 

atcbjad, s.m., atebiad, S.E.*, 'answer': toys na dim atcbjad, 
1 there is no answer ', e.g. to a note. 

atebol, adj., atebol, S.E., 'answerable': atebol drosto i hy:n, 
' answerable for himself. Cf. tebol. 

a /gas, adj., atgas, D., s.v. ' execrabilis ' ; ' hateful, execrable ' : 
ma: n atgas gin i, ' I can't bear him ' ; may n taro n afgas, ' it 
strikes (the ear) most unpleasantly ' ; gweiQrad atgas ; su:n atgas ; 
sunjo n afgas ; in a milder sense, ' sharp ' : 3n atgas yn i appad ; 
nt o:d turna him a him m atgas P tro: atgas, 'an unpleasant 
experience ', e. g. 'a disappointment ' : we!, syt ma: hi, vaxgan ? 
wel, well's i rotfun be:6, mi gc:s dro: atgas (O.H.). 

atgo, s., atgof, D., s.v. ' recordatio ' ; ' remembrance ' : may 
hdnny braib m atgo gin i ; may gin i riu atgo am dano vo, 'I have 
a slight remembrance of it '. 

atgofa, v. tr., atgorTa, D., s.v. ' recordor ' ; 'to recall to mind': 
atgof a he:n be&a ; atgofa hdnny 280 vo, ' to remind him of this ' . 

atgovjo, v. intr., atgofio, D., s.v. ' reminiscor ' ; 'to recall to 
mind ' : 8ary mi atgovjo, ' it came back to my mind '. 

atfad, atfas, in exp. mynd i u atfad o, ' to come full upon him 
suddenly ' ; mi eis an injon i u atfas o 3n nru:s 9 kappal. 

attab ; appad (O.H. always), v., atteb, D. Fut. S. i. teba, 2. tebi, 
3. tebiB, etc. Imp. tebun. Pret. tebis. No pi. Imperatives//^/ 
tebux, ' to answer ' : 6eba vo dim, ' he would not answer ' ; / 9di 
o dim zn sa:l, dary o v attab i, ' he is not ill, he answered me ' ; 
attab 9 diban, ' to answer the purpose ' ; r o:d 3 pe6a n attab i gilift 
3n jaun, ' the articles suited admirably, fitted in nicely ' - } karag 
attab, ' echo '. 

attab, appad, s.m., pi. atebjon, atteb, D., 'answer'. 

attal, v., attal, D., ' to impede, hold back ' : / o:ys gmo vo dm 



2 6 aital avluyft 

daint i attal i davod, ' he always speaks out, says what would be 
better left unsaid ' (rarely used except in this phrase). 

attal, s., attal, D., 'impediment': ?nay attal deyd arno vo, 'he 
stammers '. 

audyrdod, s.f., pi. audyrdoda, awdurdod, D., s.v. ' auctoritas ' ; 
' authority ' ; r audyrdoda, ' the authorities '. 

auilyrdodol, adj., awdurdodol, T.N. 243. 24, ' authoritative, 

dictatorial '. 

at/X, s.m., awch, D., ' sharp appetite, eager desire' : ma: d an\ 
m vaur am vir.yd, ' you have a sharp appetite '. 

aur, s.f., pi. orj'a, awr, D., c hour ' : ma: r dy:$ m mzstyn aur 
erbyn kanol jonaiir, ' the days are an hour longer by the middle of 
January ' ; xzcw/^r aur, hannar aur, ' a quarter of an hour, half 
an hour ' ; hannar aur wcdi day, ' half past two ' (but x war ^ ar wedi 
day] ; aur a hannar, ' an hour and a half ; gwaiB aur^ ' an hour's 
work, an hour's walk '. 

aust, s.m., Awst, D., ' August '. 

avjax, adj., afiach, D., s.v. ' insalubris ' : ' unhealthy, unwhole- 
some, sickly ' : /mvyd avfax, ' unhealthy weather ' ; baxgan avjax 0:8 
n yrvo.yd, ' he was always a sickly youth '. 

avjaQ, s., afiaith, D., ' lightness of heart' : sy dayi heityu ? du in 
v? avjaQ, i. e. du i wedi kayl bayx o: ar 2 ghevn (O.H.) ; mi Seydis 
i hmnv an va avjciO, ' I said that in the lightness of my heart ' 
(O.H.). 

avje\id, s.m., afiechyd, D., ' unhealthiness, disease ' : avje\id ar 
len gli:n, * a disease on the knee '. 

avlan, adj., aflan, D., s.v. ' spurcus ' ; 'unclean'. (Scarcely col- 
loquial but cf. gavr.) 

avlavar, adj., aflafar, D. (i) 'unseemly of speech ': riu he:n 
sgurs avlavar (O.H.). (2) 'discordant ' : sn:n avlavar,lais avlavar. 

avlaivan, adj., aflawen, D., s.v. ' illaetabilis '. (i) 'peevish, 
cantankerous'. (2) 'extremely ' : an o:yr avlawan (I.W.). 

avlonyb, adj., aflonydd, D., s.v. ' inquietus ' ; ' restless, fidgety ' : 
krjadyr, plenty n, tmmar avlony. 

avlonsfy, v., aflonyddu, D., s.v. ' inquieto ' ; ' to disturb ' : du i n 
du:ad i avlons&y 'ar?ioxi, ' I am coming to disturb you '. 

avhiyb, s., aflwydd, D. (i) 'bad luck' : r 0:8 ar avhiyft gmont 
heidjit (E.J.), 'we had bad luck to-day'. (2) ' defect, drawback, 
imperfection': ma na riu avluyft arno vo (J.J.), 'there is some 
imperfection in it'; ma: ba:u (= xwyn} m avhiyb (JJ.)> 'weeds 
are a drawback, imperfection '. (3) as expletive : be avluyb sy dno 
vo, du:x? (E.J.), ' I wonder what on earth is the matter with it ' ; 



avol awan 2 7 

so, be avluy sy 'arna\i V Similarly riu he:n gerig 3n avluyb o 
vydyr ; tattus dn avluyb o va:u ; zr y:d m av/uyd o dsgal a xwyn 
(all O.K.). 

avol, s.m., pi. vala, afol, D., ' apple ' : vala sir/on, ' crab-apples ' ; 
vala pe:r, ' apples, as distinguished from crab-apples ' ; avol ko:\ 
9 baxgan (?y go.'X i gi:d drosto, melys\ E.J. ; avol kro.yn ar hu:x, 
'russet'; avol xweru (J.J.), f bitter-sweet '(?); avol pi:g 9 glomman 
(O.H.), term applied to apples with an excrescence at the stalk ; 
avol 9 ro: (so called from Ro Wen), O.H. ; avol dcru, i oak-apple' ; 
kb'ydan vala, ' apple-tree ' ; koydan vala sir/on, ' crab-apple tree ' ; 
diykod avol, ' pips of an apple ' ; plikjo avol, ' to peel an apple ' ; 
ma: r avol wedi gleif'o, ' the apple is bruised, rotten ' ; te:u vel 
avol, ' as fat as a dumpling ' ; -vedruxi fa'm ka:l zx a7j ol i xivara a:g 
i vyita (prov.), ' you can't eat your cake and have it ' ; ma r jeir dy 
kluydo r y: va:B a vala ar bren (E.J.), ' the hens are roosting like 
apples on a tree ' ; kodi vala du:r, ' the game of extracting apples 
from water with the teeth '. 

avon, s.f., pi. avonyS, afon, D., ' river ' : avon bolennog, ' a winding 
river ' ; glan dr avon, ' the bank of a river ' ; mi:n dr avon, ' the 
brink of the river ' ; mynd i nod du:r tros avon (prov.), ' to go 
a long way for something which can be got close at hand '. 

avrad, adj., afraid (?), * wasteful '. Only in the popular rime 
by:m 3m byu dy gmnil gmnil \ a:Q y:n bavad i mi n Suivil \ Irois 
i vyu m avrad avrad \ a:6 9 uivil 9n y:n 8avad. The word seems 
to be used in the same sense in C.C. 188. 23, Nadiafraid ieungctid 
hala Bol mewn henaint i gardotta. Cf. afradlon, ' prodigal '. 

avriolab, adj., afreolaidd, S.E., ' irregular ' : 3 galon m mynd m 
avriolab (O.H.). 

avriolys, adj., afreolus, D., s.v. ' perbacchor ' ; ' unruly ' : plant 
avriolys, ' unruly children ' ; Kefyl avriolys ; byu dn avriolys, ' to 
live a dissolute life '. 

avrosgo, adj., amrosgo, D., * clumsy, unwieldy ' : dy:n avrosgo, 
' a hulking fellow ' ; pe:6 maur avrosgo, ' a great, clumsy thing ' ; 
Kerbad m avrosgo. 

avr0ujog, adj., afrywiog, D., s.v. ' contumax ' ; ' churlish, crusty, 
harsh, unpleasant ' : tammar (tempar) avr0ujog, ' a churlish temper ' ; 
t0wy avr0ujog. > ' cold, stormy weather ' ; going avrmijog, ' a churlish, 
unattractive appearance '. 

aiual, s.f., pi. awelon, awel, D., ' breeze ' : ma na awal da: o wynt 
heiftju, ' there is a good breeze to-day ' ; awalgalad, ' a stiff breeze ' ; 
awal wnynlyd, ' a biting wind ' ; kalyn po:b awal o wynt (fig.), ' to 
trim one's sails to every breeze '. 

awan, s.f., pi. (a)wenna, awen, D., ' bridle-rein '. In the general 
sense of ' reins ' only in such stereotyped expressions as may 



2 8 awy bagatf 

r awcnna n dd la:u di, ' the reins are in your hand ', i. e. ' you have 
the upper hand '. [The usual word is re:ns.~\ 

awyd, s.m., awydd, D., ' desire ' : heb awyd gneyd dim, ' no desire 
to do anything '. 

awjyfy's, adj., awyddus, D., * eager, anxious '. 

awyr, s., awyr, D. (i) m. ' air ' : r awyr agorad, * the open air '. 
(2) f. ' sky ' : r awyr la:s, ' the blue sky ' ; awyr go:x, ' red sky ' ; 
trayQ awyr, ' a formation of clouds like ribbed sand when the tide 
is out '. 



ay/, s.f., pi. eilja, ael, D., ' brow ' : peidjux a Ki'xjo X cilj a arna i, 
' don't frown at me ' ; kufjo nes o:d o n wayd dr ay I, ' to fight 
till his forehead was covered with blood' (I.W.); i ge:g o n wayd 
W a:yl (O.H.) ; a:yl 9 bryn, ' brow of the hill '. 

ayr, s.m., aur, D., 'gold' : nid ayr po:l> pe:B melyn (prov.), ' all is 
not gold that glitters '. 

ayr, s.m., pi. cyrod, aer, W.LI. ii. 9 ; B.C. 97. 14, ' heir'. 
ayr, s.m., aer, C.C. 396. 18, ' air ' : tan r ayr, 'in the open air'; 
mynd am ncwid ayr, ' to go for a change of air '. 



labiy s.m., pi. babis, babi, C.C.M. 197. 21, 'baby'. 

ladlan, s.f., in such phrases as >9 gin i r y:n ladlan go:x 9 delyn, 
' I haven't a brass farthing ' ; mi wart's i bo:b badlan go:x (O.H.) ; 
du i n meindjo r y:n ladlan -arnati, ' I don't care a button for 
you '. 

bag, s.m., pi. bagja, ' bag '. 

lagal, s.f., pi. bagla, bagl, D. (i) 'crutch': mynd uQ i vagla, 
( to go on crutches '. (2) ' handle ' : bagalfon, zmba'rel, rha:u,forx, 
'handle of a stick, umbrella, spade, fork' (in this sense Sometimes 
m. bagal manr, O.K.). (3) ' drawback ' : vy&m vagal garu (aru) 
\rrnati, 'it will be a great drawback to you'. (4) m. in slate 
quarries, ' a corner at the entrance of each shed (gwal) where long 
slabs of slate (kbtja day hy:d, etc.) are placed, ready to be divided 
into the proper lengths ' [gwal\. 

bagal [magal^. 

bagaldjo, v., bragaldio, S.E.* ; cf. bagaldio, M.F., ' to prattle, 
babble '. Said of children who are just beginning to talk, or of 
grown-up people who talk in an incoherent fashion'. Also 
bagaldjo farad. 

bagalf, s. (i) 'portable property' (in disparaging sense), 'lumber' 



lag j ad ba:x 29 

= hem dakla, hel d3 vagatfafur a ti:. (2) as a term of reproach : 
he:n vagatf o bobol -ddynu. 

bagjad, s.m., pi. bageidja, * bagful '. 

baglan, s.f., baglan, S.E.*= bagal in the sense of crutch. Also 
' a snare ' : baglan i Sal gwm'yan (O.H.) = magal. 

bagly, magly, v., maglu, D. (i) ' to catch' (of the foot) : bagly 
d tro:yd meun rubaB ; magly 9 tra:yd 9n i gilib ; also abs. mi vaglis. 

(2) 'to stumble': magly ud drawo 3 tro:yd u6 garag; trans, 'to 
cause to stumble ' : mi vagloS dreynan vi. (3) ' to snare '. 

bat, s.m., pi. beta, bai, D. (i) ' fault ' : arno'xi: ma r bat, l it's 
your fault ' ; heb i vat heb i eni (prov.), ' no one is without his 
faults ' ; 'r oybati ar vai^ ' you were at fault ' ; may r bai n sevyl ar 
i rhieni, ' their parents are to blame ' ; gweld bat, * to find fault ' ; 
ma nu y gweld bai 'arnoni os nauni durdjo nu, ' they take it amiss 
if we scold them ' ; y kzdral zy gweld bat ar bexod (prov.), ' the pot 
called the kettle black ' ; so also hel beta, kodi beta ; sarQjo ar i vat, 
' to acknowledge one's fault '. (2) ' blame ' (Anglo- Welsh ' fault ') : 
d-vo: sy y ka:l 9 bai, ' he gets the blame ' ; rhoi bai ar, ' to blame '. 

(3) ' defect, blemish '. 

bakjo; dag/o (O.H.), v., bacio, T.N. 474. 4, 'to back' (said 
to horses) : bakja / ' back ! ' (bag, O.H.). 

bakko, s.m., ' tobacco ' : dgo.y o vakko 9y yhi:l i vo:x, ' a plug of 
tobacco in his cheek ' ; bakko main, ( twist ' ; bakko rega'reg, ' plug 
tobacco ' (W.H. App. not known at Llanfairfechan = bakko 
kalad} ; blu.'x, purs, puff bakko, ' tobacco-pouch '. 

bakkun, s.m., bacwn, G.C. 128. 18 ; backwn twrch, W.S.; baccwn, 
D. ; Mid. Eng. bacoun, ' bacon ' = bekn, Ki:g mo:\. 

bakstandjo, v., ' to scold ' : paid a bakstandjo n wirjon ; mi ge:s 
v? makstandjo n aru. 

bakstreljo, v., ' to scold '. 

bakfa, s.pl., sing, baksan, f., bacseu, D. (i) ' a footless stocking ' : 
klokf'a a bakfa, ' clogs and footless stockings ' ; also, ' the legs of 
a stocking worn outside the boots in order to walk on ice*. (2) 
' any old, worn-out stocking ' : / o.ys na im ond he:n vakf'a am 
i dra:yd o, ' he has nothing but old stockings on his feet * ; kadu 
arjan meun riu he:n vaksan, ' to keep money in some old stocking ' 
(cf. T.N. 22. 35); dimy:n baksan beni (O.H.), 'not a farthing'. 

bakf'og) adj., applied to horses and fowls which have long hair 
round the feet : Kefyl bakfog, jeir bakfog. 

ba:x (rarely shortened as hynna bax / ' so little as that ! '), bach, D., 
adj., comp. lai, eq. leiad, li:ad, sup. leia, li:a. The radical is nearly 
always used after fern, nouns, (i) 'little 7 : hogyn, hogan ba:x, 
' little boy, girl ' ; tippin ba:x, l a little bit ' ; may pe:6 ba:x an dibany 



30 la:x baxy 

hi, ' a little thing comforts her ' ; gweitjux am vynyd ba:x, ' wait a 
moment' ; hynna ba:x o amsar daxi y gad /, 'is that all the time 
you get ? ' ; dy:n b*\an ba:x te:u t ' a tiny little fat man '. (2) term of 
endearment frequently used with proper names. (3) implying 
eulogy : le: ba:x divir, ' a nice place ' ; dy:n ba:x klu:s ddi o, ' he is 
a nice little man ' ; ddnas ba:x Be/, ' a nice little woman ' ; gu:r bnebtg 
ba:x rhadlon, l a pleasant-spoken gentleman '. (4) implying pity : 
kradyr ba:x /, ' poor fellow ! ' ; peB ba:x /, ' poor little thing ! ' (5) 
implying contempt : welis i ri'o:yd by:n ba:x mor 'a'nivir a vo: /, ' I 
never saw such a disagreeable man'; he:n walx ba:\ /, ' you rascal !' 
(e.g. to a dog). 

ba:x, s.m., pi. ba\a, bach, D., 'hook ' : ba:x a do/an, ' hook and 
eye ' ; ba:\ sgidja, ' button-hook ' ; ba:x klikjad, ' the hook which 
holds the latch of a door ' ; stry.d va\a (J.J. ; O.H.), ' stilts ' ; cf. D., 
s.v ' grallae ', tudfachau, ystudfachau ; ba\a i fosgolta, ' fish-hooks ' ; 
rlwux z kroxon ar 3 ba:x, ' put the pot on the hook '. Used of the 
hands : ?nedy kadu i vaxa dn tonyS, ' to pilfer ' may i la:u m 
vlezuog, may o n ladroni. 

baxal, s., bachell, D.F. [91] 16 : in laxal vorduyd, ' hollow of the 
thigh' (J.J.) (the usual word is Kesal vorduyd] and baxal asguyS, 
' the hollow between the shoulder-blades '. This word is a diminu- 
tive of ' bach ', ' a hollow ' ; cf. the place-name 3 va:x at Llandudno, 
now called ' The Happy Valley '. 

baxg an , s - m -? pl- bexgin, bachgen, D., ' boy ' (more often hogyn) : 
baxgan ivayk, ' a young fellow ' ; maxgan 2] l my boy !, my lad ! '. 
Cf. axan / 

baxgennyn, s.m., ' bachgennyn ', D., s.v. ' puellus ' ; ' a little boy '. 

baxjad, s.m., pi. baxjada, bachiad, D., s.v. 'anfractus ', ' flexura '. 
(i) ' sheep's ear-mark' [no.'d^. (2) ' a certain flaw in slate ' : ' Mae 
rhyw fachiadau yn ochrau rhai o'r cerrig (clytiau) ; gan hynny mae 
yn gorfod marcio yr hollt yn yr ochr lie mae y bachiadau er mwyn 
ei chael ar ei hyd ' (JJ.) 'faults in the sides of the blocks'. 
(3) ' a bite ' (in fishing ) (I.W.). (4) ' a job ' : ge:sti vaxjad?, ' have 
you got a job ? ' 



og, adj., bachog, D. ; ' grasping ' : dy:n baxog am vaxy * kubul 
280 i hy:n. 



, s.m., bachwr, S.E., ' one who " buckles to", who works with 
energy and persistence ' : may o n eiQa baxur, ' he is a very good 
workman' (O.K.). 

baxy, v., bachu, D., ' to hook, catch ' : ma: mhokkad wedi baxy, 
' my pocket has caught ' ; r 0:8 briga r ko:yd 3m baxy 'arnoni, ' the 
twigs kept catching in our clothes '. Applied to harnessing a horse : 
amsar baxy, ' the time the horses are harnessed for work in the 
fields ' ; pry:d dary xi 



baldary:o bar a 3 1 

baldary:o, v.; cf. baldarddu, R., 'to talk nonsense'. Also 
paldary:o (O.K.). 

balir, s.m., pi. balir a, = baril, ' barrel'. 

balx, adj., balch, D. (i) 'proud ' : wedi gwisgo n valx, said of 
the sole of a boot which has worn through in the middle (O.H ) ; 
Kin valxad a "lusifar, Kin valxad a siygo (O.H.). (2) ' glad ' : r idu 
i n va/x bo \i n wel, ( I am glad you are better ' ; r oyftun i Kin 
valxad o hono a tasun i wedi ka:yl lyux a lo:, ' I was as glad of it as 
if 1 had got a cow and a calf (E.J.). 

balxtar, balxtra, s.m., balchder, D. (i) 'pride': r he:n valxlar 
hyl na, ' that unpleasant kind of pride '. (2) ' joy, gladness ' : sboykjo 
o valxtra, ' to leap for joy '. 

bal'xi-'o, v., balchio, D., ' to be proud ' : paid a bal'xi-'o dim, ' don't 
be stuck up about it '. 

balog, s.f., pi. balogjon, balog, D., 'perizoma'; 'the flap of the 
breeches ' : du i wedi koli botium ar d valog ; kqy dz valog. 

banadl, s.m., banadl, D., ' broom ' (Cytisus scoparius). 

bannog, adj., bannog, D., ' notatus, notabilis', in morgaQ vannog, 
' spotted ray ' (Raia maculata). 

bant, s., mant, D., 'maxilla ' : only in bant gey ad, ' close ', in the 
sense of keeping silent about something : may nu n Sigon bant 
geyad hevo rubaQ -Uikjanu (I.W.), ' they can keep their mouths 
closed well enough when they like '. 

bant, s,, 'band': bant 3 glo:s (O.H.), 'band at the top of the 
breeches '. 

banu r adj., pi. beinu (JJ. ; O.H.), banw, W.S.; banyw, D. ; female ' : 
ka:B vanu, marljod beinu. 

baygljo [maygljo]. 

baygor, Bangor. 

bar, s.m., pi. barja, barr, I.D. xxix. 9 : ' bar, bolt '. 

bar a, s.m., bara, D., ' bread ' : bar a kaus (xaus], ' bread and 
cheese ' ; bara menyn (= brextan), ' bread and butter ' ; du:y o vara 
menyn, ' two pieces of bread and butter ' ; bara sy:x, ' dry bread ' ; 
bara fres, ' new bread ' ; he:n vara, ' stale bread ' ; bara bru:d, 
' bread fresh from the oven ' ; bara pryn, ' bought bread ' ; taval 
o vara, ' a slice of bread ' ; furud o vara, ' scraps of bread ' = bara 
ma:n ; y:n o r bara, ' one of the loaves of a baking ', so saiQ o vara, 
' a batch of seven loaves '. See also briuf'on, KilKin, Jtluf, krub, 
hrsstyn, muidjon, tor 6, etc. Sorts of bread : bara ammyd, see 
ammyd\ bara bri:6, ' currant loaf ; bara dan badal, ' bread baked 
in an oven with a pan over it', 'pan loaf; bara day vlaud, 
' bread made of wheat and barley ' ; bara gweniQ, gwyn, ' wheaten 



3 2 bar a barig 

bread, white bread ' ; bara haib, ' barley bread ' ; bara kan, ' white 
bread ' ; bara kanQn'g = bara day vlaud ; bara Keirx, ' oatcake ' ; 
bara Half, ' bread badly risen, unwholesome, doughy, heavy bread * ; 
bara ko:x = bara haib ; bara kri:, ' bread made without barm ' 
usually cut into square pieces and practically the same as pastry; bara 
ksmmysg = bara day vlaud ; bara levan, ' bread made with a sponge 
or lump of dough left over from the last baking ' (in common use 
fifty years ago, J.J.) ; bara peiljad, ' a kind of cake like a muffin 
made on a frying-pan ' ; bara radal, ' bread baked on a griddle 
on a peat fire with a pan over it and the whole covered with peat ' ; 
bara rhityon, ' bread made from wheat flour mixed with bran ' ; 
bara rhsnjon, { bread made of oats cleared of the husks ' ; bara 
syrgeirx, ' bread made, like lightcakes, of wheat or barley mixed 
with oatmeal and barm added 5 (JJ.). 

bara, v., 'it is barred, forbidden'; bara sdm (in playing marbles), 
' moving is forbidden ' (I.W.) ; bara Kiks, ' another go is forbidden' 
(I.W.) ; bara dokkyn \tokkyn\. 

barbar, barbur, s.m., barbwr, I.G. no [55], 'barber '. 

barbro, v., ( to do the work of a barber' ; ' to dock trees ' (I.W.). 

bar dun = mar dun (J.J.). 

barb, s.m., pi. leirb t bardd, D., ' poet ; : barb talkan slip, ' a 
sorry rimester '. 

barbonjaQ, s.f., barddoniaeth, D., ' poetry '. 

bargan, s.f., pi. bargemjon, bargen, D., D.G. clvi. 6 ; pi. bar- 
geinion, B.C. 146. 22, ' bargain', esp. a ' bargain in a slate quarry', 
i.e. 'a part of the rock, generally seven or eight yards wide, let 
on special terms to three men, who are called kriu bargan '. 

bargeinjo, v. bargeinio, D., s.v. ' depaciscor'; ' to come to terms, 
to settle a bargain ' : daxi wedi bargcinjo ? na: do: wi:r, ma na 
Xweigjan 'rhsyQoni. 

bargod, s.f., pi. bargodjon, bargoda, bargod, D., 'eaves': ma: r 
vargod m dweryd, ' the eaves are dripping ' ; du:r bargod, ' water 
from the roof ; may hi n rhewi n rh0ujog, ag ma: n h'xjo lyu\ m yu\ 
na r vargod (E.J.), ' it is freezing hard, and the snow is drifting above 
the eaves ' (an alliterative saying). 

bargodi, v., bargodi, S.E., ' to project, overhang ', e.g. of slates or 
the covering of a haystack. 

barig, s.m., barrug, D., ' hoar-frost ' : ma: r barig ay gen gwyn ar 
9 deyar, ' hoar-frost is a white film on the ground ' ; r qy:b po:b man 
dn wyn o varig, 'everything was white with frost'; ma: rniulzykodi 
o:d ar 3 barig, ' the mist is rising from the frosty ground '. Cf. rhe:u. 



baril I as gad 33 

baril, s.m., pi. barila, baril, D. ; D.G. Ixxiv. 41; O.F. baril, 
' barrel '. Also balir. 

barjaS, s.m., bariaeth, D., ' greediness '. 

barjo, v., barrio, M.LI. i. 186. 32, ' to lock, bolt' : may gmo vo 
gorjad i vynd 9n i bokkad ond i ni beidjo varjo vo o&veun, 'he has a 
key to go in his pocket as long as we don't lock it (the door) inside'. 

barkar, s.m., barcer, D., s.v. ' coriarius '; Acts ix. 43, ' barker '. 

barKid, s.m., barcut, D., < kite ' (but according to Forrest this 
word is always used in North Wales for the common buzzard, 
Buteo vulgaris) : mi 8o:Q o vel barKid ar giu, ' he came suddenly, 
unexpectedly ' ; also disgin vel barKid ar giu ; barKid gwynt, 
' kite ' (artificial) : fleio barKid, to fly a kite '. 

barkjo, v. ' to strip off bark, to do the work of a barker '. 

barklod, s.m., pi. barklodja, barclod, C.L.C. ii. 21. n; Eng. 
barm-cloth ; * apron '. 

barklodjad, s., barclodaid, S.E., ' apronful '. 
barkly, s.m., ' tan-house, barkery '. 

barkyttan, s.f., barcutan, D.G. ciii. 10, 'kite' (but see barKid}; 
barkyttan bappyr, ' kite ' (artificial). 

barn, s.f., barn, D., ' judgment, opinion ' : 9 varn g0wir, ' the 
just judgment'; rhoi barn ar, ' to judge of ; m o:l marn i:, ' in 
my opinion ' ; daxi o r y:n varn a vi: ?, ' are you of the same opinion 
as I ? ' ; / ^danu Sim o r y:n varn ar 9 pe:B, ' they are not of the 
same opinion about the matter '. 

barrieifo, v., barneisio, W.S., ' to varnish '. 

barnis, bernis, s., bernais, H.S. 20. 14 ; barnais, D.G. Ixxvi. 25 ; 
D., s.v. ' encaustum '; ' varnish ' (O.H.). 

barny, v., barnu, D., ' to judge ' : barny m dmar, galad, ' to judge 
kindly, harshly '. 

barv, s.f., pi. barva, barf, D., ' beard ' : tori barv, ' to shave ' 
(seldom used =fevjo) ; barv ka:B, ' whiskers of a cat ' ; barv deru 
(J.J.), ' a kind of lichen growing on oak-trees ' ; barv mo.r, ' a kind 
of seaweed ' (Desmarestia). 

barvog, adj., barfog, D., ' bearded '. 

darys, adj., barus, D., ' greedy ' : plentyn barys. When used with 
ka:B the word implies a tendency to steal ; anival barys, ' an animal 
which is perpetually wandering from field to field ' (J.J.). 

ba:Sj adj., ' bass ' : lais ba:s. 

basgad, s.f., pi. basgedi, basket, W.S. ; basged, D., 'basket': 
gwrdbyn basgad, ' the handle of a basket ' ; gweylod, ti:n basgad, 
( the bottom of a basket ' ; senna basgad, ' the ribs of a basket ' ; 
gwaiB basgad, ' wicker-work '. 

1*32 D 



34 basedjad bawad 

basgedjad, s.f., pi. basg^deidja, basgedaid, S.E., ' basketful '. 

basn, s.m., pi. basns, ' basin '. 

bastart, s., pi. bastardjad, bastart, S.G. 377. n ; bastardd, D. 

(1) ' bastard ' : bastart my. -I, pi. bastardjad milod, ' mule '. Cf. T.N. 
94. 30. (2) in slate quarries ' a kind of slate which is a mixture 
of pure slate and granite, and which does not admit of being split 
finely, but is often used for cheap roofing '. There are two varieties, 
bastart galad and bastart rvujog, ' hard and soft greys '. 

batjOj v., ' to use a mattock ' (JJ.). 

bail, s.f., pi. batelob (O.H.), bateil, S.G. 113. 25; battel, W.S. ; 

pi. batteloedd, I.G. 216. [52], < battle '. 

baltog, s.f., pi. batoga, ' mattock ' (JJ. ; O.H.). JJ. distinguished 
between battog, kaib, and ho:v. 

ba:6, s., a by-form of ma:6 used only in phrases like : welts i rro:yd 
mo i ba:6, ' I never saw the like of her ' ; heb i ba:6, ( unequalled ' 
(fern.). Also in pi. 'wdsoxi ri'o:yd hogja o i ba&a nu ?, ' did you 
ever see such boys ? ' 

ba:u, s.m., baw, D. (i) ' dung ' : ba:u devaid, gwar&ag, luynog, 
etc. ; y:n ba:uja:r a r Lai ba:u dcryn, ' six of one and half a dozen 
of the other ' ; ry:$ o mo i va:u i r Ki: wel gmo vo roid d garag 
arno vo, said of a very niggardly person. (2) ' mud ' : ma: ho:yl 
?X trayd ?n d ba:u, ' there are marks of your feet in the mud ' ; tai 
ba:u, ' mud houses'. (3) * dirt, rubbish ', e.g. in quarries = rubal, 
sburjal ; karjo ba:u, i to cart away rubbish '. (4) ' weeds ' = x^jyn. 
(5) vcdra i rieyd dim ba:u o hono vo, ' I can make nothing of it '. 

baud, s.m.f., pi. bodja, baw^d, D. (i) ' thumb, great toe': baud 
maur ; day, du:y vaud ; rhoi kick ar 9 maud, ' to snap my fingers ' ; 
/ ei di vyQ yu\'la:u baud s0udul ; V9i di byB yux baud na s0udul, 
' you will never get on in the world ' (cf. G.O. ii. 92. 5) ; hevo 
bysabaud, ' with finger and thumb ' ; kadu da vodja, ' do not pick 
and steal ' ; byu o r vaud i r gena, ' to live from hand to mouth '. 

(2) ' claw ' (of a crab) : bodja kraykod. (3) ' in slate quarries bodja 
(?a.y6) are certain flaws which, when the slate is split, have the shape 
of thumb-marks and the colour of milk ' (J J.). Cf. smolja la:yB (the 
former affect the splitting and the latter do not). (4) in slate quarries 
the term bodja is also applied to the projections to which the ropes 
are attached which support a burb or hanging scaffold. 

baujax, s.m., bawach, S.E., ' a worthless fellow ' : he:n vaujax 
garu adi o. 

bawa, v., bawa, S.E., 'cacare'. Cf. ba:u (i). 

bawad, s.f, pi. baweidja, mawaid, D., ' llonaid dwy law', (i) 
' handful ' : d0rux i mi vawad o hono vo., ' give me a handful of it ' ; 
du:y vawad, ' as much as can be held in both hands '. (2) ' as far 



bawaft leintin 35 

as can be reached between finger and thumb in the game at 
marbles called xyoara triQuV (W.H.). 

bawaft, adj., bawaidd, G.O. i. 162. 3, ' sordid, stingy '. 

bay, s.m., ' bay ' (of the sea). 

bay ft, s.m., baedd, D., ' boar ' : danvon 3r hu:x at 9 bayft ; mi 
godis 3 ywr^xyn vel bayft kmfteirjog (J.J.), ' I bristled up like a mad 
boar'; bayft gwy.lt (J.J., O.H.), ' wild boar '; vel bayft gwydt o r 
koyd (].].),< raging'. (Cf. ar6.) 

bayXy s.m., pi. beixja, baich, D. ; bauch, M.LI. ii. 40. 32 ; 109. 
14 ; baych, W.LI. Ixxvi. 42 ; Ixxvii. 29. 32 ; cf. G.R. 27. i, 'a load, 
burden ' : bayx maur o brikja, ' a heavy load of firewood '. Also fig. 
may hi wedi my nd m vayx arno vo, ( it has become a burden to him '. 

bays, adj. ; comp. beysax, bais, D., ' vadatio ' ; bas, ' non pro- 
fundus ' ; ' shallow ' : du:r bays, ' shallow water '. 

be: [6e:0]. 

bed, s., pi. bedja, ' bed (in slate quarries) '. 

bedlan, s.m., in phrase ar hy:d d bedlan, ' all the time ' ; may o n 
sunjan am i suppar ar hy:d 3 bedlan, ' he keeps grumbling for his 
supper ' ; paid a bregljax ar hy:d 9 bcdlan (E.J.), ' don't keep 
jabbering all the time'; luiftjannys ar hy:d 2 bedlan (O.K.), 
' successful all along the line '. 

bedu, s.pl., sing, bedwan, f., bedw, D., ' birches ' : briga bedu, 
' birch twigs ' ; gjalam vedu, ' birch rod '. 

bedyft, s.m., bedydd, D., ' baptism ' : bedyft esgob, ' confirmation '. 
Cf. L.A. 145. 8; Yny Ihyvyr hwnn [30]. 

beddftjo,, v., bedyddio, D. Pret. Pass, bedzftjuyd, ' to baptize ' : 
ma: nu wedi ka:l i bedjftjo gin ar esgob, f they have been confirmed '. 

be:ft, s.f., pi. befta, befti, D., ' grave ' : tori be:ft, ' to dig a grave '. 

begjo, v., begio, C.C. 163. 17, 'to beg': vegja vo ftim 'arnoxi, 
1 he would not beg from you '. 

betbil, s.m., pi. beibla, bibl, D., s.v. ' biblion ' ; ' bible '. 

beiftgar, adj., beiddgar, D., ' daring ' (but cf. meiftjo). 

beixfo, v., beichio, D., 'to bellow' (of a bull) py:o. Also of 
human beings, ' to bellow, bawl ' : r o:ft o m beixjo (kri:o) = gneyd 
nada. 

beixjog, adj., beichiog, D., ' onustus, gravidus ' ; ' bulging ', e. g. 
of setts when not cut square (O.H.) = boljog. 

beili, s.m., ^\.bli:od, bayli, W.S. ; pi. bailiaid, B.C. 120. 30; Mid. 
Eng. baily ; ' bailiff, sherifts officer ' : mor brzsyr a beili meun saf'un. 

beintin ; beindin (W.H.), s.f., Eng. binding, (i) ' binding round 
the edges of an article of clothing ', etc. (2) ' what is given over 
and above the measure ' : rhoi hyn 9n veindin. 

D 2 



36 beio berdjo 

beio, v., beio, D., ' to blame ' : nid 2 bobol sy i veto, * it is not the 
people who are to blame '. 

bekkar, s.m., ' baker '. 

bekkun, s.m., Eng. bed-gown, ' a woman's bodice ' (now seldom 
worn) : pais a bekkun. 

bekkus, s.m., ' bake-house '. 

bekn, s.m., ' bacon '. Also bakkun. 

bekfo, v., fecsio, T.N. 22. 35 ; Eng. vex, ' to worry '. 

bela, s.m., pi. belod, bele, D., ' marten ' (Mustek martes). 

belifegor, s.m., Belphegor (name of demon. Cf. B.C. 143. 
19; T.N. 457. 6. ' Beelphegor ' is the form in the Vulgate 
corresponding to 'Baal-peor' in the A.V. Cf. Num. xxv. 3), 
term of reproach : riu he:n velifegor dru:g. 

belax, adv., bellach, D., 'now, at last': mi foljun inna ga:yl W 
suppar belax, a\os r 9du i wedi gweitjo digon, 'it's time I had my 
supper too by this time, as I've waited long enough ' ; rhaid i ni 
vo:d 97i bjolxgar am bo:b durnod lra:v belax ga:ni ru:an, ' we must 
be thankful for every fine day we get now (from now onwards) ' ; 
rJwux gora i x su:n belax, ' stop your noise now '. 

bendigedig, adj., bendigedic, Gen. ix. 26. (i) 'magnificent, soul- 
inspiring' (e.g. of an eloquent sermon or prayer). (2) 'excellent, 
splendid' : daxi wedi gneyd tro: bendigedig. 

bendiQ, s.f., pi. bendiBjon, bendith, D., * blessing '. Used ironically 
in do:s, bmdiQ 8)'u i ti: /, do:s o: na, bendiB <? ta:d i ti /, do:s, bendiQ 
la:d !, ' get away for goodness' sake ' ; govyn bendiQ ar 3 buyd, ' to 
ask a blessing on the food, to say grace '. 

bendiQjol, adj., bendithiol, S.E., ' beneficial ' : tro: bendiOjol, ' a 
beneficial turn '. 

bcnBig, s.m., benthyg, D. ; cf. benthig, G.R. 57. 10, 'loan': rhoi 
benBig a tommy d benBig, ' to lend and to borrow ' ; govyn benBig (am 
vcnBi'g) sii'M, 'to borrow a shilling'; ga: i venBig su:lt 'gmoxi?, 
' will you lend me a shilling 1 ' ; d0m\ i mi venBig honna, s gwelux 
m da:, ' lend me that, please ' ; arjan benBig, ' borrowed money ' ; 
benBig rhuy la:u a la:u, ' a loan without security '. 

ben6,ikka> Qtkka (O.H.), v., cf. benthygio, D., ' to borrow '. 

bera, s.pl., berr, D. ; cf. T.N. 146. 4, 'legs': smmiyd d? vera, 
' stir your stumps ' ; mi trawo o nes o.yd a i vera i vmy, ' he 
knocked him sprawling '. 

berdjo, v., in phr. berdjo klauS (tierig), ' to place thorns on the top 
of a wall and keep them in position by placing stones on them '. 
Kerig ar vleyna 3 drain a r bo?ia i vmy. 



berdyn- be:6 37 

berdyn, berdiy, s.m., < thorns, etc., placed on the top of a wall, 
with stones to keep them in position'. 

derm's \J)arnis\. 

beru, s.m., berw, D. (i) 'boiling': d0ru\ ja:s o veru arno vo, 
' boil it slightly ' ; fig. may hi n veru givydt, ' it is very lively (e. g. 
of a meeting) '. (2) ' foaming water '. (3) ' whim, fad, infatuation, 
muddle-headedness ', i.e. pen ma ru:in wedi fommyd riu y:n pe:B m 
i ben a dim ond hunna ; ma na riu veru vn i benno. 

beru, berwi, s.pl., berwr, D. : beru du:r, ' water-cress ' (Nasturtium 
officinale) ; berufranig, ' cress ' (Lepidium sativum). 

berva, s.f., pi. berva.y, berfa, D., ' wheel-barrow ' : berva vreixfa, 
' a wooden contrivance without wheels, with two handles at each 
end, for carrying stones, etc.' 

ber'vayd, s.f., pi. berveidja, berfaaid, S.E., ' wheel-barrowful '. 

berwedig, adj., berwedig, D., s.v. ' assus ' ; ' boiling ' : du:r 
berwedig) ' boiling water '. 

berwi, v., berwi, D. Pret. 3. berwoft. Imperative berwa ; 
berwux, berux, ' to boil ' : ma: r du:r 9m berwi, ' the water is 
boiling ' ; ma: r tettal dm berwi, i the kettle is boiling ' ; berwi y 
grdxjas, ' to boil furiously ' ; u:y wedi berwi, ' a boiled egg ' ; fmnux 
9 teKal i laur rhag 280 verwi n sj'.'x, ' take the kettle off or else it 
will boil away ' ; / o:ys dim berwi arno vo, ' it won't boil '. Figura- 
tive uses : may nrha:yd i m berwi, ' my feet are tingling with heat ' ; 
berwi i ben, ' to take a fad about something, to get excited, talk 
excitedly ' ; ' to swarm ' : am berwt o lay, o brzvad, ' swarming with 
lice, with insects ' ; may r k: 3m berwi i gi:d hevo nu, ' the whole 
place is swarming with them \ 

betjo, v., ' to bet '. 

betjo, v., Eng. debate (?), with p9sljo : pzsljo a betjo (p rynfa neiB o 
ai peidjo\ O.K., ' to rack one's brains, to be at one's wit's end (as 
to whether one will do a thing or not) '. 

be:B, be:, bed, be, beth (for pa beth). (i) interrogative pronoun be: t>, 
' what ? ', asking for the repetition of a remark (=syt?, which is con- 
sidered less polite), and in the other senses of the English word ; be 
di o /, ' what is it ? ' ; be sy: ? t ' what's the matter ? ' ; be s ant if'o ?, 
4 what's the matter with you ? ' (= be hary /zV); be may o n deydP, 
1 what does he say ? ' ; be:B o.yd 9 testyn ?, ' what was the text ? ' ; 
i be: may hunna n 8a: ?, ' what's this for ? ' With i understood 
' why ? ' : be na: i helKid o mor bel ?, ' why should I lug it so far ? ' ; 
be r a: i a vo: j 3 , ' why should 1 take it ? ' ; be stad, stid = be sy 
wedi du:ad, e. g. 'be stad tdo vo /, ' what's the matter with him ? ' ; 
'be stad i r hogan ? \ 'be stid i r dy:n ? (2) introducing indirect 
question : hidjux be vo, hidjux be vo vo:, ' never mind ' ; wa:y& be 



38 beOma bjogan 

DO, ' it doesn't matter ' ; dim ods be:, * it doesn't matter what ' ; 
d un i dim be na: 2, p r ynta mynd ta peidjo, ' I don't know what to 
do, whether to go or not ' ; may hun zm boyOax na d un i bim be:, 
' this is hotter than I don't know what ' ; / 0:8 i dim 3y gubod be 
bey da hi, ' she did not know what to say '. With bmnag (a) ' what- 
ever ' : bed bdnnag neiQ o, ' whatever he does ' ; golux 2 gannuyl be 
bmnag neuxi, ' light the candle whatever you do ' ; (b) ' at any 
rate ' (Anglo- Welsh, ' whatever '). 

beQmci) y peth yma, ' what d'you call it ? ' : r 0:8 o n reit be&ma. 

beydy, s.m., pi. brdai, beudy, D., ' cow-house, cattle-shed '. 

beyby, v., baeddu, D. = meydy, ' to maul, soil ' : ddnjon dm beyby 
i gilib ; plant am beyby r ty: ; fig. beyby hmerjad dy:n. 

beynyb, adv., beunydd, D., 'quotidie'; 'continually': may o 
dmma beynyb zy klebran ; by6 a beynyb, ' for ever and a day '. 

bibjol, adj., buddiol, D., * advantageous, serviceable ' : dilad 
bibjol ; gwisgo n vibjol, ' to wear serviceable clothes '. 
bi.f, s.m., biff, W.S., 'beef. 

bigal, s.m., pi. bigeiljad, bugail, non bigail, D., ' shepherd '. 
Often bigal devaid. 

bigaljo, v., bugeilio, Cant. i. 7, ' to keep sheep ' : bigeiljo devaid, 
bihavjo, bzhavjo, v., ' to behave ' = wituyn. 

bik^ call to a single pig (cf.gis). Also an endearing expression 
to a pig : bik ba:x / (O.H.). 

bildjo, v., bildio, T.N. 407. n, 'to build '. Cf. adeiljady, kodi. 

bili dukkar, s., ' razor-bill ' (Alca torda). Also bili d0uka, bili 
dukka. 

bilifudan, s., ' a kind of material ' : klo:s o vilifudan,pais vilifudan. 
Also a term of reproach : r hem vilifudan gwirjon (O.H.). 

bilug, s.m., pi. biluks, bilwc cau, W.S. (a hedgynge byll), 
' bill-hook '. 

bi.if, s,, pi. ko:yd bi:tf, ' beech ' : knay bi:tf, ' beech-nuts '. 

biumaras, bliumaras, 2 bliu, Buwmares, W.LI. Ixvii. 22, ' Beau- 
maris '. 

biusful, adj., Eng. abuseful ; ' cruel, harsh, apt to ill-treat '. 

biuslyd, adj. = biusful. 

biufo, v., biwsio, T.N. 300. 24; Eng. abuse, (i) 'to abuse, 
insult'. (2) 'to ill-treat' : biufo aniveiljad ; be u:ti m biufo mlhant 
a i kyro nu ? 

bjogan (pjodan at Tregarth, I.W.). s.f., pi. bjogannod, pjogod 
(O.H.), pioden and piogen, D., s.v. ' pi ' ; ' magpie ' (Pica rustica) : 
Kinfoykad a r bjogan. Also a term of reproach for a woman. 



blagyr blayn 39 

blagyr, s.pl., blagur, D., ' young sprouts or shoots ' : tavly r 
blagyr ; ' to sprout ' ; blagyr ddi r t0uljad kmta. 
blagyro, v., blaguro, D., 'to sprout'. 

blaiS, s.m., pi. bleftja(t)d, blaidd, D., < wolf '. (For pi. cf. M.LI, 
ii. 118. 7; D.P.O. 160. 35.) 

blakkan, s., ' a black ' : Kin 8y:ad a blakkan. Also a cow-name. 
Cf. T.N. 183. 5. 

bla:s, s.m., bias, D., ' taste ' : may bla:s tri:og arno vo, ' it tastes 
of treacle ' ; nt o:ys na vla:s da: arno vo P, ' isn't it nice ? ' ; be di r 
bla:s dru:g sy ar hun ?, ' what makes this taste so nasty ? ' ; wedi 
mynd alan o i vla:s, ' to have lost its (proper) taste, to have become 
sour, high, etc.' Fig. may bla:s ar da:n heno, 'a fire is pleasant 
to-night ' ; x e:s i & m bla:s 9ri'oyd arno vo, ' I never had any 
pleasure in it ' ; x e:s i & m bla:s zri'oyd i wrando arno vo, ' I never 
had any pleasure in listening to him '. 

blasterog, adj., sometimes for brasterog, ' fat '. 

blasys, adj., blasus D., s.v. ' sapidus ' ; ' tasty, savoury ' : fig. 
pregaQ vlasys, ' a taking sermon '. 

blaf'o, v., blasio, ' to taste ' = provi \ t adi o Sim ond i vlaf'o vo. 
Cf. Y genau sydd yn ffailio iawn flassio pob melysion, B. 1747. 
b la:u = heb la:u \heb\. 

blaud, s.m., blawd, D., 'flour': blaud gwyn peijjad, 'wheat- 
flour ' ; blaud k'eirx, ' oatmeal ' ; blaud li:, ' saw-dust ' ; gwerQy blaud, 
' to flatter ' ; dal blaud wynab, ' to put the best face on matters ', ' to 
put up with what cannot be prevented '. 

blayn, s.m., pi. bleyna, blaen, D. (i) 'front, fore-part, tip, 
point ' : blayn 9 iruyn, ' the tip of the nose ' ; ar vlayn 3 trayd, 
' on tip-toe ' ; ar vleyna x trayd, ' on tip-toe ' ; blayn 3 galaQ, ' the 
point of the knife ' ; bleyna 9 basati, ' the tips of the fingers ' ; blayn 
lanu, ' the turn of the tide ' ; blayn newyb, said of the new 
moon : mi da:u penwaig hevo r blayn newy (O.H.), ' there will be 
herrings with the new moon ' ; blayn 9 mo:r, ' the edge of the flowing 
or ebbing sea ' ; deryn 9y kalyn blayn 9 mo:r. Common in place- 
names, e. g. blayn 9 dalva (between Pen Bryn Du and Y Drosgl) ; 
blayn kbnin (i. e. Celynin between Y Foel Fras and Pen y Dorth 
Goch). (2) 'priority' (of place or time): puy ga:6 9 blayn?, 
' who was first ? ' ; a^yb 9 blayn, ' to forestall '. (3) ' push ' : t o:s 
dim blayn 9no vo, ' he has no push in him ', ' he is not quick in 
furthering his own interests '. Cf. also bleinjon. 

Adverbs and prepositions formed with blayn are the following : 

o vlayn, prep., ' before ' (of place, and sometimes of time) : 

rhoi klut o vlayn 9 ta:n, ' to put a rag before the fire ' ; rhoi 9 droL 

o vlayn 9 Kefyl, ' to put the cart before the horse ' ; tori tul o vlayn 

hoy Ian, ' to make a hole to put a nail in ' ; un i dim be da:u o vlayn 



4O bla:yn ble:u 

ne ar i o:l o, ' I don't know what comes before or after it ' ; o vla:vn 
^ ty:, ' in front of the house ' ; o mla:yn i, ' in front of me ' ; 
' before me ' (of time) : rhcdux o n bla:yn m, ' run on in front ' ; 
o vla:yn 9 g!a:u, ' before the rain '. 

o r blayn, adv., ' before, ago ' : p(a)6evnos o r bla:yn ; r usnos 
o r blayn, ' the other week ' ; -vy.oxi dno o r blayn />, ' have you 
been there before ? ' ; 9 fro: o r blayn, ' last time '. 

rhag blayn, adv., ' at once, immediately ' : may hi y kr^xy i dail 
rhag blayn, ' its leaves shrink up immediately ' ; gwerdy po:b pe:6 
rhag blayn, ' to sell everything at once '. 

9 mlayn, adv., ' forwards ' : zn o:l ag 9 mlayn, ' backwards and 
forwards, there and back, to and fro ' ; Kerux 3n ax blayn, 'go on ' ; 
tyd s mla:yn, vn da i'la:yn, ' come on ' ; mynd 9 mla:yn hevo r gwaiO, 
' to go on with the work '. 

9 mlayn la:u, adv., ' in front of, in the sense of anticipating or 
forestalling a person or thing ' : mynd 9 mla\yn la;u i$o vo, ' to fore- 
stall him' (cf. bleynlau). 

blayn, adj., comp. blcynax, blaen, D., ' foremost, front ' : hoys 
vlayn, ' fore-leg ' ; daint blayn, ' front tooth '. 

blefyn in Ueba MeSyn, cleddyf Bleddyn, D., ' spleen '. 

dfeind, s.m., pi. lleinds^ ' blind ' (O.H. has hrtati}. 

bleinjo, v., blaenio, D., s.v. ' spiculo ', ' to milk the first milk at 
milking-time J . 

bleinjon, s., pi. blaenion, S.E., s.v. 'blaen' ; cf. Neh. x. 37, 'the 
first milk at milking-time '. 

lle:r, adj., afler, D., vulgo pro aflerw. (i) ' untidy ' : ru:m vle:r ; 
dn i n rhy: vlc:r i vynd alan, (2) ' untidy in work, wasteful, un- 
methodical, lacking in promptitude ' : ma: nu y gwei&jo 3 xwarat 
m vle:r jaun, ' they are working the quarry very wastefully ' ; dmas 
vle\r an i gwi:sg a i gwaiB ; 'r oyanu n vle:r jaun hi:r zy kaxuyn 
(E J., speaking of the mourners at a funeral). (3) ' strange ', im- 
plying the lack of something : by:b m v/e:r, ' it will seem strange 
without you '. 

blerux, vlerux, s.m., aflerwch, S.E., ' untidiness, wastefulness '. 

blew, s.pl., sing, blewyn m. (which is sometimes also used collec- 
tively), blew, D. (i) ' hair ' (of persons, except of the hair of the 
head cf., however, blewyn o wa:lt and animals) : ma:rga:6^y koti 
blc:u, ' the cat's fur is coming out ' ; blewyn maur, ' long hair', 
e.g. of cattle which can stand the weather; ble:u hgad, 'eye- 
lashes ' ; ble:u g'e'ivr, ' a peculiar formation of clouds ' (JJ.) ; mi 
beydif i am bo:b blewyn o wa:lt dn ifen i, ' I told her over and over 
again ' ; heb vlewyn ar i davod, ' without mincing matters ' ; tsnny 
blewyn o i dru\yn o, ' to anger him ' ; rhaid tmiiy r gwinab o r ble:u, 
' one must set to in earnest rhaid i xi vo:d uBi hi o Sivri, gimmint 
a "vedruxi ; wedi neyd o i dru:x 2 blewyn, 'having done it to a 



bleujax bh'yo 4 1 

nicety ' ; blewyn kam dn mynd i r hgad, ' an eyelash getting into the 
eye '. (2) used of grass : blewyn gla:s, ' fresh spring grass, un- 
wholesome for sheep' (J.J.); mi gorfennid blewyn g la: s 9 gwanuyn 
z, said of a sheep, because such grass picks out the weakest 
(O.H.) ; ble:u gla:s = also grass such as grows up in a path and has 
to be removed. (3) ' (not) the least, (not) the slightest bit ' : dary 
Xi vrivo P na:, dim blewyn (O.K.), * have you hurt yourself? No, 
not in the least ' ; dim blewyn o la:u (O.H.), ' not a drop of rain ' ; 
wa:y& i mi r y:n blewyn beidjo (O.H.), 'I might just as well not 
every bit ' ; wa:y6 gin i hun dim blewyn m 9 by:d (O.H.), ' I should 
like that just as well '. 

bkujax, s., pi. blewiach, D., * hair (in a disparaging sense), down ' : 
riu he:n vleujax ar i e:n 0(I.W.). Also ' small bones of fish' (I.W.). 

bkwemma, v. (?), blewyna, S.E., ' to hang about ' : be u:ti n i 
vlewemma (O.H. obsolete). 

blavog, adj., blewog, D., ' hairy ' : dylo blewog, see la:u. 

bleynad, s., ? planed, D., s.v. ' planeta ', in the sense of ' meteor ' 
in phrase mynd vel bleynad, ' to go hurriedly ' (I. W.). 

bleynbost) s. } blaenbost, S.E., ' the post to which a gate fastens '. 

bleynlau, adj., blaenllaw, D., s.v. ' praesignifico ' ; ' pushing, quick 
to further one's own interests '. 

bleynfym, adj., blaenllym, D., s.v. ' cuspidatus ', ' samius ' , 
' satyriee ' ; ' sharp-pointed ' (more often expressed by bla:yn mam}. 

bleynor, s.m., blaenor, D., ' an elder in a chapel '. 

bleynori, v., blaenori, D., s.v. 'excedo', etc., 'to take a prominent 
position, to take a leading part ' (meun). 

bli:n, adj., blin, D. (i) ' peevish, bad-tempered, cross 7 : kradyr 
ka:s bli:n, 'an unpleasant, peevish creature'; plentyn bli:n. (2) 
' tiresome, unpleasant ' : he:n waiQ go vli:n zdi o, ' it's a tiresome 
job ' ; ma:r d0wy m digon bli:n u6 al vod o n sy:x, ' the weather is 
rather unpleasant, considering it is dry '. (3) ' tired ' : teimlo n vli:n. 

blinedig, adj., blinedig, ' tired '. 

I/lino, v., blino, D. (i) ' to be tired': du i wedi blino, 'I am 
tired ' ; daxi wedi blino ar gi:g ?, ' are you tired of meat ? ' ; du iwedi 
blino zmma, ' 1 am tired of being here ' (Anglo-Welsh, ' I am tired 
here '). Fig. of land : may r ti:r wedi blino, ' the land is tired, used 
up as regards bearing crops '. (2) ' to tire '. (3) 'to annoy, aggra- 
vate, vex ' : / 3di o m blino dim arna i, ' it doesn't annoy me at all '. 

bliyo, v., blingo, D., ' to flay ' : m0ur6 a Ia:d, ebril a vliy (prov.), 
' March slays, April flays ' ; bliyo 3 Ki: (9 ga:6) erbyn i gumfon 
(xumfori), < to squander, to become poor through being too free 
with one's money ' ; bliyo r ko:yd (O.H.), ' to slice off the surface 
of wood ', e.g. with an adze (neda) in ship-building. 



42 bli:B bluybyn 

bli:Q, s., blith, D., ' lactans, lactarius, lac praebens ' : only in degum 
9 bli:&, tithe on cattle, sheep, and poultry ' (O.H.). 

bloda, s.pl., sing, blodyn, m., blodeu, D., ' flowers ' : m de:u o 
vloda, ' thick with flowers ' ; 9n i vloda, ' flowering ' ; bloda piso n <? 
gwely, ' dandelions '. Cf. Fr. pissenlit. 

bloibjo, v., bloeddio, D., s.v. ' clamo ' ; ' to shout ' : o:y$ o m bloityo 
nB farad ; bioibjo maur. 

blokkyn, s.m., pi. blokja. (i) ' block': blokkyn pren. (2) ' block- 
head ' : hem vlokkyn. Also plokkyn, q.v. 

blonag, s.m., bloneg, D., ' pig's fat, lard ' : rhaid i mi vyu ar 9 
mlonag am usnos, ' I must live on my own fat for a week ' (being in 
straits) ; hiro hu:\ de:u a blonag (prov.), ' to give to one who already 
has plenty '. 

blonhegan, s., blonhegen, D., 'fasciculus axungiae'; ' leaf ' (of 
pork). 

blonhegog, adj., blonegog, T.N. 15. 38, 'fat'. 
blorjo, v. = broljo (E.J.). Cf. S.J.E., p. 108. 

blotjog, adj., plotiog, T.N. 12. 29, ' variegated, of various colours ' : 
g0un blotjog,fro:g gotton vlotjog. 

blottyn, s.m.,, Eng. blot ; ' speck, mark ' : byux wen a blottyn dy: 
ar i Balkan i ; blottyn dy: ar wymmad merx, ar gi: gwyn. 
bloyb, s.f.. bloedd, D., s.v. ' clamor ' ; ' shout '. 

bloysg, adj., bloesg, D., ' blaesiloquus, blaesus ' ; 'of thick utter- 
ance ' : tavod bloysg ; may i barabl o n vlo:ysg. 

bhiify'ad, s.m., blwyddiaid, (pi.) Lev. xxiii. 18, 19, 'a yearling' 
(J.J.) ; adjectivally devaid bluityad, ' yearling sheep '. 

blu.'Xt s.m., pi. bh\a ; lb\od (O.H.), blwch, D., 'box' (in fairly 
common use, but boks is more frequent) : blu:x 3 bigal, ' a small, 
round, light wooden box formerly used by shepherds to hold butter, 
containing from a quarter to half a pound, carried with a piece of 
a loaf (in a wallet) and a can of buttermilk' (J.J.); blu.'xbakko, 
' tobacco pouch '. 

blu:yft t s.f., blwydd. (i) 'a year, in speaking of age': be di 
o:yd o ? bhcyS a hannar, ' how old is he 1 eighteen months ' ; he:n 
wraig yn dair blu:y i gant o:yd, 'an old woman of ninety-seven ' ; 
hannar bln;y zdi o vory, ' he is six months old to-morrow ' ; pen i 
vlu:y, ' his birthday ' ; dy sy:l duy&a o:S hi y ka:l pen i blu:y$ my:n 
or be:g, 'it was her eleventh birthday last Sunday'. (2) ' yearlings, 
things of a year old ' : ma: r blu:y m la:b 3 dmluyb (O.H.), ' (frogs) 
of one year old kill those of two years old '. 

bluybyn, s.f., pi, Ibwbob, bbntia, blwyddyn, D., s.v. ( annus ' : 
1 year ' (not used after cardinal numbers except y:n) : y:n vluyfyn, 



bly:s bo:d 43 

' one year ' ; may o wedi maru er s dfonriob, ' he died years ago ' ; 
vhndba ar vbnefta, ' years upon years ' ; kanto o vhnabob an o:l, 
' hundreds of years ago ' ; bluybyn newyd Sa: i xi ! 3ry:n pe:B (r y: 
va:B) i x*0a, ' & happy New Year to you ! The same to you '. 

bly:s, s.m., blys, D., ' longing, craving, desire ' : ma na i vly:s o, 
' I am longing for it ' ; ma na i vly:s govyn ibo vo, ' I have a great 
mind to ask him ' ; n t o:s 'arno\i dim bly:s altro f, ' haven't you 
any desire to change ? ' (i. e. your manner of living) ; r 0:8 arno vo 
vly.s bildjo ty:, ( he wanted to build a house ' ; kodi bly:s, ' to 
excite a desire '. 

&bdar,s.,p\.l>bdars, Eng. plover (?), the 'grey plover' (Squata- 
rola helvetica). 

bbnab, s.f., blynedd, D., s.v. ' annus ' ; ' year ' (only used after 
cardinal numbers except^:w) : du:y vlmaft, fair 6fana8, pedar blmah, 
pym mhnad, xwe bbnab, said mfonad, u:yO mfonad, na:u mfonad, de:y 
mlmad, igjan mhnad, kan mfonad. 

bbndftol, adj., blynyddol, D., s.v. 'annuus'; 'annual'. 
bbf'o, v., blysio, D., 'to long for ' = bo:d m awybys, 0uxys. 
bbf'og, adj., cf. blysig, D., ' longing '. 

bnavyd, bdnavyd, v., bynafyd, S.E., ' to hurt, to hurt oneself = 
brivo : may o wedi bnavyd m aru ; mi lasun i bnavyd o n ovnaduy, 
' I might have hurt him very badly '. Tan frethyn yn dy frathu y 
Nifel i'th fynafu, A. (T. Ellis Roberts). 

bnaiys, adj., ' painful ' = anavys. 

6ne8ig, bnheftig, adj., bonheddig, D., s.v. ' nobilis ', only in gu(:)r 
bnebig, gwr bonheddig, 'gentleman'. PI. boneftigjon, boneftigjons, 
bbigjons. 

bnjawid, bmjawid, s.m., pi. bnjawada, mynawyd, D., 'pricker, 
awl '. 

bo: s.m., bo, S.E., ' bogey '. 

boba, s.f., epithet applied to an old woman (practically obsolete). 
Cf. ewa. 

bo:d ; bod (in rapid speech), v., bod, D., 'to be '. 

Present: S. i. ddu, du, 2. u:yt (u:t), 3. 9di, di, i ; ma:y (may, 
ma:, ma)', o.ys (o:s, os, s). PL i. ydan, adyn, 2. zdax, dax, ^dyx, 
3. 9dyn ; (9) ma:y nu. 

Present (Relative) : sy:d, sy:, sy, s. 

Present (Iterative) and Future: S. i. baa(v\ 2. fodt\ 3. &y:8, 
PL i. bd^an, bdbun, 2. b&ux, 3. ba&an. 

Imperfect: S. i. qydun, o:n, on, 2. qydat, 3. oyS, 0:8. PL i, 
oyftan, 2. qydax, 3. b'yan. 

Imperfect (Iterative) and Conditional : S. i. fodun, 2. fo&af, 
3. foda. PL i. badan, 2. fodax, 3. baftan. 



44 



bo:d 



Imperfect (Impersonal) : b&id. 

Preterite and Perfect : S. i.by:om, by:s, 2. by:ost, 'by:oxti, 3- by:, 
by:o. PL i. by:on t 2. by:ox, 3- by:on. 

Pluperfect: S. r. basun, 2. basat, %.basa. PL i. basan, 2. basax, 
3. basan. 

Present Subjunctive: S. 2. fox/z', 3. bo:, fodo, boQo. 

Imperfect Subjunctive : S. i. baun, 2. ba:t, 3. bay, ba: (j)e ba: 
vo). PL i. ba:n, 2. ba:x, 3- &*.'. 

Imperative : S. 2. &y:8, 3. 0/y</, fo:*?. PL 2. fotiux- 
The following shows the use of the Present in detail : 

(a) Affirmative: S. i. du i, r adu i \_m du:ad\ 2. r u:(y)ti, 
3. (y) may o (rarely may vd] ; (<?) may hi. PL i. (^)dam, 'r idani, 

2. ('3>)daxt, '?' zdaxi, 3. (<?) may nu. The forms with r are often 
preceded by the particle mi; r is sometimes omitted as mi du inna 
n du:ad. 

(b) Negative: S. i. (/ ^]du i dim \_m du:ad~\, 2. (/) u:(y)ti dim, 

3. / 9di o dim ; t ?di hi dim ; / o:(y)s na 8tm, ' there is not any ' ; 
j gini dim, 'I have not any'. PL i. (/ 3}dani dim, 2. (/ 9)daxi 
Sim, 3. ('/ d}danu dim. 

(c) Interrogative : S. i. tdui \mdu:ad\? 2. ti:(y)ti? 3. zdi o?, 
M/i hip PL i. 'adani ? 2. (ftdaxi ? 3- 'adynu? -oys na?, Ms 
there ? ' 

(d) Interrogative negative : S. i . nt adu i \3n du:ad~\ ?, ' am I 
not [coming | ? ', etc. : nt o:{y}s na ?, ' is there not ? ' ; du i n du:ad, 
nt ddu (/') ?, ' I am coming, am I not ? ' 

(e) Answering a question in the affirmative : S. i. zdu, 2. 
ti:yt, 3. 3di. PL i. sdan, 2. ddax, 3- ^dyn, 'I am, etc.', equivalent 
to 'yes'; oys, 'there is', 'yes'. The pronouns are very seldom 
used with the above, and then only for the sake of emphasis. S. 3. 
and PL 3. when emphatic become respectively zdt, 2 may o (oys, 
2 may) ; zdyn, 9 may nu. 

(f) Answering a question in the negative: S. i. na:g adu, 
2. na:g u:(y)l, 3. na:g ddi '; na:g oys. PL i. na:g ddan, 2. na:g 
sdax, 3- na:g ddyn, ' I am not, etc. ', equivalent to * no '. For 
pronouns cf. (e). 

(g) Interrogative in answer to a statement, as in English : ' He 
is going. Is he ?' S. i. fdu . p , sdu ^i P 2. u:^yt P, u:(y]^ti P 3. 9^diP, 
idi ^o P ; 9 may ^oP (emphatic); o:\ys. PL i. d^danP, *dda>ni P 
2. d^daxP, ^dyx?, 'ada^xi ? 3- ^dyn P, ^dy^nuP ( v indicates a rise in 
the voice in the following syllable), [af'je? may be used instead 
of these when emphasis is required.] 

(h) Interrogative negative in answer to a statement in the 
negative, as in English : ' He is not going.' * Isn't he ? ' S. i. na:g 
d^duP 2. na:g u^yt P 3. na:g z^diP, na:g ^oys ? PL i. na:g ^danP 
2. na:g d^daxP, na:g d^dyxP 3. na:g ^dyn? na:g ddu, na:g dduP, 
' No, I am not, am I ? ' ; na:g oys, na:g oys, ' No, there is not, 
is there ? ' (a in the first na:g is longer than in the second). 



lo:d 45 

The same with other tenses, e. g. Present Iterative or Future : 
(a) (mi) V9a i, b9a i, (b) wba i dim, (c) wda if 1 (d) n vaa i? 
(e) foda(v), (b9$a i:}, (f) na: vrta(v), (na: vdba z>), (g) vzdaty)* 
vzba i: ? (h) na: vz8a(v) /> [except with the Preterite and Perfect : 
(d) mi 'vy.oxi wo, n ^do: ? (e) do:, (f) -na: 80:, (g) *do: f> (h) -na: ^80: />] 

The following are examples of the use of the tenses : 

Present : may o n du:r da: jaun ; du:r da: jaun ddi o, ' it is 
very good water ' ; vaint i (sdi) o r glo:x ?, ' what time is it ? ' y:n 

b le: di d vam j 3 , ' where does your mother come from ? ' ; may 
m boyO heity'u. ddi, 9 may, ' it z> hot to-day '. Ans. ' yes, it is ' ; 
dim 9 fnhel wedi pedwar, zdi hi ? de:y mynyd, o:, 9 may hi, ' not 
much after four, is it ? ' ' Ten minutes '. ' Oh, it is, is it ? ' ; mynd 
vory may o, ' he is going to-morrow ' ; mynd vory may V />, ' is he 
going to-morrow ? ' ; sy daxi, s taxi, syt ar '9da\i, syt dr d'daxi?, 
' how are you ? ' ; 9 f xi: di mis far dgo:(n}s P i:a, ' are you Mr. Jones ? ' 
Ans. ' yes ' ; un i dim le ma n i ve&ul ddu i, 1 1 don't know what he 
thinks I am ' ; o:s na bed P, ( is there some ? ' (vocalic mutation). 

Present Relative : be sy: ?, ( what's the matter ? ' ; be s naxi if'o />, 
' what do you want ? ' ; vaint sy: 0:8 dmma i vaygor P, ' how far is it 
from here to Bangor ? ' ; vely s if f o gneyd, ' that's what you ought 
to do ' ; 9 pe sy njaun sy n jaun, ' what's right is right ' ; kim'ra:ig 
go wayl s gini hi, ' she speaks rather bad Welsh '. 

Present Iterative : r y: va:B a vy:8 bo:b dy:8, ' the same as 
usual ' ; vel 3 vam vy:8 9 verx (prov.), cf. ' like father like son ' ; 
v?8a i byd zn sa:l, ' I am never ill ' ; le: bmnag b&a i: ly>:8 d Ki:, 
' wherever I am the dog is ' ; ba i n ovnys jaun 9n 9 no:s, ' I am 
very timid at night ' ; le: fy:8 pe6 zr eiQ ped (prov.), ' money goes 
where money is '. 

Future : ka&u k0unt vaint vy:8 o bo:b y:n, ' count how many 
there are of each ' ; os na &y:8 dim axos zy kodi, ' if no cause arises ' ; 
kmtad a 'vtiuxi m barod, ' as soon as you are ready '. 

Imperfect : pen do:0 o adra r 0:8 o dgest a maru, ' when he 
came home he was nearly dead ' ; mi redifnes o:n iwedikoliywynt, 
' I ran till I was out of breath ' ; r "qybani wedi xloi hi, i we had 
locked her up ' ; kay berwi o.yd o, ' it wouldn't boil '. 

Imperfect Iterative : r oyftun i n arvar kayl vanned nes btiun 

1 dgest a mynd o gho:, ' I used to get toothache till I was nearly 
mad ' ; dim n agos Kimmint a V9a, ' not nearly as many as there 



used to be ' ; bdba gin 9 nhaid lawar jaun o streyon, ' my grand- 
father used to know a great many stories ' ; mi -vibanu n deyd er s 
talum, pen o:n (vz8un) i n hogan, ' they used to say long ago, when 
I was a girl ' ; mi V9$a hunnu n du:ad i gwelt i, ' he used to come 
and see her '. With conditional meaning : pe bay r wybva y 
gaus vsba n haus ka:l kosyn (prov.), * if Snowdon were made of 
cheese it would be easier to get some ' ; mi V9$a n bigon am z\ 
hoydal xi vynd 9no, ' it would be at the peril of your life for you to 
go there'. 



46 bo:d 

Preterite and Perfect : ma: n bravjax ru:an na by: tru: r dy:8, 
e it is finer now than it has been all day ' ; k: *by:oxti ?, ' where 
have you been ? ' ; damma h ~by:onu n troi bora ma, ' this is where 
they have been ploughing this morning ' ; mi vy:om i dmma o r 
bla:yn, ' I have been here before ' ; vy:o vo im zmma er s tro: by:d, 
' he has not been here for a very long time ' ; mi -vy:osti n hi:r /, 
'you have been a long time!'; by:o vo varu, 'he died'; vy:o 
ri'oyd dru:g na vy:o n ty'ont i ru:in> ' it is an ill wind that blows 
nobody good '. 

Pluperfect. The simple pluperfect sense has been entirely 
lost. The tense is used : (i) in optative phrases of the form 
pitti na vasun i dno /, ' I wish I had been there ! '. (2) to extenuate 
the force of a question, as syt na 'vasaxi n deydrubaBmakwarvod?, 
( why didn't you say something at the meeting ? '. (3) in conditional 
sentences, S. i. tasun( = peta.s\vn), ' if I had been, if I were ', 2.tasat, 
3. tasa\ PL i. lasan, 2. tasax, 3. tasan, e.g. vel tasa, 'as it were'; 
'tosaxt n vcyax mi vasa n haus z\ a9s gy, ' if 7 u na d been younger 
it would have been easier to teach you ' ; tasa tippin o eira n dn:ad 
i laur, vasa y gnesax wedyn, ' if a little snow fell it would be warmer 
afterwards ' ; mi vasa n 8a: gin i tasa r he:n fonas na n du:ad 
i X r gi-> i ga:l darvod hcvo hi, ' I wish that old woman were coming 
(and be hanged to her), so as to be done with her ' ; sometimes 
the simple form is used, as may hi n edrax vel basa hi am la:u etto, 
' it looks like more rain '. (4) with conditional or pluperfect con- 
ditional sense. The following are examples in addition to those 
given in (3) : 'vasaxi n Uikjo i mi roi ta:n ar 9 lamp /, ' would you 
like me to light the lamp?' ; mi 'vasaxi n mynd mo lanxbjany, 'you 
would get there in a jiffy ' ; r oydun i n ovni -vasaxi %im in leikjo nu, 
' I was afraid you would not like them ' ; r 9du i nfu:r na vo: vasa 
3 mistar, ( I am sure he would be the master ' ; r on i y gubod be 
vasa diwab 2 ga:n, ' I knew what would be the end of it ' ; mi vasa 
hi n deyd na x^ mma hi bim doktor, ( she would have said she would 
not have any doctor '. 

Present Subjunctive : da: bo: xi, ' good-bye ' ; le bznnag 9 bo:, 
* wherever it may be ' ; be:6 bmnag bo: vo, ' whatever it may be ' ; 
(///) bo:y6 y bo: vo!, 'may he be warm' (a curse); so, bo:y6 9 bo: xti / ; 
7Uii:_y6 be vo (vo:}, hidjux be vo (vo:), ' never mind ' ; vel bo: r la:u 
MI luifad s kro:yn, ' so that the hand may be touching the skin ' ; 
linjo r gwadan vel bo: r tro:yd (prov.), ' to cut one's coat according 
to one's cloth ' ; dikka bo: r Keiljog kmta 3 ka:n (prov.), ' the more 
angry a cock is the sooner he will crow ' (said of people who sing 
to hide their anger) ; kyro r heyarn tra bafto vo m bo:yB, ' to strike 
the iron while it is hot ' ; voQo ra:s i ti, mi 'vy:osti n hi:r ! , ' good 
gracious ! what a time you've been ! ' ; voBo ra:s i ti! le: r u:ti wedi 
bo:d P, ' good gracious ! where have you been ? ' 

Imperfect Subjunctive : vasa r ketujon dim haus uB gad krsstyn 
oni ba:y vo:d zr ja:r m i valy vo n bigon ma:n yftynu, ' it would be 



bo:d 47 

no use for the chickens to get a crust of bread unless the hen made 
it small enough for them ' ; mi 'vasaxi n ayhovjo x pen ba: i 
vo:d an s0und 'mo\i, 'you would forget your head if it wasn't 
fastened to your shoulders ' ; in conditional sense (= foSun, basun), 
am na baun i n medry, ' because I should not be able ' ; in con- 
ditional clauses, S. i. faun, 2. ta:t, 3. ta:y, /#(:), da(:). PL i. ta:n, 
2. fa.'X, 3- ta:n, more rarely /> baun, etc., e.g. mi gasgax ta drolja n 
mynd'drostaxi, 'you would sleep if carts were running over you'; wa:Q 
gin i ta:ti heb rieyd o am draguyftoldab a durnod dros ben, ' I shouldn't 
care if you did not do it for ever and a day ' ; ta (htyiy n rubaQ, 
ta ny riu ods, ta vattar am hmny, ta wayB (am hmny], * for the 
matter of that, if that be anything ' ; mi a: i fa hi m burn he:n 
wragad a fyn, ' I'll go though it be raining cats and dogs '. Cf. 
also the expressions faun i by 6 (vyff] o r -van ma ! (asseveration), 
' so may I never move from this spot ! ' ; also as exclamation, ' upon 
my word ! ', etc. So also taun i maru /, faun i lugy ! 

Use of the infinitive : ( i) to express the English ' that ' : bo:d = 
'that ... is (was)'; bo:d (na), 'that there is (was)'. With pronouns, 
S. i. mo:d i, ' that I am ', 2. vo: ti, 3. vo:d o, bo:d o ; bo:t i. PI. i. 
bo:d ni, 2. bo: x*> 3- bo:d nu. Examples : o.ys. na:g o:ys, wi:r. 
r ddu i n deyd bo:d, ' There are '. ' No there are not, indeed ' 
' I say there are ' ma: n 8a: gin i bo xi n wel, ' I am glad you 
are better ' ; r on i n mebul bo:f i am la:u, ' I thought it was going 
to rain ' ; r on in meul bo:d na lawar o vara ar 3 bur. So also 
with (v) ela, hurax, ' perhaps ' ; ond, ' but that, only ' ; pitti, ' it is 
a pity ' ; (v) zla vo:d o n 9 fy:, ' perhaps he is in the house ' ; ela 
wi:r mai ddna be sy:, ond bod ni dim zy gubod, ' perhaps that is what 
it is, only that we don't know ' ; pitti bo:f i mor d0wyl, ' it is a pity 
it is so dark '. With oni bo:, oni bay, for examples see above. 
With prepositions, to express conjunctions : am i vo:d (am vo:d o), 
gan i vo:d (gan vo:d o], ' because he is (was) ' ; rhag i vo:d, ' for 
fear that he be ' ; rhag bo:d, ' for fear that ' ; / o.ys dim mo:d i ubod 
gan bo:t i wedi deyid, ( there are no means of telling as she has 
got away '. (2) The infinitive preceded by i is used in a variety 
of senses which do not correspond with the Eng. ' to be ', e. g. vel 
na may o i vo:d, ' that's how it should be ' ; ma na saiO i vo:d, 
' there ought to be seven ' (Anglo-Welsh, ' there are seven to be ') ; 
may hi i vo:d m wasfad, * it is supposed to be level ' (but is e. g. 
warped) ; dayos i hy:n m yux nag zdi i vo:d, ' to make oneself out 
to be above one's station ' ; / o:d merxaid dim i vo:d mo, ' women 
were not supposed to be there '. 

The verb bo:d is also used in the sense of ' to live, to exist ', 
e. g. tr &y:8 i vammo, * while his mother is alive ' ; darvod a bo:d 
' to be over ', e. g. of a flower ; r o:d o "m 'bo:d, ' it did exist ' (but 
does no longer), e. g. a word now obsolete ; du i dim zy kredy vod 
o wedi bo:d, ( I don't believe he ever existed ' ; dim dy kredy bod dyu 
meun bo:d, ' not believing in the existence of God '. 



48 bo dan boks 

bodan, s.f., cyffoden (?), D., ' sweetheart ' : puy di da vodan ru:an /, 
' who is your sweetheart now ? ' 

bodjo, v., bodio, S.E.* (i) 'to thumb, to knead with the finger 
and thumb', e.g. putty; 'to play with something with the finger 
and thumb '. (2) ' to be slow in work ' (J.J.). 

bodlemma, v., cf. bedlema, M.F., Eng. bedlam, ' to wander aim- 
lessly ' : lc: 'ly:osti m bodlemma ? (O.H.). 

bodkmman, s.f., term of reproach applied to a woman who 
wanders aimlessly : he:n vodlemman vydyr (O.H.). 

bodlon, adj., boddlawn, corrupte bodlon, D., but bodlon in D.G. 
Ixxxviii. 28; D.F. 49. 7; D.P.O. 28. 34; P.G.G. 74. 2, etc. 
(i) ' content ' : may o n vodlon ar 9 pe:B sy gmo vo, ' he is content 
with what he has'. (2) 'easy-going' often in a bad sense; (of 
horses), ' quiet ' : a Kefyl muya bodlon welis i rvo:yd (dim kast mo 
vo), O.H. 

bodloni, v., bodloni, D., s.v. ' satisfacio '. (i) ' to please, content ' : 
may n a nob j aim i modloni hevo bti:yd, ' it is difficult to please me as 
regards food'. (2) ' to come to an agreement', e.g. after a dispute. 

bodlonruyb, s.m., bodlonrwydd, D., s.v. ' aequanimitas ' ; ' con- 
tentment '. 

bodyn, s.m.. bodyn (dim. of baud) in bodyn 9 ??ilinyb, ' bib, pout, 
whiting-pout ' (Gadus luscus). 

bo:d vg y:n, bod yg un, T.N. 116. 19, 'every one' : ma: nu wedi 
mynd bo:d zg y:n. 

Z>o:d, s., bodd, D., 'delight, pleasure' : u6 i 7Jo:8, u9 vo:8 i gal_on, 
' to his heart's delight ' ; may hi u6 i bo:b hevo i 6aid ' it is her 
heart's delight to be with her grandfather '. 

bofa\ v., boddi, D. Pret. PI. 3. boftson ; ' to drown, to be 
drowned ' : r o.yd 3 ley ad wedi bobinieun du:r, yygorvad ar i ho\or 
vel ku:x, ' the moon was drowned in water, lying on its side like 
a boat' (J.J.); bobi 2 mtinyft, 'to drown the miller', 'to put too 
much water in the flour and so make it too wet to knead ' ; 6odi 
kneya, ' feast after carrying hay or corn '. 

boftran, &o8ro, v., Eng. bother ; f to talk nonsense ' : paid a 
bobran paid a berwi da ben, klebran, sunjan (E.J.). 

bogal, s.m., pi. bogeilja, bogail, D., ' navel '. 

boi, s.m., pi. bois y ( boy ' : be Sydob zr he:n voi, ' what did the old 
chap say '. 

boks, s.m., pi. boksys, ' box ' : mynd i r boks, " to kick the 
bucket ". 



bokfad bo:n 49 

bokfad, s.m., pi. bokfeidja, bocsiad, T.N. 99. i, 'boxful'. 

bo:x, s.f., pi. bo\a, boch, D., ' cheek ' : leysy boxa, ( to look surly, 
sulky ' (W.H.). 

i adj., bochgoch, S.E., ' red-cheeked '. 



v., bochio, S.E. (i) 'to bulge ' : may r wal 3n boxjo ahm, 
' the wall is bulging '. (2) ' to eat in a noisy way, working- the food 
from one cheek to the other ' : may r moxyn 9m boxjo bytta. Also 
trans, boxjo bara. 

boxlas, adj., bochlaes, S.E. (i) 'flabby-cheeked' (W.H.). (2) 
' sulky-looking ' (I.W.). 

bol, s.m., pi. bolja, bol, D., ' belly ' : tommar lond d9 vol, ' take 
your fill ' ; magy bol, ' to grow a protruding stomach ' ; may hunna 
wedi ka:yl gormod m i vol, ' that fellow has had a drop too much ' ; 
Kin duhid a bol byux, ' pitch dark ' ; ka:yl lond i zW(fig.), ' to get his 
full deserts ' ; a i bgad 3n vn:y na i vol, said of one who helps him- 
self to more than he can eat; rhoid rubaB ar i vol (= m i flat}, 
* to lay something flat ' ; bol gr aim, ' hard roe ' ; bol laid, ' soft roe '. 

bolgij s.m., bolgi, S.E., 'glutton': r he:n volgi fodral. 

boljad, s., pi. boleidja, bolaid, D.G. cxlvi. 31, 'bellyful': boljad 
Ki: beriQ dridja (prov. exp.), ' a dog's fill lasts three days '. 

boljog, adj., boliog, D., s.v. ' ventriosus ' ; 'big-bellied, bulging'. 

bo'lol, s.m., bolol, S.E., 'bogy': may o vela bo'lol, 'he is the 
very devil ' ; may hi n d0w)'l vcl 9 bo'lol, may hi vel bo'lol o d0wyl, 
' it is pitch dark ' ; may r bo'lol m i gori o, ' the devil is in him '. 

bombran, s.m., bonbren, S.E. (i) ' double-tree, the wooden bar 
to which the traces are attached in ploughing with two horses, and 
which is itself fastened by a chain at each end to the centre of each 
timbran or single-tree '. (2) ' any piece of wood about the length 
of the above': bombran pren (O.H.), 'a wooden post'. O.H. 
also applies this word to the thatcher's instrument called ' aseth ' 
by O.P., "a sharp-pointed spar to fasten thatch ". (3) applied to 
persons, ' a good-for-nothing fellow ' (O.H.). 

bom, s.m., pi. dona, bonjon, bon, D., * the base of anything', 'the 
base of a tree strictly speaking, the part between the roots and the 
stem ' : os nafljgi i r bri:g, rhaid i ii blegy i r bo:n (prov.), ' if you 
do not bend to the branch (i. e. the birch rod) you will have to bend 
to the stem ' (i. e. ? the gallows tree supposed to be the stem of a 
birch, I.W.) ; bo:n brayx, ' the upper part of the arm'; bo:n 9 gumfon, 
1 the root of the tail ' ; bonjon zr y:d, ' stubble ' ; bonjon (danna8), 
' stumps (of teeth) ' ; bona r bdsa, ' the base of the fingers (toes) ' ; 
bo:n 9 gly:st (cf. B.H. 135. 39), 'the roots of the ear' : taro ar vo:n 
9 gly:st, ( to strike on the ear ' (cf. boyklysf] bo:n 9 gwadt, ' the 

1432 E 



50 bonat bo:6 

roots of the hair'; tori gwry:x (klauti) m 3 bo:n, 'to cut down 
a hedge so as to let it grow again ' ; kodi bona (in slate quarries), 
' to level a gallery and facilitate working at the further end of 
a bargain ' (gwastatau y bongc a gwneyd y lie yn fwy parod erbyn 
mynd i'r pen, y rhan uchaf o'r fargain, J.J.). 3n 3 bo:n is used 
figuratively for ' at bottom ' : ma: n reit da: gin i o 3n 3 bo:n, ' I like 
him very much at bottom '. 

bonat, s.f., pi. bonetti, ' bonnet ' : bonat klut, bonat hud, ' sun- 
bonnet '. 

bondeu, adj., bondew, S.E., ' thick at the base ', e. g. of the arms. 
b ond i grsfad = na bo ond ei grybwyll, G.O. i. 9. 6, 'forsooth'. 
bondo, s.f., bondo, D., ' eaves ' (I.W.). 

bondog, s.m., Eng. bond-dog. Cf. N.E.D., s.v. ' bandog ' ; 'a 
surly fellow ' (I.W.). 

bority, bonddu, S.E., in the exp. ko:x bonfty ; ko:x vonfty (O.H.), 
a fishing-fly sometimes called ' Marlow buzz '. 

bonyn, s.m., bonyn, D.. s.v. ' trunculus ' ; ' stump ' : bonyn kqydan, 
1 the stump of a tree '. 

boyklyst, s.f., bonclust, D., 'a box on the ears'. 

boykyf, s.m., boncyff, D., s.v. 'stipes'; 'a log to put on the 
fire'(O.H.). 

bora, s.m., pi. breya, bore, D., ' morning ' : bora da:, ' good 
morning ' ; bora vory, ' to-morrow morning ' ; o vora dan no:s, 
o vora gwyn dan no:s, ' from morning till night ' ; bora gla:s, 
' dawn ' ; ben 3 bora, bora kynla, ' the first thing in the morning ' ; 
bem bora drannoB, ' the first thing next day ' ; kodi xwe'X 9 bora, 
' to get up at six in the morning '. Fig. 3m mora i o:ys, ' in his 
young days '. 

bora, adj., comp. breyax, bore, D., s.v. ' mane ' ; ' early ' : kodi n 
vora, ' to get up early '. Cf. hnnar. 

bordor, s.f., bordyr, W.S. ; bordr, W.LI. Ixxii. 52, 'border; 
flower-bed' (O.H.). 

bos, s., 'stomach of birds; belly': hel 3n i vos, 'to eat 
greedily ' (I.W.). 

bostjo, v., Eng. (Dial.), bost, ' to burst ' (O.H.) ; cf. C.F., 1889, 678. 
36 : dgest a bostjo gin xwerBin. 

bostun, s.m., Eng. apostume ; bystwn, D., 'whitlow'. 

bottum, s.m., pi. b3tdma, bwtwm, L.A. 95. 14; W.S.; bottwm, 
D.; M.E. botoun; 'button': be daxi y kalyn hunna ? t sdi o dim 
gwerB kap bottum. Cf. bottum korn \korri\. 

bo:B, s.f., pi. boBa, both, D., ' nave of a wheel ' : bo:n 3 vo:B, ' the 
side of the nave towards the axle '. 



b0ujog bra:n 5 r 

bmjog, adj., bywiog, D. ; cf. bowiawg, G.R. 58. 10, ' lively'. 
b0ulyd, adj., bawlyd, D., bowlyd, s.v. ' cacatus ' ; ' mean '. 

b0und, adj., ' bound ' in sense of bound to do a thing, etc. : 
may hi m benind o hono vo, os &y:8 o gumpas, 'she is bound to catch 
it (i. e. an illness) if it is about '. 

b0wyd, s.m., pi. bdwdda, bywyd, D., ' life ' : / o:ys na dim ?na:Q 

verwyd mo vo, ' there's not a spark of life in him ' ; laivyd m 

1 bgad, ' life, animation in his eye ' ; kovja am d9 v0wyd, ' mind you 
remember ' ; merwyd i !, exclamation of surprise. 

bra:d, s.m., brad, D., ' treachery ' : neid o dim bra:d i ne:l ; bra:d 
p0udur, 'Gunpowder Plot' (J.J.). 

bradur, s.m., pi. bradurs, bradwr, D., 'traitor'. 
bradzxy, v., bradychu, D., 'to betray '. 
bra:g, s.m., brag, D., ' malt'. 
bragur, s.m., bragwr, T.N. 17. 39, 'maltster'. 

bragy, v., bragu, S.E. (i) * to make malt'. (2) formerly used 
in the sense of 'to sprout' (= egino] in speaking of corn (J.J.). 

braid, adv., braidd, D. (i) ' rather, somewhat ' : may n mynd m 
o: o:yr. zdi, braid, ' it's getting a bit cold '. ' It is, rather ' ; mi vy:d na 
i braid ovn gwarQag, ' I am rather afraid of cattle ' ; da\i wedi ka:yl 
annuyd? do:, braid, 'have you caught cold?' 'Yes, a little'. 
(2) ' almost ' : braid 9 mhen dra:u r by:d, ' almost at the end of 
the world '. 

bramt, s,f., pi. breintja, braint, D., 'privilege' : xw i mo r vraint, 
1 1 never had the privilege '. 

brak, adj., brae, C.L.C. ii. 20. 5, T.N. 133. 25, 'loose': ti:r 
Irak, Moose, soft, broken land' (= ti:r rhy:b heb gledy, opp. 
to ti:r trum, kletog, tyn, J.J.); dy:n brak i davod, said of a man 
who cannot keep a secret ; may o n m brak i davod, dydt'0 o bo:b 
pe:6, ' he is always wagging his tongue : he will tell everything ' 
(O.H.). 

brakty, s.m., bragdy, S.E., ' malt-house '. 

bran, s., bran, S.E., ' bran ' = eisin. 

bra:n, s.f., pi. brain, bran, D., ' crow, rook ' : may r brain dy 
gwe'idi, ' the crows are cawing ' ; Kin y:ad a r vra:n, ' as black as 
a crow ' ; mi nabun o dm mhi:g 9 vra:n, ' I should know him any- 
where '; riu vra:n djy: deydod uBa /', 'a little bird told me'. 
bra:n dzfyn, 'carrion crow' (Corvus corone). If one settles 
down on a farm it is supposed to bring good luck. Cf. W.M.M. 
s.v. ' bran-diddyn ' ; bugan brain, ' scarecrow ' ; pyppys brain 
\pyppys\ ; kravayk d vra:n } ' crow's foot ' (Ranunculus bulbosus). 

2 



5 2 branar braQy 

(2) 'contrivance for raising the body of a cart' : rhoi r drol ar i 
bra:n (i xpdi hi ar i 6i:n). 

branar, s., braenar, D. ; branar, L.G.C. 61 [45]. (i) 'fallow- 
ground ' : branar ha:, ' land ploughed in the winter and left 
fallow '. (2) l a kind of disease in cattle which makes them eat 
clothes, said to be caused by eating a certain herb ' : ma: branar 
ar d gwarBag. Cf. M.F. s.v. ' branar '. 

dra:s, adj., pi. breif'on, bras, D. (i) ' fat ' : Ki:g bra:s, ' fat meat ' 
(not often used = Ki:g gwyn). (2) ' rich ' (in speaking of land) : ti:r 
bra:s ti:r ner&ol, kry:; may na le: bra:s dmma. (3) ' big ' : peOa 
bra:s, ' big lumps ' (speaking e. g. of coal) ; fola bra:s, ' large holes ' 
(e. g. in a riddle) ; breif'on 9 sgri:n, ' the larger stones which will 
not pass through a screen or standing riddle ' ; lyvr bra:s, wedi 
brintjo n vra:s, ' a book with big print '. (4) ' coarse ' : breQyn, 
barklod, li:an bra:s, ' coarse cloth, apron, table-cloth '. Fig. farad 
m vra:s, ' to use coarse, vulgar, unseemly, insulting language ' 
riu hc:n eirja fi:a, brzntjon, 'dirraty'o pobol, sar hay, farad 9n 
8ru:g, m isal (O.H.). 

brasbuyQ, s., brasbwyth, S.E., lit. ' a coarse stitch ', in the phrase 
du i bim ond am roid riu hzrbuyd a brasbuyQ dno vo, ' I am only 
going to put a few stitches in it '. 

brasgammy, v., brasgamu, S.E., ' to stride : dy:ar annul ! ma:y 
o m brasgammy n aru /, ' good gracious ! how he strides along ! ' 

bra:s'holti, v. (in slate quarries), ' to rough-split '. 
bra:yhollur, s.m. (in slate quarries), ' a rough-splitter '. 

Irasolt, adj. (in slate quarries) : fy:n brasoU, ' a chisel for rough- 
splitting '. 

brastar, s.m., brasder, i Sam. xv. 22, 'fat', e.g. of meat or on 
broth. 

brasterog ; blasterog (E.J.), adj., brasderog, S.E., 'fat '. 

brastod, s., brasdod, ' coarse, unseemly language ' : farad brastod 
(O.H.), cf. above/arad m vra:s. 

brat, s.m., pi. bratja, bratt, D. ; Eng. (Dial.) brat, (i) ' rag' (not 
in common use ; for example see breniii). (2) 'pinafore'. 

bradgi, s.m v brathgi. S.E., 'a surly, irascible fellow': ta:u r he:n 
vradgi djaul f (Q.lrl.}. 

braQjad, s.m., brathiad, D., s.v. ' morsus ' ; ' bite ', e.g. of a dog ; 
also ' nibble ' (in fishing). 

bradog, adj., brathog, G.O. ii. 189. 30, 'given to biting': tdnnyla:u 
hyd gi: bradog (prov. exp.), 'to stroke, wheedle a dog given to biting'. 

braQy, v., brathu, D. (i) ' to bite ' : Ki: braQy o:yb o, dy kmar6 
ar wynab paub 'he was a biting dog who barked at every one ' ; 



bra:u breibjur 53 

paid a braOy r bensal, ' don't bite the pencil '. (2) ' to nip off a 
piece of flesh in shearing '. Cf. pigo, pegjo. (3) braBy i ben tru: 
r dru:s, 'to pop one's head in at the door'. Cf. D.F. [29] 28, 
[91] 19; G.R. 35. 6. 

bra:u, s.m., braw, D., s.v. 'terror'; 'terror, fright': mi ge:s i 
vra:u garu, ' I had a terrible fright ' ; pobol meun bra:u, ar 3 bra:u, 
' people in terror '. 

brand, s.m., pi. brodyr, brawd, D., ' brother '. 

bra:v, adj., comp. bravjax, braf, C.L.C. ii. 9. i. (i) 'fine 
(especially of the weather), nice, pleasant '. Does not mutate. 
may (hi] m bra:v h'e'iSju. zdi wi:r, may m bra:v jaun, ' it's a fine 
day/ ' Yes, indeed, it is very fine ' ; may hi m bravjax m d ty:, 
' it is better, pleasanter in the house ' ; le: bra:v jaun i ista ddi wima, 
' this is a nice place to sit ' ; ta:n bra:v, 'a nice fire ' ; may m bra:v 
arno vo /, ' he has a fine time of it ! ' ; may gwaiQ 9m be:B bra:v jaun, 
1 work is a fine thing ' ; u:tiny:n bra:v /, ' you're a nice specimen ! ' 
(2) 'fine ' (in appearance, in person) : he:n wreigan bra:v, ' a fine 
old woman '. 

bray, adj., brau, D., 'brittle, tender': may o n vray vel Ki:g Kiu, 
' it is as tender as chicken ' (opp. gwydyn). 

brayx, s.f., pi. breixja, braich, D., ' arm ' : bo:n brayx-, ' the upper 
part of the arm ' ; brayx trol, ' shaft of a cart ' ( = lorp) ; bray\ * 
mrayx, dm mreixja i gi'tt'8, ' arm in arm ' ; rhaid i r vrayx weiQjo o 
r gesal, ' the whole arm must be in motion ' (i. e. hard at work) ; 
hnnig ar hy:d brayx, ' to offer something with the hope that it will 
not be accepted ' ; breixja 9r em, en, etc. (J.J.), ' the up-strokes of an 
" m ", " n ", etc/ 

brftwidjo, v., breuddwydio, D., ' to dream '. 

brebog, s.f., ' a foolish, prattling woman ' : ta:u 3 vrebog wirjon 

(]:) 

brebuL s.m., brebwl, C.L.C. ii. 21. 9; T.N. 128. 10; Eng. 
brabble, ' to wrangle ' ; ' a foolish, prattling man ' (J.J.). 

bregljax, v., ' to jabber ' : paid a bregljax ar hy:d 9 bedlan, * don't 
keep jabbering all the time ' ; riu he:n vregljaxfarad. 

bregljax, s., ' jabbering '. 

breib, s., breib, W.S., 'bribe '. 

breibjo, v., bribio, W.S. (i) ' to bribe '. (2) ' to deal in an under- 
hand manner (telling tales, etc.) for the sake of gain '. (For the 
latter sense cf. C.C. 14. 17, Mae'r ffeiriaid yn loytran, mae'r 
barnwyr yn bribian). 

breibjur, s.m., bribiwr, W.S. ; plbreibwyr, B.C. 19. n. (i) 'one 
who bribes '. (2) ' an informer ' = dy:n dy karjo (telling tales) agm 
deyd 'an'wiraS am gad peB (O.H.). 



54 brekfti breQyn 

brekfti, s., brecci, D., ' cervlsiae liquor incoctus ' : in phrases ar 
i vrekKi, meun breklti, ' on the spree ' (O.K.). 

brehivast, s.m., brecfTast, C.C. 8. 22; brecwest, T.N. 12.33; 
cf. Eng. (Dial.) breckwist, Irel. Nhb. ; brickwast, Nhb. ; ' breakfast '. 

brekwesta, v., 'to breakfast '. 

bre:x, s.f., y frech, D. : y vre:x go:x, ' measles ' ; d vre:x wen, 
' smallpox ' ; bre:x drje'ir, ' chicken-pox '. 

brextan, s.f., brechdan, D., ' a piece of bread and butter ' ; brextan 
dgam, ' a piece of bread and jam ' ; brextan dena vel deilan, ' a piece 
of bread and butter as thin as a leaf; brextan vaud, ' a piece of 
bread on which the butter is spread with the thumb ' ; klemman, 
taval, k ton tan, Jduf o vreyjan, 'a big piece of bread and butter'; 
brextan i aros pry:d, ' a piece of bread and butter to go on with till 
the next meal ' ; also fig. brextan i aros pry:d ddi honna, ' he is 
only flirting with her '. 

brelt, s.pl.j sing, bralan, briallu, D., ( primroses ' (Primula 
vulgaris). 

brmhinas, s.f., pi. breninesa, brenhines, D., s.v. ' regina ' ; 'queen'. 

brenin, s.m., pi. brenhinob, brenhin, D., ' king ' : ma: r durnod 
wedi mynd i r brenin, ' the day has gone imperceptibly without 
getting anything done ' ; so also mi 'roisoxi $o:y i r brenin ; 
brenin maur !, excl. of surprise ; brenin 3 bratja a i dra:yd tru i 
sanna !, excl. 

brenf'a^ in the exp. brenf'ax annul !, excl. of surprise. Also 
brenf'un. 

brcst, s.f., pi. brcstja, brest, I.D. xxxvi. 31 ; C.C.M. 80. 15 ; C.C. 
150. 10 ; 432. 1 6 ; ' breast, chest ' (of human beings or animals) : 
prsgeBy^ gwe-i:o o r vrest, ' to preach, pray extempore ' ; gwasga 
d^ vrest, ' do not say a word ' ; as applied to land, c a slope ' = 



bresijo, v., Eng. (Dial.) breast, brestjo gwry:x is sometimes used 
for tokjo gwry:x, 'to clip a hedge' (J.J.) ; but O.H. has brestjo 
klaub tu:yrx-, ' to renew a hedge-bank with fresh sods '. 

bresyxt s.pl., bresych, D., ( charlock ' (Brassica Sinapis, etc.). 

bresys, s.pl., sing, bresan, ' braces '. 

brettyn, s.m. (dim. otbraf), pi. bratja, brettyn, D., s.v. ' pittacium '. 
(i) ' rag ' (not in common use = raksan) : t ddi o dim ond poiri ar 
i vrettyn i hy:n (O.H.), * he is only fouling his own nest '. (2) said 
of some one who has become weak through illness, etc. : dy:n 
wedi mynd m he:n vrettyn, wedi darvod m y:n brettyn (O.H.). (3) 
in moral sense ' a fellow without backbone ' = dy:n a dim fru:t 
znovo, dim nerd, dim zsbryd ; dy:n 'dirv0wyd (E.J.). 

breQyn, s.m., pi. breBma, brethyn, D., ' cloth ' : breOyn kartra, 
' homespun '. 



brevy brits 55 

brevy, v., brefu, D., ' to bleat, to low ' (of sheep or cattle) ; also 
applied to children crying (O.H.). 

breybuyd, s.m., pi. brbwidjon, breuddwyd, D., 'dream '. 

breyo, v., breuo, S.E., ' to become brittle or tender ; to become 
rotten (of clothes) ' : ma:r Ki:g 3m breyo ; trvusys wedi breyo m da: 
i dim ond i vynd i r potjur (O.H.) 

bri:, s.m., bri, D., ' esteem, reputation ' : r 0:8 o meun bri: r amsar 
honno ; meun bri: maur ; koli i vri:, ' to lose one's character ' ; 
hel bri:, ' to call witnesses to testify as to one's character'; hel bri: 
9 nail 9 lal = hel beia, ' to find fault with one another '. 

o o o 

bri:d, s.m., ' breed ' (T.N. 88. 3) : may Kiu o r bri:d (p vri:d) m 
wel nafrentis, proverb implying that one who follows the calling of 
his father is better than an apprentice. 

bri:g, s.m., brig, D. (r) 'top (especially of trees); topmost 
branches ; tops (in the aggregate) ' : ma: r plant dn drino i vri:g 3 
goydan, ' the children are climbing to the top of the tree ' ; bri:g 
ta:s, ' the top of a haystack ' ( = &ri:b, pen) ; also the tops or ears 
of corn : 9 sgyba ar i penna bri:g 9 mri:g ; rhoid 3 sgyba a i bri:g i 
vjaun ; ' the tops of waves ' : r o:d 3 mo:r dn vri:g gwyn (O.H.). 
Cf. brigun. (2) ' twigs ' : dail ar 3 bn:g. 

briga, s.pl. (i) sing, brigan, 'branches': du:y vrigan vaur 
vaur (O.H.) ; / o:ys na dim digon o wynt i dsguyd 9 briga, ' there is 
not enough wind to move the branches '. (2) dim., sing. brigin> 
brigyn, D., ' twigs ' : bvny hevo drain a briga bedu, ' to harrow with 
thorns and birch twigs ' ; r o.yd briga r ko:yd 3m baxy 'arnoni^ 
' the twigs used to catch in our clothes '. 

brigo, v., barugo, C.C.M. 49. 32, 'to freeze ', but only applied to 
hoar-frost, such as may come in a night and disappear with the 
first rays of the sun (cf. r/iewi) : may nfu:r o rtwi axos bo:t i wedi 
brigo n aru, ' it is sure to freeze because there is a heavy hoar-frost '. 

brigog, adj., brigog, D. (i) 'branchy, spreading' (of trees). 
(2) of corn, ' rich in grain ' =fruy6lon (J.J.). Cf. kribog (Cor wen) 
same sense. 

brigun, s.m., brigwyn, ' white water on a rough sea ' : brigun 
gwyn (O.H.). 

brikbyst, s.pl., ' horizontal poles at the top of scaffolding, secured 
in the wall and to the perpendicular poles ' (O.K.). 

briks, s.pl., sing, briksan, f. brics, D.G. xxxii. 32, ' bricks'. 
brisin, s.m., ' breeze ' = awal farp ar vo:r ne lyn (J. J.). 

brits, britf, s.f., ' the figure of Britannia on the reverse side of 
copper coins ' ; only used in phrases connected with tossing coins : 



56 bri:6 brivo 

p r yn ta Kiy ta brits ? (O.H.), ' heads or tails ' ; so, p r yn ta du:y 
giy ta du:y brits ? (O.H.). 

bri:6, adj., brith, D., ' speckled, variegated ' : byux vri:Q, ' black 
and white, red and white cow, etc/, pi. gwarBag briBjon;bara 
bri:B, ford vri:B, ' currant bread, currant loaf ' ; r o:d 3 mo:r an vri:6 
o go:yd (O.H.), ' the sea was dotted with pieces of wood ' (i.e. after 
a wreck). 

bri&&ig) s.m., brith-gig, T.N. 59. 22, 'streaked bacon, meat ', 
etc., i.e. lean and fat in alternate layers. 

briBgo, s., cf. brith gof, M.F., ' a dim recollection ' : may gin i 
vriOgo am dano (J.J.). 

briBil, s.m., pi. briBil and briBi'l/aid, brithyll, D., ' trout ' (Salmo 
fario) : briBil 9 mo:r, ' salmon trout' (Salmo trutta); briBil mair, 
'five-bearded rockling' (Motella mustela). 

briBo, v., britho, D., ' to speckle ' : r 0:8 i wa:lt wedi briBo, ' his 
hair had become speckled with grey ' ; in making butter : may o n 
dexra briBo, ' the butter is beginning to come ' (in minute particles ) ; 
in met. sense : ma nu 3n briBo r wla:d, ' the country is dotted 
with them '. 

briBwyn, adj., brithwyn, S.E.*, 'of white and another colour': 
Lynx vriBwyn. 

Iriu, s.m., pi. briuja, briw, D., ' a wound ' : truf'o, mendjo briuja, 
' to heal wounds ' j r o:$ gin i vrin 9n hirax na hmny, ' I had a 
wound longer than that ' ; ma.y lo:sg eira weiBja n tori n vriuja, 
' chilblains sometimes break out into wounds ' ; dan i vriuja, 
' wounded '. 

briuljo, v., brwylio, W.S.; C.C. 180. 14; 469. 4; briwlio, 
B.C. 90. 2i,Eng. broil, 'to cook, toast before a fire', e.g. bread, 
potatoes, fish, etc. 

brius, s.m., Eng. brew-house; 'back-kitchen' = Ktgin gevn, 
ttegin ba:%. 

briusin, s.m., briwsyn, S.E., ' a crumb, small piece ' : d0ru\ i mi 
vriusin ba:x o vara. 

briuf'on, s.pl., sing, briufonyn, briwsion, D., 'crumbs': helux 3 
briuf'on o:d ar 3 laur, ' get the crumbs up off the floor '. 

briufom, v., briwsioni, D., s.v. 'affrio', 'to crumble (trans, and 
intr.) of bread ', etc. : paid a briufoni 3 dor 6 ; rhaid i xi dlino r dorB 
dn wcl 3 tro: nesa rhag idi vriufoni. 

briufonjyd, adj., briwsionllyd, S.E., ' crumbly '. 

brivo, v., briwo, D., 'to hurt, to be hurt, to hurt oneself: may 
o wedi brivo, ' he has hurt himself ' \rnay o wedi vrivo = ' he has 
been hurl ' is also used] ; may r hu:x wedi vrivo vo, ' the sow has 



briwar bru:as 57 

hurt him ' ; mi vrivi di hevo rhei n, 'you will hurt yourself with 
those ' ; fy:d tavoda paub 9m brivo, ' they will all have sore tongues ' ; 
also in a restricted sense, ' to rupture oneself : may o wedi brivo 
= may o wedi tori i leygid. 

briwar, s.m., bruwer, W.S., * brewer '. 

bro:, s.f., pi. brovyb, bro, D., 'neighbourhood, district' (not 
common) : i vro: enedigol, ' his native district '. 

brodjo, v., brodio, D. ; D.G. xlvii. 50 ; brodrio, W.S. [Brauder], 
' to darn ' : brodjo sanna hevo ndduy Sy:r sanna, l to darn stockings 
with a darning needle '. 

brok, adj., broc, S.E., 'grey (with a tinge of red)', only in Hefyl 
brok. 

bro:x, s., broch, D., ' foam ' : 9 du:r m troi m vro:\ (J.J.) ; ap- 
plied to persons of a rough, uncouth nature : he:n vro:x o rubaB 
ddi o (O.K.). 

broxi, v., brochi, D., 'to be angry, to bluster, chafe'. 

broxlyd, adj., 'in a bad humour ' (O.H.). 

brol, s.f., brol, G.O. ii. 206. 21, ' a boast ' : he:n vrol vaur. 

broljo ; blorjo (E.J.), brolio, R. ; Eng. brawl, 'to flatter, praise, 
speak well of : broljo ru:in, ' to praise some one' ; broljo i hy:n, 
' to boast '. 

broljur, s.m., broliwr, R., ' boaster, braggart '. 

brolog, s., Eng. prologue (from the old interludes), I.W., ' non- 
sense ' lol t e. g. rtu he:n brolog, but never used now (O.H.). Cf. 
C.F. 1880, p. 331. 

bron, s.f., pi. bronna, bron, D., ' breast ' : bron teytys, ' bronchitis '. 

bron, adv., bron, S.E. almost ' : r o:d o bron a UBy dano vo, ' he 
was almost sinking under it'; torB bron ivedi darvod, ' a loaf almost 
finished ' ; byux bron lo:, ' a cow about to calve '. 

bronwan, s.f., pi. bronwennod, bronwen, D., ' weasel '. 

bronwaQ, adj., bronfraith, D., deryn bronwaQ, ' thrush ', pi. adar 
bronwaB ; Keiljog bronwa6,ja:r vronzvaB. 

br0un, adj., ' brown ', in bara br#un, etc. Also as substantive, a 
kind of bird (sp. ?) I.W. 

bru:as, s.m., brwes, W.S. ; browes, W.LI. (Voc.), s.v. ' micas ' ; 
brywes, B.C. 74. 17; Eng. brewes, browes, ' broth ' =fru:yQ fti:g 
bra:s berwedig ; ka:l i vy: s meun bru:as paub, rhoi i vy:s an 9 bru:as, 
' to have one's finger in every pie ', ' to meddle with other people's 
business ' ; bru:as menyn, made by crumbling bread into a teacup, 
adding a lump of butter, and pouring boiling water over it (E.J.); 
bru:as ffeirx, made by grinding oat-cake small, adding dripping, 
and pouring boiling water over it (E.J.); bru:as 3 bi:g, bru:as 
pi:g 3 tekKal, ' boiling water poured over bread and a little gweran 
byppyr added '. 



58 bru:d bry:s 

bru:d, adj., brwd, D., s.v. ' fervens ' : bar a bru:d, ' hot bread 
just out of the oven '. 

bruinjad, s., pi. bruinjaid^ brwyniad, D., 'smelt' (Osmerus 
eperlanus). 

bruxan, s.m., ? D. bruchen, ' scatebra, scaturigo ', cf. S.E., s.v. 
brychen, { foam, froth ' : kodi ny:n bruxan, ' to rise in one mass 
of froth ' (I.W.). 

brumstan, s., brwmstan, D.; Eng. brumstone (i4th-i5th cent.); 
Mod. Sc. brumstane ; s.v. ' sulphur ', ' brimstone, sulphur '. 

brunt, adj., fern, bront, pi. brmtjon, comp. brmtax, brwnt, D., 
s.v. ' sordidus ' ; ' cross, unkind, surly ', opp. to feind : may o n 
edrax in vrunt, ' he looks cross, surly ' ; ma: nu wedi bo:d m vrunt 
u6axi> ' they have been unkind to you ' ; geirja brmtjon, ' cross 
words ' ; r o:n i n tVimlo n vilan vruni (O.H.), ' I felt wild with 
anger '. 

brus, bruf, s.m., pi. brusis, brufis, brwis, W.S., 'brush': boys 
brus, ' the handle of a brush ' ; brus laur, ' a floor brush (with a 
long handle) ' ; brus dannad, dilad, gwa:lt, gwmad, paynt, ivitwaj 
(xweitwaf), ' tooth, clothes, hair, nail, paint, whitewashing brush '. 

bruf'o, v., ' to brush ' : neuxi vruf'o x ko:t Kin mynd alan, ma na 
rubaO wedi elun arno vo, ' will you brush your coat before you go 
out, there is something spilt on it '. 

bruydyr, s.f., brw r ydr, D., * battle ' (semi-literary). 

bru:yn, s.pl., sing, bruynan, brwyn, D., ' rushes ' : kannuyl vru:yn, 
1 rushlight '. 

bry:d, s., bryd, D., ' mind ' in rhoi i vry:d ar, ' to set one's 
mind upon '. 

bry:d) adv., pa bryd, ' when ? ' : bry.d d0uxi n x o:l?, ' when will 
you come back ? ' ; bry:d vasa n ora i mi odro ?, ' when had I better 
do the milking ? ' also pry:d. 

bry:x, adj., fern. bre:x, brych, D., ' brindled ' : 9 vry:x vyxas (byxas) 
sigil di:n 9 guys (J.J.), * wagtail ', cf. D. brith y fuches, 
' motacilla '. 

bry:x, s.m v pi. brsxod, brych buwch, D., ' afterbirth ' (of all 
animals, but especially of cows) : may o n edrax vel bry:x, said of 
one of a wretched, pinched, wizened appearance ; r he:n vry:x 
gwirjon (O.H.) ; for pi. cf. T.N. 346. 24. 

bryn, s.m., pi. brznja, brynn, D., ' hill ' (cf. ga:lf). 

bry:s, s.m., brys, D., ' haste ' : / oys dim bry:s, ' there's no hurry ' ; 
da\i meun bry:s am de: ?, ' are you in a hurry for tea ? ' ; foxuyn ar 
vry:s maur, ' to start in a great hurry ' ; mi a:6 o ar vry:s gwy:lf, 
' he went of! in a terrible hurry ' ; ma na i dippin o vry:s, ' I am 
rather in a hurry '. 



-bry:sg'luini bugun 59 

bry.-sg'lumij s.pl., prysglwyni, D., s.v. ' frutetosus ' ; brysglwyni, 
Job xxx. 4 kayhenna m tsvy i vmy o wi:al (J.J.), 'new shoots 
growing upwards, e.g. in a hedge after cutting'. 

br9djo t v., brydio, D., ' to throb, tingle with heat ' (used esp. of 
the feet). 

brffgmda ; przgmQa (O.H.), v., briwgawthan, C.C. 130. 7; 
brygawthan, R.; prygowtha, T.N. 242. i ; bragowtha, M.F. Cf. 
also pregethu prygothen, C.L.C. ii. 27. 24, 'to speak indistinctly'. 
See also pr^gmdan, png0uQur. 

br^xa, s.pl., brych, pi. brychau, D., i specks, small particles of 
dirt ', etc. : r o:y 3 levriQ m vr^xa guru, ' the milk was full of specks ' ; 
hidlan i gadu r br^x, ' a strainer to remove the specks ' ; brz\a 
gwla:n, ' flock ' (J. J.) ; kodi brdxa (fig-)' ' to ^ n< ^ f au ^ ts > blemishes '. 

s.m. Cf. brychiad, S.E., 'salmon trout'. 
i, s., brychni, D., in exp. br^xni hayl, ' freckles '. 

bwnary, v., braenaru, D., s.v. ( aro' ; brynaru, Yny Ihyvyr hwnn 
[7] ; C.C. 404. 26, ' to lay out in fallow '. 

brdntni, s.m., bryntni, D., ' sordes, squalor' ; 'cruelty, unkindness'. 

IrmtuX) s.m. = brmtni. This is the more usual form. 

brtf'o, bri/'o, v., brysio, D., ' to hasten ' : brafux ! ; lrifu\ /, 
' make haste !, be quick ! ' ; brzf'ux 9mma efto, ' come and see us 
again soon ' (said to a visitor on taking his departure). 

bnf'og, brifog, adj., brysiog, S.E., ' hurried, hasty, in a hurry '. 

bu:, in the exp. bu: na be: \e:f i dim bu: na be: gino vo, ' I could 
not get a word out of him ' ; mi a:6 o 0:8 dmma heb fteyd na bu: 
na: be:. 

Z>u:a, s.m., pi. bu-a:y, bwa, D., ' bow ' : bu:a sa.yO, ' bow and 
arrow ' ; tinny n i vu:a vo, ' to pull at his bow ', i. e. ' to provoke ' ; 
kodi ny:n bu:a, ' to rise in a curve ' (speaking, e. g. of the flight of 
a cannon-ball). 

bubax, s.m., bwbach, D., ' bogy, bugbear ' : may o n he:n vubax, 
' he is an old bugbear ' ; also used of one who keeps to himself 
and never says a word to any one (O.H.), bubax o Sy:n. 

buf, bwff, W.LI. Ixvi. 43, Mar buf, l wash-leather '. 

bufin \pufin\. 

bugan, s.m., pi. buganod, bzganod, bwgan, W.S., 'ghost, bogy': 
bugan bra:n (brain), ' scarecrow ' ; gneyd bugan maur o bo:b ped, 
' to make mountains of molehills, exaggerate little anxieties ' ; 9 
treQi ma zdi r he:n vzganod, ' it is these rates and taxes which are 
the old bogies ' ; may o wedi valy n \wilvriu bugan, ' it is torn to 
shreds ' ; bugan o dy:n 'an'warad (O.H.). 

bugun i, for tebygwn i, ' I should think ' (J. J.). 



60 buguO bul\ 

buguB, bzguQ, s., pi. bdgzQjon, bygwth, D., ' threat '. 

buguQ, bzgud, bdguyB, v., bygwth, D. (i) 'to threaten': bugnB 
taro ru:in, ' to threaten to strike some one ' ; ma hi m buguQ storom, 
'the weather looks threatening'. (2) 'to make as if (one were 
about to do something)': wedi bugud gwei&jo a dim dy grieyd. (3) 
* to insinuate ' : buguQ bo \i wedi grieyd peQ. 

bukkad, s.m., pi. buKedi, bwcket, W.S., ' bucket ' : bukkad glo:, 
1 coal-scuttle '. 

biikkul, s.m., pi. Mia, bwckyl, W.S. ; bwccl, D., ' buckle ' : 
Hoksan bukkul, ' buckled clog ' ; sgidja bMa, ' buckled shoes ' ; 
bukkul bresys, ' the buckle of braces '. 

buks, in such expressions as mi eif i m Inks i veun, ' I popped 
in suddenly ' ; mi eif i m buks i u wynab o, ' I came right upon him 
suddenly ' (J.J.) ; grieyd rubaQ dm buks, grieyd riu vuks o waiB, ' to 
do something in a hurry' ; also buts, dma nhu m buts (O.H.). 

bukslyd, adj., * hasty ' : mi a:Q dm bukslyd jaun (i riu dramgiiy, 
hcb gmsidro Kin mynd} ; dy:n dy gweld bai arno i hy:n am i vod 
wedi lo:d m rhy: bukslyd (O.H.). 

bukf'o, v., * to act hastily' : bukfo gweiBjo (Llanfairfechan). [O.H. 
l&sfukfo, probably a confusion \\-\l\\ frukf'oJ] 

bu:x, s.m., pi. foxod, bwch, D. : bu:x gavr, ( he-goat ' ; edrax vel 
bu:x-, ' to look surly and disagreeable '. 

buxan, s.f., epithet applied to an untrustworthy person : riu he:n 
vuxan o fonas (O.H.). 

buxyn, masc. of above (O.H.). 

bul, bulaitf, s., bwlas, W.S. ' bullace ' (Prunus insititia), eirin bul, 
eirin bulaitf. 

bulat, s.f., pi. buledi, ' bullet ' : m sy:6 vel bulat (e. g. of a furrow), 
' as straight as a die '. 

bulfyn, s.m. (i) 'bullfinch' (Pyrrhula Europaea). (2) 'a fat 
man '. 

bull, s.m., Eng. bully, 'prize-fighter ' : rvo: di buli r by:d (O.H.), 
' he is the champion prize-fighter of the world '. 

buljo, v., bwlio, T.N. 13. 3; Eng. bully, (i) 'to tease, annoy', 
e. g. plant 9m buljo he:n bobol, by mimicking them. (2) 'to insult' 
hmmyd ru:in m dsgavn a deyd g'e'irja fi:a u6o vo paid di a muljo 
i:, du i m barny mod i gsstal a tiBa. (3) ' to handle roughly, ' to 
" punish " ' (e.g. in prize-fighting) : r u:ti wedi ka:l d? vuljo n aru. 

bulx, s.m., pi. bslxa, bwlch, D., ' gap '. [As compared with 
aduy, bulx is, generally speaking, an accidental gap which requires 
filling up, e.g. a gap made by sheep in a hedge or a piece of wall 
which has fallen, while aduy is a permanent gap made for a way to 
pass through.] (i) 'a mountain pass or any opening between two 
hills '. (2) ' gap, e.g. in a hedge or wall ' : ma: r devaid wedi grieyd 



butragjur buru 6 1 



bulx 3n d klauft, ' the sheep have made a gap in the hedge ' ; 
bulx, ' to make a gap in a wall ' (by pulling down the stones). (3) 
applied to a 'hare-lip': bulx m dr e:n, bulx 9n 9 wevys. (4) of 
sheep's ear-marks : bulx bla:yn givennol, bulx klikjad, bulx Pb>:g, 
bulx iri Qorjad [no:d]. (5) fig. vzba i y gweld bulx ar i o:l, ' I miss 
him '. (6) ' defect ' : / o:ys ne:b nad o:ys riu vulx arno vo. 

bulragjur, s.m., ' bully-ragger ' : he:n bulragjur gurjon (O.H.). 

bul, adj., corr. of mul, ' sultry ' : ma: r du:y dm buL 

buljid, s.m., ' swivel '. 

bumbatf, 'buts'bats^ -butfi'batf, adv., ' clumsily, anyhow ' = rusyt 
rusyt, -strim'stram'strelax ' may o wedi gosod 9 klut (patch) dm 
-buts'bats. 

bundal, s.m., pi. bundeli, bwndel, T.N. 22. 38, 'bundle': bundal 
o riubob, ' a bundle of rhubarb ' ; bundal o orjada, ' a bunch of keys '. 

buns, s., pi. bunfis, ' bunch ' : koyd hy:d d for a bun/is maur an 
hoyjan o'rudynu, ' trees growing along the road with big bunches 
(of flowers) hanging from them '. 

buy \adar\ 

buyglar, s.m., bwngler, W.S. ; D. (i) 'bungler': 0:8 dim ond 
luk buyglar 280 neyd (O.H.), 'it was only a "fluke"'. (2) 'a 
worthless good-for-nothing fellow ' : riu hem bmbar o hem 8y:n, m 
medry gneyd ag 3y kay laun o bo:b dru:g (O.H.) paid a kalyn r 
he:n vuyglar na. 

buygul, s., ' bungle '. 

bur, bur, s.m., pi. bzrba, bwrdd, D. (i) 'table ' : tro:yd bur, 
' leg of a table ' ; gosod 2 &ttrd, ' to lay the table ' ; klirjo r durd, 
' to clear away'; fig. do:0 <? gair na dim i r durd o r bla:yn (O.H.), 
c we have never talked about that word before ' (cf. Fr. ' mettre sur le 
tapis'). (2) bur mortar, 'mortar board'. (3) in slate quarries: 
a kind of scaffold suspended by ropes (cf. baud, 4) at about 15 yards 
from the ground, against the face of the rock, and large enough to 
hold three men who bore a hole for blasting (J.J.). 

burjad, s.m., bwriad, W.S. [A cast], burjad o la:u, 'a shower of 



burjady, v., bwriadu, D., 'to intend'. 

burn, s.m., bwrn, D. ; Eng. (Dial.), burn, ' burden ' ; ' a burden 
on the stomach giving an inclination to vomit ' : may hi y kodi burn 
-arnoxi, ' it makes you feel sick ' ; also used figuratively, / adi o 
8im ond burn ar 9 wla:d (J.J.), 'he is only a burden on the 
country ' ; also ' a weight on one's spirits '. 

buru, v., bwrw, D. Imperative S. 2. buru, burja, 3. burjad', 
PI. 2. burjux- Imperf. S. 3. burja. (i) 'to shed' (a) of rain, 
etc. : buru gla:u, ' to rain ' ; buru eira, ' to snow ' ; buru Kenjysg 
(fonslys), 'to hail'; buru eirlau, 'to sleet'. Very frequently 



62 buru bu:yd 

without gla:u, ' to rain ' : may hi m buru n jaun, m drum, m aru, 
'it is raining heavily' ; may hi m buru n u:ys, 'it is raining 
steadily ' ; may n tref'o buru (more rarely stido buru\ ' it is pouring 
\vith rain ' ; may hi m buru he:n wragab a fyn, may hi m buru 
sgrzmpja gu:yl d gro:g, may hi m buru vel tasa hi n du:ad o gruk, 
1 it is raining cats and dogs ' ; may himpigo buru, ' it is "spotting", 
raining a few drops ' ; may golug buru ami hi, ' it looks like rain ' ; 
burjadvaint vy:d vanno vo, burjad hdnny vurja vo (O.H.), ' let it rain 
as much as it likes ' ; (b) of corn which has become over-ripe and 
is shedding the grain (= koli, drom'); (c) 'to bring forth': buru 
to:, ' to calve ' ; (d) ' to lay eggs ' (of insects) : prmaid gleifon dm 
buru ar 9 devaid; (e) fig. buru v? hiraO, ' to get over my longing, 
to make me forget my home-sickness, etc.' ; buru 3 gwaiQ na 3n 
rhu:y, ' hurry up with that job ' ; m mc6y buru i annuyd, ' unable 
to keep warm '. (2) ' to throw about ' (as of the limbs) : mi taro 

nes o:y o m buru i fodola, ' he knocked him sprawling ' ; buru 
irutii hi, ' to speak at a great rate ', said e. g. of a drunken man or 
of some one scolding. (3) ' to spend ' (of time) : buru sy:l, ' to 
spend Sunday, to stay for the week-end '. (4) ' to suppose ' : 
burjux vo:d . . . , ' suppose that . . . , let us take, for instance, that . . /. 

busan. s., pi. busys, l bush : the inner circle of the nave of a wheel 
that encloses the axle' (O.H.). 

bustvil, s.m., pi. bustvilod, bwystfil, D., ' beast, animal '. 

luf, in phrase mynd m ful but, ' to go full pelt ', I.W. (Eng. 
full butt). 

lulri, s., bwtri, L.G.C. 28. [40] ; C.C. 331. n ; W.S. [Buttrye] ; 
T.N. 224. 29, ' pantry ' (seldom used). 

buts [buks]. 

buifar, s.m., pi. butferja(i}d ; cf. bwtsiwr, C.C. 365. 21, 

1 butcher '. 

but/as, s.pl., sing, butfasan, bwtiasen, W.S. ; bottas, D. ; bwttias,* 
C.C.M. 105. 28; bwtiws, T.N. 205. 36, 'top-boots': but/as 
d go:g, ' wild hyacinths ' (Hyacinthus non-scriptus) ; cf. D., 
hosanau'r gog. 

lutti, s.m., bwtti, W.S. [Boty] : rhoid i vy:s dn 9 butti, ' to meddle 
with some one else's business'; u:yti n d butti?, 'are you in the 
scrape ? ' ; / a: i im i u butti nu, ' I'm not going to be mixed up 
with them '. 

buttog, s.m., pi. bufogij ' boat-hook '. 

buQlan \rnu6lan\. 

biiByn, s.m., pi. bu&mnod, bwthyn, S.E.*, ' hut ' : buBmnod krmjon 
(O.H.), in speaking of prehistoric round dwellings. 

bu:yd, s.m., pi. buydy\ bwyd, D., ' food ' : da\i dim an du:ad an 
o:l bu:yd /, ' you are not coming back for a meal ? ' ; may hi n dzsgy 



buy do by:d 63 

huiljo r bu:yd, l she is learning to cook ' ; dim posib gneyd bu:yd 
hevo vo:, ' it is impossible to cook with it (the coal) ' ; ma na i ifo 
buyd, ' I am hungry ' ; rhoid bu:yd i gi':, ' to feed a dog ' ; bu:yd 
bfaint, 'toadstools'; bu:yd gwya, l goosegrass ' = gwly:8 geiru. 

buydo, v., bwydo, R., ' to feed ' : buydo mo:x, ' to feed pigs '. 

buy ran, boy ran \_pabuy r\. 

bwi:, s.m., bwi, W.S., 'buoy'. 

by:an, adj., buan, D. (i) 'quick' : p3sgodyn by:an, 'a fish which 
swims fast ' ; by:an -vyo\i '/, * you have been quick ! ' ; ma r merxaid 
m reit vy:an i weld beia, l women are very quick at finding fault '. 
(2) * fast ' (of clocks) : ma:r klokja 3n 3 wla:d dri: xwartar aur m 
vy:an, ' clocks in the country are kept three-quarters of an hour 
fast '. (3) adv., ' soon ' : mi'8a:u m vy:an ru:an, ' it will burn up soon 
now ' ; ma: r maun an darvod an vy:an x a dal d glo:, ' peat burns 
quick compared with coal ' ; m vy:an ne 3n hu:yr, ' sooner or later '. 

by:ar6, s.m., pi. byarQa, buarth, D. (i) ' farm-yard '. (2) ' sheep- 
fold'. Cf. the place-names by:arQ mermaid mavon (or anavon), 
hum r avon go:x, anavon, gorlan he:n, la:d 9 sai's, 9 
garag, nant d htja, d Kevn, kut 3 ?no:x (between Aber and 
Llanfairfechan, O.H.) ; by:ar& gwarxa, ' a pound for strayed 
sheep '. Cf. W.S. buarth i warchau. 

by:d, S.ITL, pi. bada, byd, D. (i) 'world* : diwa8 3 by:d, 'end of 
the world ', ' la fin du monde ' ; pen dra:u 3 by:d, ' end of the world ', 
' le bout du monde ' ; may r by:d m du:ad i ben, ' the world is 
coming to an end ' ; ma lawar o wi:b wedi du:ad ar 3 by:d, ' there 
have been great changes ' ; vel na may r by:d 3n mynd 3 mla:yn, ( so 
the world wags ', ' such is life ' ; by:d dru:g 3di o /, ' it's a wicked 
world ! ' ; may r by:d wedi mynd ru:an, ' things have come to a 
pretty pass' ; wedi gw eld lawar tro: ar vy:d, ' having gone through 
a great deal ' ; gwyn da vy:d /, ' what a happy man you are ! ' an 
3 by:d, etc., used to intensify a statement : / o:y% o y go:sb m 3 by:d, 
' it was no punishment at all ' ; un i dim ar wynab 3 by:d maur ma 
be o.yd o n veSul, ' I have not the slightest idea what he meant ' ; 
gora n 3 by:d, ' all the better ' ; esp. with superlatives in phrases 
of the form : muya n 3 by:d 'rutljuxi ar 3 du:r, bytra n 3 by:d eid o, 
' the more you stir up water, the dirtier it gets ' ; dikka n 3 by:d 
vo: r Ke'iljog, kmta n 3 by:d ka:n o (prov.), ' the angrier a cock is, 
the sooner he crows '. Similarly by itself, especially after dim : 
da:u dim by:d pen vy:8 if'o vo, * nothing comes when it is wanted ' ; 
/ o.yd dim by:d arno vo ond i vod o wedi bytta g or mod, ' there was 
nothing the matter with him, except that he had eaten too much ' ; 
vy:om i dim 3no er s tro: by:d, ' I have not been there for a long 
time ' ; r o:d mudral ( = lot) by:d o 'honynu, ' there were an immense 
number of them ' ; pe:6 (vyu) vy:d -vmnoxi, ' whatever you like ' ; 
amriu by:d, ' several '. (2) ' trouble, fuss ' : ma: by:dovnaduy (bada 



64 bydrefo by:s 

garu) hevo xti, ' there's no end of trouble with you ' ; ma: r by:d 
hevo nu, ' they are a fearful nuisance ' ; 'r 9dani meun by:d, ' we are 
in trouble ' ; daxi meun by:d m lri:o kodt 9n 3 bora, ' you have great 
trouble in trying to get up in the morning ' ; mi geifi vy:d garu i 
rustro vo, ' I had a great deal of trouble in preventing him ' ; may 
gzno vo lawar o vy:d hevo i arjan, ' he makes a great fuss 
with his money ' ; may bada garu arno vo i vyu, ' he has great 
trouble in making a livelihood '. Cf. po:yn, trafarB, helbyL 

bydrebi, s., budreddi, D., ' filth '. 

lydwaQ) s.f., cf. mudwraig, D.G. Ixxxiv. 55 ; bydwraig, D., 

' midwife '. 

bydyr, adj., pi. bydron, comp. by/rax, budr, D., ' dirty ' : may 
r for m mynd m vydyr, ' the road is getting dirty ' ; kleri bydron, 
' dirty collars ' ; helux 3 lestri bydron ar 3 /re:, ' take away the dirty 
things on the tray ' ; he:n voxyn bydyr /, ' you dirty pig ! ' In the 
sense of stormy : may r d#wy weditroidn vydyr jaun, ' the weather 
has got very dirty '. 

fy:8, s., budd, D., ' advantage, benefit' : / o:s na dim by: i gayl 
oruBo vo. 

lyba, s.f., buddai, D., ' churn ' (seldom used = korftur) : byba gnok, 
the old-fashioned type of churn, ' plunging churn '. Cf. gorb. 

byxaS, s., buchedd, D., ' life, way of living, character ' : mwid 
lyx<*S, ' to change one's way of living ' ; y:n 'dirvyx^ y:n 
'dirgariktor. 

byxas, s.f., buches, D. (i) ' a number of cows together '. (2) ( the 
place where cows are milked when they are outside ' ; lri:B 9 vyxas 
(O.H.), y vry:x vyxas (J.J.), ' wagtail ' (Motacilla all species). 

fyr, adj., fern. ber y comp. forax, byrr, D., 'short' : 9 forb vara, 
' the shortest way ' ; dy:n byr, ' a short man ' ; 'wyftosfi be: r ddu 
in da weld di n debig ? i r durnod (dy:$) bar a byr a bydyr, 'do 
you know what I think you are like ? The shortest day short and 
dirty '. 

byrgyn, s.m., burgyn, D. (i) ' the dead body of an animal ' (O.H., 
but app. obsolete). (2) term of reproach : he:n vyrgyn; byrgyn 
bydyr. Cf. T.N. 207. i. 

byrym, s.m., burm, I.G. 629. [49]; burym, W.S. ; Eng. birme 
(rythcent.); ' barm, yeast ': byrym sy:x, ' German barm'; byrym 
gly:b, ' brewers' barm ' ; byrym gneyd, ' home-made barm, made of 
hops, sugar^ etc.' 

fy:s, s.m., pi. fosab, bys, D., ' finger, toe ' : hevo 'bysabaud, ' with 
finger and thumb ' ; rhoi i vy:s m 9 bru:as, ' to meddle with other 
people's business ' ; kodi by:s at ru:in, ' to beckon to some one ' ; 
may o y kodi r by:s ba:x-> ' he is addicted to drink ' ; a i vy:s ar o:l 



bysnas by 6 65 

paub, ( spiteful, slandering '. The following is said to children, 
taking hold of each finger in turn, beginning at the thumb : modryb 
vaur, a i by:s 9n ar yud, kornal ^ gogor, dik m 3 veipan, by:s ba:x a r 
ewin bdx an (W.H.) ; modryb 3 vaud, by:s dr yud, hinys, kulvys, 
b?xan hvruys (I.W.). by:s ko:x, ' fox-glove ' (Digitalis purpurea), 
also by:s zr u:yb (J.J.); fosaft koxjon gunjon, 'white fox -gloves '; 
sun/an vd kakkun meun by:s ko:x, ' to buzz like a bumble-bee in 
a fox-glove ', i. e. ' to fume and grumble ' ; by:s klok, ' hand of 
a clock ' ; by:s maur, by:s aur, ' hour hand ' ; by:s ba:x, by:s mynyd, 
' minute hand '. 

bysnas, s.m., pi. bysnesa, busnes, C.C. no. 21 ; 158. 9, ' business ' : 
bysnas da, gwa:yl, ' good, bad business ' ; may o zm mysnas paub, 
m rhoid i vy:s dm mysnas paub, ' he meddles with every one's 
business '. 

bysnesgar, bzsnesgar, snesgar, adj. , ' meddlesome '. 

bysneslyd, adj., ' meddlesome ' : dy:n bysneslyd, ( a busybody '. 

bysnesy, bysnesa, snesy, v., ' to be a busybody, to be meddlesome 
with other people's affairs ' : y:n garujaun ddi o am vy snesy. 

bystax, s.m., pi. bystyx, bystayjad, bustach, D., s.v. ' iuvencus ' ; 
' bullock ' = y:x- As term of reproach ; r he:n vystax gwirjon. 

bystyl, s.m., bustl, D., ' gall '. 

byteig, adj., bwytteig, D., s.v. ' manduco ' ; ' voracious, given to 
eating much '. 

bytta^ v., bwytta, D. Imperf. S. 3. bytta. Pret. S. i. bittis, 
3. bytloft. PL 3. bydson. Imperative bytta; byttux [O.PL 
has occasionally bdtta, bdttiQ, etc.], ' to eat ' : hafjo bytta, ' to 
gulp ' = teukjo ; may o y krtry bytta, ' he gobbles his food ' ; t adi 
o 8im m e/eify'o ar sx bylta, l it doesn't affect your appetite ' ; may 
o n y:n sad jaun i vytta, 'he is a very bad eater '. Fig. used of 
the sea encroaching on the land (= mnil ar}, or of a river under- 
mining its banks. Intransitively o:nu m bytta ?, ' were they good 
eating ? ' 

byttur, s.m., pi. bytturs, bwyttawr, D., ' eater ' : byttur maur, 
4 a great eater* ; sglafjurs o vytturs, ' voracious eaters ' (O.H.). 

by 6, emphatic by;6, byth, D. (i) 'ever ' : pryn he:n, pryn eilwad, 
pryn newyd, ve bery by& (prov.), ' buy old and you must buy again, 
buy new and it will last for ever ' ; am byB, ' for ever ' ; byd a 
beynyft, byd a hevyd, ' for ever and a day ' ; di:olx by 6 am hznny /, 
' thank Heaven for that ! ' Esp. with a negative 4 never ', (a) with 
reference to present time : ne'i6 i byB Sigjo, ' she never gets angry ' ; 
v^a i byd m da:lt be -vtiaxi n 8eyd, ' I never understand what you 
say ' ; v*da i byB 9n sad, ' I am never ill ' ; (b) with reference to 
future time : fhaid i mi n'e'yd zmdrax ne t a: i byB i r asgol^ ' I must 

1438 F 



66 byu fodimja 

make an effort or I shall never get to school ' ; neu\i byB 
f you will never learn ; r o:n i n mebul vasun i byB dy foraft mo, 
1 1 thought I should never get there ' ; net di byB ro:t 9n x^e:x, 
1 you will never set the Thames on fire ' ; welts i m ono vo byB 
wedyn, ' I never saw him again '. (2) ' ever ', after adjectives and 
adverbs in phrases of the following form : Kin dm?iadbyB a 'vedrnxi 
roid o, ' as tight as ever you can tie it ' ; hnta by 6 3 medruxi, ' as 
soon as ever you can ' ; kmta byB eif i sno, gida byB eif i dno, 
1 as soon as ever I went there ' ; tferd gimmin vy:B, ' go as fast as 
ever you can'. (3) After comparatives in phrases of the form: 
mynd 3m bb'y&ax byB, * to get hotter and hotter ' ; may hun m lai byB, 
' that is smaller still '. (4) ' ever since, still ', Fr. ' toujours : 
may 9 Hi mo byB, ' the dog is still there ' ; byB o r adag honno, 

1 ever since '. 

byu, v., byw, D. (i) ' to live ' (in all senses) : le: may o m byu /, 
' where does he live ? ' ; byu meun gobaiB o: hy:d, ' to live always in 
hope ' ; rhaid byu a bo:d hevo r bobol, ' one must live amongst the 
people ' ; wa:B gin i 'le: i vyu ond kad pe:B 'at vyu, ' I don't care 
where I live as long as I get something to live on ' ; byu ar gmnyrx 
9 ti-.r, ' to live on the produce of the land ' ; muya vy:8 dy:n byu, 
muya wed a muya glyu (prov.), ' we live and learn ' ; byu vel ku:n 
a mo:x, ' to live a cat and dog life ' ; / o:d na byu na maru nad aun 

2 mo, ' he would take no refusal as to my going there '; byu b0wyd 
vel 8ary o lyu, 'to live a life as he did'. (2) 'to support life': 
v0wi& o dim by:d (O.H.), ' it (syntyr] will not support any life '. 
(3) sometimes used substantively as may na:u byu ka:B zno vo, ' he 
has the nine lives of a cat ' ; so also m 9 myu is used to emphasize 
a negative ' in the least ' (cf. B.C. 83. 12) : un i 9n 9 myu be na: i, 
' I haven't the least idea what to do ' ; hem voxyn ! hem be:B ! vedra 
i m ? myu i %a:lt o i, ' wretched thing ! I simply can't understand it ! ' 

byu, adj., byw. D., ' alive ' : os byu ag ja:x, ' if all's well ' ; may 
o n vyu o gnonod y ( it is alive with maggots ' ; glo:yn byu, ( butterfly ' 
(gloyn Duw, D.). Used for the sake of emphasis : pe:6 vyu vy:d 
'vmnoxi, ' anything you like '. 

byujogi, b0ujogi, v., bywiogi, R.; cf. Gen. xlv. 27, 'to enliven, 
become enlivened '. 



s.f., pi. byxod, buwch, D., 'cow': byux gwlo, 'a cow in 
call ' ; byux a lo: uB i Bra:d> ' a cow with a calf ; fyux ar i Bradyb 
lo:, ' a cow which has calved three times ' ; byux suynog, ' a barren 
cow ' ; bvjad fyux, ' a tuft of hair on the forehead ' ; byux go:x, 
* a red cow ', also ' a lady-bird ' (Coccinella) : vyux go:x ba:\ *r 
eiBin, le: may karjad hun a hun ? Cow-names are : blakkan, briBan, 
gwenno, koxan, luydan, mb'ylan, muynan, penwan, seran. 

fadimja = msdimja, s.pl., cf. munud, mynud, D. (I.W.), 'grimaces ' 
=: stimja. 



bsdjo bsrdun 6 7 

fodjo, v., Eng. bud, ' to graft ' (gardener at Bangor) = impjo 
nimpjo. 

fadol, adj., bydol, D., * worldly ' : dy:n bsdol. 

faar, adj., byddar, D. (i) 'deaf: mor vrtar a fren (J.J.). 
(2) ' pig-headed, self-willed ', applied to people who will not hear : 
mor vrtar a pen rha:u, mor vsbar a po:st lidjart (JJ.)- (3) applied 
to people of an impassive, unimpresskmable, inexcitable nature, 
e.g. a man who would not be put out by seeing a cow in his corn- 
field (JJ.). (4) applied to substances, soft in themselves, which 
offer a kind of ' dull ' resistance to a blow, e. g. wool, sand (JJ.). 

fodary, v., byddaru, D., s.v. ' obsurdesco ' ; 'to deafen, to 
madden by continual talking '. 

fagzQjo, v., bygythio, S.E.*, 'to threaten '. Cf. buguB. 
foftedad, s.m., ' bucketful '. 



, adj., fern, bexan, pi. foxin, comp. lot, eq. leiad (h':ad}, sup. 
le'ia (ti:a), bychan, D., * little ' : r 0:8 o n rhy: vzxan i beidjo kwiljo, 
' he was too little not to believe ' ; / adi hi dim m leikjo ibotinvexan, 
' she does not like being little ' ; dy:n bsxan ba:x te:u, ' a tiny little 
fat man ' ; deyd m vaxan am dano vo, ' to belittle him ' ; fyd, mexan i, 
' come, little one ' (e.g. to a cow). Used substantively : rhy: vsxan 

da:n, ' too little fire ' (in his character) ; vy ka:lrhy vzxan at i gadu, 

1 getting too little to keep him '. 

foxany, v., bychanu, D., s.v. ' eleuo ' ; 'to belittle, decry '. 

tol\og ; bdlxjog^ (W.H., J.J.), adj., bylchog, D., s.v. 'filicatus'; 
bylchiog, s.v. ' laciniosus ' ; ' full of gaps ', e.g. a wall or a range 
of mountains. 



, v., bylchu, H.S. 2. i, 'to make a gap '. 

fonnag, adv., bynnag, D., ' -ever, -soever ' : pu:y bmnag, ' who- 
ever ' ; be:6 bynnag, ' whatever ', ' at any rate ' (= Anglo- Welsh 
' whatever ') ; le: bmnag 9 bo:, ' wherever it may be ' ; puy bmnag 
'wdanu, ' whoever they may be ' ; be:6 bznnag 8yda vo, ' whatever 
he says ' ; for bmnag sr eiQ t, ' whichever way she goes ' ; ond pa: 
r y:n bmnag, ' but however that may be ...',' but at any rate.. . . '. 

bms, s.pl., sing, fansan, f. bwnn bara, W.S. [A. bunne], 'buns'. 

bdrbuyl, adj., byrrbwyll, D., s.v. ' inconsiderantia ', 'temerarius' ; 
' rash, hasty, thoughtless ' : dy:n barbuyl, ' one who acts without 
considering the consequences '. 

bzrbuyltra, s.m., byrbwylldra, S.E., 'rashness, hastiness, thought- 
lessness ' : gneyd pe6a meun bzrbuyltra. 

bardun, s.m., byrdwn, I.G. 362. [42] ; burdwn, M.LI. i. 183. 31 ; 
Eng. burden, and Dial, burdoun, Sc. ; ' burden, refrain of a song ' 
(= msrdun). 

F 2 



68 btrbjo 



v., byrddio, D., s.v. ' contabulo, contigno'. (i) 'to 
board over ' (with planks) : forty'o r laur, bzrbjo r loft. (2) ' to lay ' 
(a table) : du i wedi darvod fordjo rburd (O.H.). (3) 'to board' 
(a ship) : tor&jo toy, also barftjo i loy, and abs. ma nu wedi bzrty'o, 
'they have gone aboard'. (4) 'to take forcible possession of: 
farty'o ty:, farm, etc. ; ford/a vo, 'collar him' (for a talk), I.W. 
(5) 'to thrash ' : mi na: i d9 varbjo di, ' I will thrash you ' ; du i n 
bigon o dy:n i \ bsrbjo x i \ ' I am man enough to thrash you ' (cf. 
C.F., 1890, 332. 4). 

bwha:y, v., byrrhau, D., ' to shorten ' : may r dy:8 9m bzr'hay, 
' the days are drawing in '. 

forbmmy, bsrbmjo, v., cf. W.S. bwlglymu val dwr [Bobyll] ; 
bwrlymu, O.P., 'to bubble': may r du:r 3m bzrbmmy i vany ; 
r o:d 3 du:r 9m bzrbmjo n fznonna ; also b3rbmmy farad, paid 
a bwbmmy kluyba ; mi bdrbmma i di i draguyoldab (O.H.), 
a threat with no definite meaning. 

tostaxy ; bustaxy (W.H.), v., bustachu, D.F. [164] 14 [to check, 
restrain], ' to overstrain oneself, to work hard to no purpose ' : 
;/ da\i n wirjon 9m bdstaxy vel hyn /, ' how silly you are overworking 
yourself like this ! ' ; / be: u:ti ?n bdstaxy dz hy:n a gneyd dim trevn 

ar j pe:B ? 

bsstifol in pel b9stifol (I.W.), 'ever so far' gsstifol. Perhaps 
connected with ' mistifT = ' mischief '. Cf. T.N. 405. 14 Ca'dd 
lawer o fistiff yn ffoi rhag ei feistar. 

fostodi, v., ' to run about wildly ' (of cattle in hot weather). 
foimant, s.m., 'abutment' (of a bridge) = pentan. 

brQeid, brQeiod; byBeig (O.K.), s.pl.,bytheiad, D., 'hounds': brQ'e'ig 
msvor (O.H.), ' foxhounds ', [' There is ... an old-established 
pack ot foxhounds kept by Mr. Evan B. Jones, of Ynysfor, near 
Beddgelert, which has been hunted by members of the same family 
for about a century '. Forrest, p. 25.] 

bsBeirjOf v., bytheirio, D., ' to belch '. 

6?0ol, adj., bythol, D., s.v. ' sempiternus ' ; ' continual, ever- 
lasting ' : ko:yd faQol wirty'on, ' evergreens '. 



d 



d, for ' hyd ' in d at, i.e. hyd at \hy:d\. 
d, for ' nid ', e. g. d un i dim [nid\. 
d, for ' dy ', e. g. dal d aval \_di\. 

da:, adj., comp. gwel, eq. kzstal, hstlad, sup. gora, da, D., ' good ' : 
dy:d da:, ' good day ' ; bora da:, ' good morning ' ; pnaun da:, ( good 
afternoon ' ; nos'/aux, ' good night ' ; bluyfyn newyd da: i x*\ ' a 
happy New Year to you ' ; nos'taux a da: 9 bo: xz', ' good night and 
good-bye ' ; peidjux, da: x*'-', ' don't, that's a good fellow ' ; da\i y 
klu:ad 3 bu:yd m da: ?, ' does the food taste nice ? ' ; hogla da:, ' a 
nice smell ' ; sy da\i heibju ? reit da:, ' how are you to-day ? Very 
well ' ; may hi meun qydran garu ag edrax mor 8a:, ' she is a great 
age to look so well ' ; may o n da: i jexid, ' he is well ' ; da\i n reit 
da: 9x k' t ' yo u have a very good place ' ; os gwelu\ m da: (s gwehtx 
9n da:), ' please } ; deyd m da: am ru:in, ' to praise some one '. Fol- 
lowed by prepositions : am, 'at' : may o n y:n da: jaun a??i eyd 
an'zvirad, ( he is very good at telling lies ' ; ar : may hi n o da: 
arnoxi, 'you are pretty well off'; at, 'for' (implying remedy): 
da: jaun at, ' very good for, as a remedy for ' ; at be: may o n da: ? 
(I.W.), ( what is it good for ? ' gin (sometimes Kin, see below) : ma 
n ^a: gin i, ' I am glad ', e.g. ma n da: gin i bo xi n we l, ' I am glad 
you are better ' ; also, ' I like ', as da: ( = ni dda) Kin i m ono vo, 
1 1 don't like him ' ; mi vasa n da: gin i tasa r he:n dznas wedi mynd, 
1 1 wish the old lady had gone ' ; /, ' for ' (implying purpose) : 
/ ddynu n da: i dim, ' they are good for nothing ' ; i be: may hun m 
da: />, ' what is this for ? ' ; rhag, ' as a remedy against, as a means 
of escaping ' : may baygor 9n le: reit da: rhag eira, ' Bangor is a 
very good place for escaping snow '. 

da: s.m., da, D. (i) < cattle' (but practically obsolete): rha:d 
ar 9 da: I was an expression formerly used when a cow calved 
(JJ. ; O.H,). Cattle and poultry are sometimes distinguished by 
the terms da: kornjog and da: pty:og. (2) ' goods ' (in general). 

dabal, s., tabyl, W.S. [A. table], tabl, D. (i) 'the top of the 
wall of a house where the roof meets it ' : kay 3 dabal (O.H.), ' to 
fill up the space between the top of the wall and the roof. (2) ' the 
outside of the roof corresponding to the spot where the wall meets 
it ' : Kerig ar 9 dabal, ' stones placed on the roof as a protection 



70 da' da: dail 

against the wind '. (3) ' the part of the top of a hay-stack between 
the edge and the first rope running lengthwise ' (J.J.). 

da'da:, s.m., childish word for ' sweets '. 

-dad'dgeintjo, v., ' to disjoint '. 

dadl, s.f., dadl, D., ' dispute ' : tori r dadl, ' to settle the dispute '. 

dadla, dadly, v., dadleu, D., ' to dispute ' : fry:d rhei dn dadla m 
bo:y& am i henwada, ' some people dispute hotly about their religious 
denominations ' ; dadly dros i blaid, ' to argue in favour of one's 
party '; dadla hevo i gilib (dadly zn erbyn i gilib), 'to dispute with 
one another, to quarrel ' ; dadly am bri:s pe:6, ' to haggle about the 
price of a thing '. 

-dad'luyQo, v., dadlwytho, D., ' to unload '. 

dadmar, v., dadmer, D., ' to thaw '. 

'dad'sgrmjv, v., * to unscrew '. 

dad'v/mo t v., dadflino, D., s.v. ' refocillo ' ; ' to get rid of fatigue '. 

dad-wrei&jo, v., dadwreiddio, D., s.v. ' inextirpabilis'; ' to uproot '. 

dadgi s. = dadl (O.H.), mynd m dadg, 'to get into a dispute, 
quarrel '. 

dadgo, v. (i) ' to chaff ' (I.W.). (2) 'to quibble ' (W.H.) : dim 
ins i tibadgo, ' it is no use your quibbling '. (3) ' to dispute, haggle ' 
= dadfy(O.H.). 

dafod, v., dattod, D. Pret. S. i. dafottis, dfottis, dafis. 3. dafottob, 
dfotto. PL 3. dafodson, dfodson. Imperative S. 2. dafod, dafotta, 
dfotta. PI. 2. dafottu^ dfottux, 'to undo, untie': may 3 marklod 
ivedi dqfod t ' my apron is undone ' ; dafod ko:t, ' to unbutton a 
coat ' ; dafod klo:s, euphemistically for ' ventrem exonerare ' ; dafod 
eda o rid, 'to unwind thread from a reel '. 

dagar, s.f. (cf. dager, D., ' pugio '), pe:6 i wasgy Ke:g Kefyl dru:g 
(O.K.). 

dagra, s.pl., sing, deigryn, dagrau, D., ' tears ' : r o:d dagra dm 
peruljo o ibgad o, ' tears were streaming from his eyes ' ; grieyd dagra, 
' to shed tears '. 

dail, s.pl., sing, deilan, dail, D., ' leaves ' : may r dail m disgin, 
* the leaves are falling ' ; kwymp, kwimpjad 9 dail, ' the fall of the 
leaves ' ; krmny vel deilan, ' to tremble like a leaf ' ; wedi kodi n i 
dail, 'come up into leaf; may deilan ar i davod o, 'he speaks 
thick ' ; heb Milan ar i davod, ' without mincing matters ' ; paid 
a hel dim dail hevo mi, ' don't let me have any of your nonsense ' ; 
deilan plug, see plug. Used to distinguish a plant from the root, 
flowers, or fruit, e.g. dail arjan, ' silverweed ' (Potentilla anserina) ; 
dail dy.on da:, ( knotty-rooted figwort ' ( Scrofularia nodosa) ; dail 



daint dal 7 1 

gron, * pennywort ' (Cotyledon Umbilicus) ; dail karn ebol, * colt's 
foot ' (Tussilago Farfara) ; dail knay 9 deyar, ( earth-nut ' (Cono- 
podium denudatum) ; dail kra:x, dail luynog, ' fox-glove ' (Digitalis 
purpurea) ; (dail) kriba santfraid, cribau S. Ffraid, D., * betony ' 
(Stachys Betonica) ; dail lor j ad, 'broad-leaved plantain' (Plantago 
major) ; dail lu:yn hydyl (hydyS), ' ribwort plantain ' (Plantago 
lanceolata) = dail Keiljog (Bangor) ; dail rhokkos, ' mallow ' 
(Malva silvestris, etc.) ; dail tavol, ' dock-leaves ' (Rumex obtusi- 
folius) ; dail vzdigad, * all-heal ' (Hypericum Androsaemum) ; dail 
9 peils = bgad ebril, ' the lesser celandine ' (Ranunculus Ficaria). 

daint, s.m., pi. dannab, dant, D., pi. daint, ' Quae vox apud 
Venedotas pro sing, passim vsurpatur ', pi. dannedd, ' tooth ' : 
daint bla:yn, ' front tooth ' ; Hi&ainl, i back tooth ' ; daint lagad, 
' eye tooth ' ; tsnny daint, ' to draw a tooth ', * to have a tooth out ' ; 
may i dannad wedi psdry, ' her teeth are decayed ' ; may o wedi 
ivasgy o a i dannad, * he has bitten him ' ; may n mynd tru nannad 
i, ' it sets my teeth on edge ' ; grindgan i dannad, * to grind one's 
teeth ' ; / o:ys gmo vo dim daint i attal i davod, ' he always speaks 
out, says what had better be left unsaid ' ; dayos i Sannab, ' to show 
his fangs, to threaten ' ; ma na riu Saint rhdnQo vo a vo:, i there is 
no love lost between them ' ; may gmo vo dam/ i mi (Saint m v 
erl>yn\ ' he has something against me ' ; KeluyS m d^ dannad /, 
" that's an absolute lie ! ' ; du i fostal (k^stlad) a tiQa dn dz dannad, 
' I'm as good as you at any rate ' ; mi Ke:s i o ar i weyOa vo n i 
dannad, * I got it in the teeth of his opposition ' ; mi rhois hi ii hi 
m i dannad (= m i gwymmad], i I paid it back to her with interest, 
I got the better of her ' . In transf. senses daint o:g, kribin, etc. ; 
dannad 2 graig, ' the jagged edges of the rock ' ; daint 3 le:u, 
' dandelion ' (Leontodon Taraxacum). 

dakja, interj., Eng. God ache : dakja voynwaO /, ' drat him ! ' 
dakku, adv., dacw, D.G. lix. 16, Fr. voila: dakku vo: !, ' there he is ! ' 

dal, v., dal, D. Fut. S. i. dalja, 3. daliB (deit). PI. 2. dalju\. 
Imperf. daljun. Fret. i. daljs. S. 3. daljoti. PI. 3. dalson. Plup. 
dalsun. Imperative S. 2. dal ; daljux. Pret. Pass, daljuyd. 

I. tr. (i) 'to hold in the hand or arms' : pu:y daliO hun?, 
'who will hold this?'. (2) 'to hold' (in possession): dal ti:r, 
' to hold land '. (3) * to hold (something) so that it cannot fall 
or break loose ' : rubaB i da! ? dgain ar gevn Kefyl, t something 
to hold the chain on the back of the horse '. (4) ' to hold, 
contain ' : det'I o du:r ?, ' will it hold water ? ' ; Kimmint a dali'0 
o, dalja vo, ' as much as it will hold, would hold '. (5) ' to 
break in ' (of a horse) : dal Kefyl ( = tori i four, tori i veun, J.J.). 
(6) ' to hold or keep in a certain position ' : dal 9n dyn, ' to hold 
tight ' ; dal 3 desgtf in wastad idi hi, ( to humour her ', lit. ' to hold 
the dish straight for her ' ; ma nu n dal ?x trayd m sattax, ' they 



7 2 dal dalnn 

hold your feet firmer ' ; vel 'tasanu n dal 3 by:d u6 i gi'h'8, ' as if 
they kept the world together', i.e. ' as if the world could not get on 
without them '. Similarly dal i lais dn hi:r, ' to lengthen out a 
sound with the voice '. (7) ' to hold back ' : / o:s na dim dal arno 
vo, ' there's no holding him back '. Similarly dal du:r, ' to back 
water ' (in rowing) : y:n m tsnny a r lal zn dal du:r (O.H.), ' one 
pulling and the other backing water ' ; dal i wynt, ' to hold one's 
breath '. (8) ' to detain ' : Ke:s 9 na!, ' I was detained '. (9) ' to 
catch ' : gosod abuyd i dal luynog, * to set a trap to catch a fox ' ; 
dal pdsgod, ' to catch fish ' ; ' to catch up ' : mi daljux o ar gevn ax 
beiky l you'll catch him on your bicycle '. (10) dal g aval, ' to catch 
hold (of), to hold on ' : dal d aval mo vo rhag zdo ssrQjo, t catch 
hold of it to keep it from falling ' ; dal d aval m 9 re:ns, ( catch hold 
of the reins', (u) dal sylu, 'to notice': mi "baljuxi sylu 9 fro: 
nesa, ' you will notice next time ' ; erbyn dal sylu, ' when you come 
to think of it '. (12)' to harness ' : amsar dal, ' the time for harness- 
ing the horses to begin work ' = amsar baxy. (13) 'to hold out ' : 
dal d3 la:u, 'hold out your hand'. (14) 'to hold out against, 
sustain, stand, endure, support, keep out ' : may r gwarBag dy:on 
dy glettax i dal 9 d0wy, ' black cattle stand the weather better ' ; 
meQy dal ru:in, ' to be unable to endure somebody ' ; may na fanny 
deil zr he:ngorfyn (O.H.), ' more than the body can endure ' ; / ffdi r 
sgidja ma di??i m dal du:r, * these boots do not keep out the water '. 
(15) 'to lay a wager, to bet': mi da/Ja i **' /://, Til bet you 
a shilling '. Cf. the doggerel rime : y:n day tgi:, mi ro: nu i laur zn 
fri: \ mi 8a/Ja i a?n beint o guru puy bsnnag a dei'l a mi: \ nad oy:s 
smma na mu:y na hii ond injon igjan fri: (E.J.). 

II. intr. (16) l to hold ' : rieiQ o dal ru:an, ' it will hold now '. 
(17) 'to keep (in a certain direction)': dal gormod ar 2 de:, 'to 
bear too much to the right ' ; dal ar hy:d 9 lo:n spel, ( to keep along 
the high-road a bit ' ; dal i r xwi-'6, i r &', ' to keep to the left, to 
the right '. (18) ' to keep, continue ' : may n dal i xu&y o hy:d, ' it 
keeps on blowing ' ; may hi wedi dal zn hi:r heb dim gla:u, ' it has 
kept off raining for a long time ' ; may r ta:n m dal, ' the fire keeps 
in' ; may fair lambad m dal (O.H.), ' Llanbedr (y Cenin) fair still 
continues ' ; os deil 9 by:d i vynd (O.H,), 'if the world goes on'. 
(19) dal ar, ' to hold on (to) ' (fig.) * to give heed, attend, mark ' : 
dani wedi klu:ad pe&a da: jaun ond i ni dal -arnynu a i gneydnu, ' we 
have heard some very good things, if we only give heed to them and 
do them ' (cf. Jer. xxiii. 18; Acts xvi. 14) ; ' to pull up (some one)' : 
du i n dal arno vo pey glu:a i o (O.H.), ' I pull him up when I hear 
him (making mistakes) '. (20) dalafrubaO, ' to stick to something, 
persevere in something'. (21) 'to hold, maintain' (also dal 
alan). (22) 'to begin' (connected with n): dal am hannar aur 
wedi tri:, ' to begin at half-past three '. 

dalan, s.pl., danadl, D., only dalan poiQjon, 'nettles' (Urtica dioica). 



dalan dayos 73 

dalan \_dolan\. 

daldun, dandlun, dandljo, v., * to dandle '. 

daljad, s.m., daliad, D.G. xlix. 23. (i) ' a keeping back, deten- 
tion': daxi ' wedi ' ka:yl daljad go hi:r heity'u, 'you have been kept 
rather long to-day'. (2) ' the time a team remains in the field to 
work'. The two daljad are from about 7 to n a.m. and from 
i to 5 p.m. (cf. dal n). Also of persons' working hours: daljad 
dy:n (on a farm) 6 a.m. to 5-30 p.m. ; daljad 9 meinar 9di u:yQ aur. 

dal, adj., pi. de'ijfon, dall, D., ' blind ' : dal bo:st t ' stone-blind ' ; 
dala o baud na vyn welad (prov.), ' none is so blind as he who 
won't see '. 

'dalgeibjo, v., ' to speak beside the mark ' : be u:ti n 'dalgeibjo am 
beda d u:ti dim m i da:lt nu (O.K.) = boftro, stunf'o. Cf. T.N. 
29. 5, Nid yw'r holl gwbl ond dall geibio; also 32. i. 

dalinab, s.m., dallineb, D., l blindness '. 

dadt ; dy:al (O.H. nearly always), v., deall and dyall, D. ; deallt, 
D,G. ccxiv. 9; dealld, D.F. [yi.] 8, [xiii.] 9, etc.; dallt, C.L.C. 
v. vi. 67. 23. Fut. S. 3. daliiQ. Imp. daltun. Fret. S. 3. dalioft, 
dyaltoti ; dzhal/od (O.H.). Pl. 3. dattson. Imperative dalfa, dadt ; 
daljux, ' to understand ' : da\i n da:lt ?, ' do you understand ? ' ; 
vada i by6 m da:U be 'vtiuxi n 8eyd, ' I never understand what you 
say ' ; mi &o:ni i Salt zy gih'8 vesyl tippin, ' we shall come to under- 
stand one another by degrees ' ; mi alto mod i meun helbyl^ ' he 
(the dog) understood I was in difficulties '. 

da]y, v., dallu, D., 'to blind ' : 9 gola n 2 nafy i m la:n. 

damxwal (].].), d?mxwal(O.H.), v., dymchwelyd, D., s.v. 'euerto ' ; 
' to fall down ' : bildin wedi damxwal (J.J.), ' a building which has 
fallen down ' ; d9m\wal dros 3 dibin (O.H.), ' to fall over the 
precipice '. 

damwain, s.f., pi. damweinja, damwain, D., ' accident ' ; damwain 
vaur^ ( a bad accident ' ; ar damwain, l by chance '. 

damwemjol, adj., damweiniol, D., s.v. ' accidentalis ' ; ' accidental '. 
dan, prep., dan, D., s.v. ' sub '. See tan, 
danhebog, adj., dannheddog, D., ' toothed, serrated '. 

danvon\ dayon (I.W.) ; davnon, davny(d) (O,H.), v., danfon, D., 
s.v ' miLto '. Pret. S. 3. dwonod (O.H.), ' to send, take, conduct ' : 
danvon 9r hu;x at 9 ba:y$> plismon sn davnon ru:in (O.H.), 'a 
policeman taking some one to the lock-up ' ; nod a danvon 9du i 
tru: r ajy:d, ' I am fetching and carrying all day long ' ; rhaid nod 
a i danvon hi (said of old people), ' she has to be tended every- 
where ' ; ga; i x dayon xi adra ? t ' may I see you home ? ' 

dayos ; daygos (O.K.), v., dangos, D. Fut. 3. dayhosiB (deyys). 



74 darbuylo darvod 

Pret. i. dayhosis, dayis, 3. dayhosob. Imperative dayos ; dayhosu\. 
(i) tr. 'to show' : dayos rubaQ i ru:in ; dayos gu:g at y:n, ' to 
frown, to look surlily at some one ' ; dayos i hy:n (hynan), ' to show 
off ' ; dayos i hy:n m yux nag ddi i vo:d, ' to make oneself appear 
to be above what one really is '. (2) intr., ' to show ' : ko:ys an 
dayos, 2 se:rs (stars) zn dayos. (3) ' to seem ' ( = ymddangos). 

darbuylo, v., darbwyllo, S.E., ' to bring to reason '. 

darja, in the exp. o: darja /, ' dash it ! ' : darja voynwaQ ; darja 
d? budin di, 

darlan, v., darllain, darllen, D. Pret. S. 3. darlennod, PL 3. 
darlenson. Imperative darlan ; darlennux, ' to read ' : na i 
Parian o pey ga: i amsar, ' I will read it when I have time ' ; lyvr 
divir i Parian, ' an amusing book to read ' ; ?nay o n darlan 
po:b pe:Q gei& o aval dno vo, ' he reads everything he can get 
hold of. 

darlau, v., darllaw, D., ' to brew ' : fig. may hi n i darlau hi er 
s lalum, ' a storm has been brewing for a long time '. 

darn, s.m., pi. darna, darn, D. (i) 'piece' : may o wedi hmmyd 
darn o mara i, ' he has taken a piece of my bread ' ; darn o graig, 
bren, heyarn, ' a piece of rock, wood, iron ' ; darn o gara, ' a piece 
of boot-lace ' ; zn dri: darn, ' in three pieces ' ; may o wedi bildjo 
r darn ma, ' he has built this piece ' ; darn kro:ys, in old-fashioned 
cottages of one story, a projecting piece partitioned off from the 
rest and used as a bedroom. Its position was opposite the house 
door by the side of the st'mda vaur (O.K.). Cl.fambar. (2) ' part ' : 
darn kupanad, 'part of a cupful'. (3) used adverbially, ' partly': 
ar i darn godi, ' partly raised ' ; darn A;:d, ' to half kill '. 

darnjo, v., darnio, D., ' to divide into parts ' : darnjo ty:, moxyn ; 
pobol m darnjo i hy:n u6 gufjo. 

darpar, s., darpar, D., ' praeparatio, apparatus ' : darpar u:r, 
' fiance" ' ; darpar wraig, ' fiancee '. 

darparjaB, s.f., darparaeth, M.A. i. 348 b. u, 'preparation ' : dim 
darpar ja6 ar i gsvar. 

darpary ; d3rpary (O.H.), v., darpar, darparu, D., ' to provide ' : 
darpary pnkja ar gdvar 9 bora, ' to get firewood ready for the 
morning '. 

darvod ; davrod (often at Llanfairfechan), v., darfod, D. Fut. 
S. i. darv9a, 3. darvabiQ. Imperf. S. i. darvun, 3. darva. 
Pret. 3. \dary\ darvtiob. Imperative darvod, darvtia ; darvsbux. 
I. tr., 'to finish ' : vefy sy if'o gneyd, darvod po:b dim, ' that's the 
way finish (eat up) everything ' ; du i 'ar darvod o ru:an, ' I am 
just finishing it (the book) now ' ; rhaid i mi dri:o darvod zn o 
vy:an i ga:l du:ad hevo x*\ ' I must try and get done pretty soon, so 
as to come with you'. II. intr., (i) 'to come to an end, to be 



darvod davod 7 5 

finished, to wear out, to be over ' : ma: r sgidja ma wedi darvod, 
' my boots are worn out ' ; may o wedi darvod, ' it is finished ', also 
' he has gone ', i. e. * is dead ' ; may hi wedi darvod arno vo, ' it is 
all up with him ' ; mi Mis na darva vo byQ, ' I thought it would 
never wear out ' ; ma: r maun an darvod 9n vy:an \adal 3 glo:, ' peat 
burns away quickly as compared with coal '. (2) The uninflected 
preterite form dary, i.e. darfu i (nearly always in the mutated form 
dary), is very frequently used as an auxiliary, instead of the inflected 
form of the preterite in all persons, with all verbs except bo:d, and 
especially in plurals the inflected forms of which consist of more 
than two syllables : dary nu anvon, ' they sent ' ; dary ni dexra, ' we 
began'; dary xi Mm hra, 'you did not reach'. In S. i. dary 
mi or vi. Sometimes dary stands alone, the infinitive being 
understood, as / un i dim dary hi ai peidjo, ' I don't know whether 
she did or not ' ; . . . ag vely dary nu, ' . . . and so they did '. 
(3) In the phrase be hary ti ? (beth ddarfu i ti?), this verb has the 
sense of ' happened ', i. e. ' what is the matter ? ' So, by analogy, 
un i dim be hary o, ' I don't know what is the matter with him ' ; be 
sary ti ? (by analogy with be s anti ?, i. e. beth sydd arnat ti ?) is also 
occasionally heard, and be:6 o:yd hary o ? 

darvodedig, adj., darfodedig, D., 'wasteful'; menyn darvodedig, 
1 wasteful butter '; teyly darvodedig, ' a family that dies out rapidly '. 

dat'bakjo, v., ' to unpack ' : ar o:l i xi or/an -dat'bakjo, ' when you 
have finished unpacking '. 

'dat'bayy, v., dadbachu, ' to unharness '. 

daun, s.f., dawn, D., ' gift ' : daun madrob liQrig, ' the gift of ready 
speech ' ; may gdno vo digon o daun farad (= daun deyd), ' he has 
the gift of the gab '. 

dauns, s.f., dawns, Psalm cl. 4, ' dance '. 

davadan, s.f., dafaden, D., s.v. ' ovicula ' ; ' a single sheep ' : ??ia:y 
y:n davadan ar o:l (O.H.), ' there is one sheep left behind ' (see 
davod i). 

davadan, s.f., pi. devaid, dafaden, D., c wart ' : davadan wylf, 
' cancerous wart '. 

davad [edd\. 

davn, s., pi. davna ; devni (O.H.), dafn, D., 'drop '. 

davod, davad, s.f., pi. devaid, dafad, D., 'sheep': haul pori 
devaid a Qori maun, ' the right of pasturing sheep and cutting peat ' ; 
hel devaid, ' to collect sheep together ' ; bigeiljo devaid, ' to look after 
sheep ' ; kneivjo devaid, ' to shear sheep ' ; knevin devaid, * a sheep 
walk ' ; Ki: devaid, ' a sheep dog ' ; noda klistja devaid, ' sheep's 
ear-marks ' ; devaid gwlanog, ' sheep with their wool ' ; devaid 
hmjon, ' sheep after shearing ' ; ma: gin i dair davad heb du:ad ag 
u:yn leni, 'I have three sheep which have not lambed this season'; 



y 6 davod de:g 

ma: kro:yn sr o:yn a kro:yn d bavad i welad mor ammal a i gilib an 
3 varxnad (prov.), ' the lamb's skin and the sheep's skin are to be 
seen equally often in the market ', i. e. ' the young die as well as 
the old ' (cf. the literary form : Cyn ebrwydded yn y farchnad, croen 
yr oen a chroen y ddafad, D., cf. also M.A. i. 15 a. 23); r o:yn m 
d9sgy r bavad bori (prov. exp.), ' teaching one's grandmother '. 

davod, davad, s.f., pi. devaid, ' wart ' : davod wy:tt, ' cancerous 
wart '. Cf. davadan. 

davyb, Dafydd, ' David ' : an o:ys davyb, ' in the Greek calends ' ; 
davyb 8go:ns t ' the sea ' ; asgwrn davyb /, ' Good Heavens ! ' 

day, s. and adj., fern. du:y, dau, D., ' two'. Both day and du:y 
are followed by the vocal mutation ; day kant is, however, the usual 
form for 200, and there are a few other exceptions, e. g. day pen 
linin, in the phrase ka:yl 9 bay pen limn at i gilth, ' to make two 
ends meet'; cf. deupenn y llynynn, L.A. 96. 26; and words of 
English origin beginning with g, g as du:y ga:t. With the article 
always 9 bay, 3 bu:y \9 day vurb, ' the two tables' ; 9 buy gadar, 
' the two chairs ' ; day ne dri: o barnodja, ' two or three days ; 
'gsmmuxi r bay ?, ' will you have both ? ' ; mi neid 9 day r y:n va:6, 
' either will do ' ; day a Qair, ' two (shillings) and threepence ' ; 
gwcrO du:y, ' two pennyworth ' ; stamp du:y a dimma, ' a twopence 
halfpenny stamp ' ; ynwaB ne bu:y, ' once or twice ' ; ^ mhen durnod ne 
bay, ' in a day or two ' ; may r blaid wedi holti n bu:y, ' the party has 
split in two ' ; may o rhny day vebul, ' he can't make up his mind ' ; 
'r ddanirhuy day ola, ' it is twilight ' ; gwel^ day meun bolna kantmeun 
la:u, a proverb implying that it is better to have a small amount (of 
money) and know what to do with it than an unwieldy quantity. 

daywynebog, adj., dauwynebog, D., s.v. ' anceps ' ; ' two-faced, 
deceitful '. 

de: t adj., deau and dehau, D. (i) ' right' : 9 la'u 8e:, i the right 
hand ' hence s.f. 9 tie:, 'the right ' : dal gormod ar 9 de:, ' to keep 
too much to the right ' ; o de:. ' right ', opposite to o xwM'g* 
' wrong ' ; du:y forb i neyd po:b pe:By:n o de:, y:n o xwiQig, ' two 
ways of doing everything one right,, one wrong'. (2) ' south'" : 
ty: de:, ' the south side ' also s.m. 9 de:, ' the south ' : may n \ttBy 
o r de:, ' it is blowing from the south '. 
ujyd, adj., dedwydd, D., ' happy '. 

, v., dyddfu, D., only in debiy gan wre:s (O.H), ' to be 
overcome by the heat \ 

defro, v., deffro, D., s.v. ' expergiscor ' ; ' to wake ' (tr. and intr.). 

de:g, de:y, s. and adj., deg, D., 'ten' ; de:y is the adjectival form : de:y 
mi:s, mlu:yd, mlmab, mynyd, ewin, usnos ; de:y waiQ, ' ten times ' ; de:s* 
durnod (beside dc:y njurnod*) is, however, common, also de:g Keinjog. 
In other cases the substantival de:g o has superseded it, as de:g 
o vasgedi, vala, m6od, etc. 



degum dexra 7 7 

degum, s.m., pi. degsmma^ degwm, D., 'tithe': ire: r degum, 
( township ' ; degum 9 bli:B, ' tithe on animals ' ; degum 9r y:d, ' tithe 
on corn ' ; sgybor begum, ' tithe barn '. 

degvad, adj., degfed, D., ' tenth ' : 9 degvad dy:3; 3 begvad ran. 
de'igeinvad, adj., deugeinfed, D., ' fortieth '. 

deigjan,s. and adj., deugain, D.; deigian, C.C.M. 18. 6, 'forty'. 
For mutations see igjan. 

deiljo^ v., deilio, D., ' to come into leaf ' : ma: r dgakmor m 
deiljo n vy:anjaun, ' the sycamore comes into leaf very early '. 

deiljo, v., deilio, C.L.C. ii. 12. 18, 'to deal', e.g. at a shop ; also 
deiljo meun kzfila ; deiljo uQi hi implies an illicit connexion. 

deiljur, s.m., ' herbalist '. 

deiljur, s.m., ' dealer '. 

deimon, s., daimawnt, C.Ch. 56. 25, 'diamond or something 
shaped like a diamond ', e.g. in speaking of the meshes of a net. 

deintjo, v., deintio, D., s.v. ' denticulo, tango'; P.G.G. 224. 16, 
' to go near, to enter ' : paid a deintjo at 3 ty:, ' don't go near the 
house ' (because of some suspicious circumstances connected with 
it) ; deintjo i meun, ( to enter '. 

s.f., deintyddiaeth, ' articulation ' : may gmo vo 



deivis, s., deufis, D.G. iii. 7, ' two months ' : deivis ne dri:, ' two 
or three months '. 



de'ivjo, v., deifio, D., ' to singe, blight, wither ' : pen 'vzduxi n 
rhoi klut o vla:yn 3 ta:n may o n de'ivjo ; ma: gwynt 3 duyran m 
de'ivjo 9 kubul. 

de'ivjol, adj., deifiol, S.E., ' nipping, blasting' : gwynt de'ivjol. 

dekbuys, s., 'ten pounds' (weight). 

dekbynt, s., degpunt, T.N. 71. 24, 'ten pounds' (sterling). 

dekttin, dek#en, decyn in dekKin z', dekHen i '= debig Kin i, i.e. debyg 
genyf, ' I should think ' : may o ivedi mynd ru:an dekKin i. 

dexra, v., dechreu, D. Fut. S. i. dexra, 2. d9\ri&, dexreyiO. 
Pret. S. i. dexn's, d^xreyis, 3. dexrod, d^xreyob. Imperative, 
dexra ; dexrux, d^x^yux- Pret. Pass, d^xreyud, ' to begin ' : 
may n dexra tuly, * it is beginning to get dark ' ; dexra o r dexra, 
' to begin at the beginning ' ; rhaid i ni gatyl 3 dru:g yna n jaun 
i 8exra, ( we must set that to rights to begin with ' ; dexra r ta:n, 
' to light the fire ' (used of paper, sticks, etc.) ; 9di r boks ma am 
gad i dori i 8exra r ta:n />, ' is this box to be broken up to light 
the fire ? ' ; dexra kany (of the leader of a choir), ' to strike up, to 
give the note '. Nouns are often preceded by ar } e. g. dexra ar 
9 gwaiQ, ' to take up the task '. 



7 8 dexra derwinan 

dexra, s.m., dechreu, D., ' beginning ' : sn d dexra, ' at first ' ; 
m 9 dexra kmta, ' at the very beginning ' ; dexra a diwab 9 vluyfyn, 
' the beginning and end of the year '. 

del, adj., comp. dela\, del, D., ' protervus, morosus ' ; ' pretty, 
nice ' : ma: 'gmoxi da:n ba:x del, ' you have a nice little fire ' ; 
dmas ba:x fal, ' a nice little woman ' ; "may o y gweny n del/, ' he 
does smile prettily ! ' ; may o y gwela n de/, ' he is mending nicely ' ; 
as term of endearment, del ba:x ! ; tyd e neli I ; ironically, u:tt 
n y:n del!, ' you're a nice fellow ! ' 

delu, s.f., delw, D. (i) ' image ' : mi a:Q vel delu, ' he stood stock 
still with fright '. (2) ' cross ' : delu ayr, ( a gold cross ' (O.H.). 
delwt, v., delwi, D., ' to stand stock still with fright '. 
de:n, s.m., ' dean '. 

denig, dinig, deyid, difod ; deiyid (W.H.), v., diangc, D. ; 
dihengyd, C.C. 260. 23. Fut. 3. diji6 (I.W.), dttjiO (W.H.). 
Imp. diyun (I.W.), deyun (E.J.). Pret. 3. deyod (J.J.), deiyob 
(W.H.). Imperative, dey (I.W., O.K.), day, deiya (W.H), 'to 
make off, to escape ' : daxi am Senig Aei'di'u /, ' are you off anywhere 
to-day ? ' ; de'iy(a) am dd v0wyd, ' escape for your life '. 

deny(d), v., denu, D., 'to entice '. 

dcygar, adj., dengar, ' attractive, fascinating in manner '. 

deywaO, adv., dengwaith, D., s.v. 'decies'; 'ten times'. Cf. 
also dt':y waiQ. 

de:r, s., ' a blow ' : dzmma vi: a de:r ido vo nes o:d o y kany (J.J.), 
' I gave him a blow which made him sing out ' ; rhoi de:r, ' to 
give a blow '. 

derlyn, v., derbyn, D., s.v. 'recipio'. Pret. 3. derhnjob. 
Imperative, derbyn ; derbmjux, ( to receive '. In special sense, 
' to receive into the world '. Cf. D., s.v. * obstetrico ' : mi Serbmjoft 
hi xiw-' xant, ' she attended six hundred cases '. 



derbmjad, s.m., derbyniad, D., s.v. 'ansa', 'excipulse', 'mutulus'; 
' catch ', e. g. on a door-post to receive the latch. 

dernyn, s.m. (dim. of darn), dernyn, D., s.v. ' particula ' ; ' a 
small piece ' : dernyn da: jaun sdi hunna, ' that is a fine piece ' 
(e. g. of poetry). 

deru, s.pl., sing, derwan, f., derw, D., ' oaks J : deru is also used 
for oak (the wood), wedi neyd o beru, ' made of oak ' ; and as an 
adj. kadar deru, ( an oak chair '. 

derwinan, derwinan, drswinan, s.f., pi. derwinod, etc., derwreinien, 
W.S. [Ryng worme]; derwreinyn, D., Lichen. Rectius Dyfrwreinyn; 
'ring- worm'. Also gwrinan, cf. gwraint, D., sing, gwreinyn. 
See also drain gwynab. 



deryn deyblyg 79 

deryn \adar\. 

desgil, s.f., pi. desgla, dzsgla, dysgl, D. ; descyl, D.F. [xii.] 28 ; 
desgil, C.L.C. i. 23. 25; 'dish': dal d Sesgil zn wastad (i), 'to 
humour ; to keep things straight between people who are on bad 
terms with each other '. 

dest \dgesf\. 

destlys, adj., destlus, D., ' neat, tidy '. 

de6a, adj., deheu, D., i skilful ' : gneyd po:b pe:6 o: 8e0a, ' to do 
everything skilfully ' ; y:n de6a jaun ddi o i rieyd po:b pe:6, ' he is 
very skilful in everything ' ; de6a hevo i gwaiQ, ' skilful in her 
work '. 

deur, adj., dewr, D., ' brave ' : ;// 0:8 o n eur ? mi xybob 3 dy:n, 
' wasn't he brave ? he saved the man ' ; may dy:n deur 9m barod 
i roi'd i vmvyd i laur, ' a brave man is ready to lay down his life '. 

devni, s.pl., defni, D., s.v. ' davn ' ; ' drops '. 

dewinjas, dewinjas, s.f., dewines, D., s.v. ' pharmaceutria ' : 
dewinies, M.LI. i. 235. 23; 'fortune-teller'. 

dewinjaQ, d^winfaO, s., dewiniaeth, D., 'fortune-telling': deyt 
tswinjaQ (O.K.). 

dewis, v., dewis, D., Imperative, dewis, ddwisa, ' to choose ' : 
dewis z 1y: kktta i r klaub, ' to choose the sheltered side of the 
wall ' ; vel 'foduxi n dewis, ' as you choose, as you like ' ; dewis 
dewis day burn ; dewis jy:n, dewis hun (pa: r y:n gzmma i ont him ? 
I.W.), said by children asking some one to choose one of two 
closed hands in which something is held. 

dewt's, s., dewis, D., c choice ' : ar o:l i \i ga:yl dx dewis, ' after 
you have had your choice '. 

deyar, s.f v daear, D. (i) ' earth, world' : 9 pe:Q gora'gmoxi ga:l 
ar 9 8eyar, 'the thing you like to get best in the world'. (2) 
' earth, ground, soil ' : troi r deyar, ' to turn over the earth ' (esp. 
with a plough) ; 9n aros i r 8eyar gnesy, ' waiting for the earth to 
get warm '. (3) pi. deyara, ' earth ' (of a fox). 

deyardor, s.f., daeardor, D.G. ccv. 47 ; cf. D., s.v. < aestuarium ', 
'charadra', 'eluvies', 'labes* ; 'land-slip'. 

deyargi, dyargi, s.m., pi. deyarguns, daiargi, S.E., 'terrier' 
(O.K.). 

deyaru, v., daearu, D. (i) 'to cultivate' = tri:n 9 beyar (O.H.). 
(2) ' to live, to " hang out " ' (O.H.) ; cf. deyar luynog. 

deyban, adj., deuben [gelan\. 

deyblyg, adj., deublyg, D., s.v. ' duplicate ' : sdrQjo n i Seyblyg, 
1 to fall doubled up ' (seldom used). 



8o deyd deynyb 

deyd', also du:yd (I.W.), v., dywedyd, D. Fut. S. i. deyda, 
dyda ; duyda (O.H.), 3. deydiB, dydi6 ; ddvyd (O.K.). Imp. S. i. 
deydun, dydun, 3. deyda; duyda (O.H.). Pret. S. i. deydis, 
dydis, 3. deydob, dydob (?ni rydob, O.H.) ; PI. i. deydson, 2. 
deydsox-, 3- deydson. Imperative S. 2. du:ad ; duyda (O.H.) ; 
PL i. dydun, 2. dydux, deydux, du:x, 'to say, tell': deyd Keluyb, 
' to tell a lie ' ; deyd 9 gwi:r, ' to tell the truth ' ; may hi n deyd bo 
Xi n edrax 9n wel, ' she says you look better ' ; dydux (dydun) bo xi 
wedi gneyd rubaB i mi heibiu, ' say (for example) that you have 
done something to me to-day ' ; ma: nu n deyd mai am altro ferwyb 
by:b hi, ' they say that it happens (i. e. corns hurt) when the weather 
is going to change ' ; mi bey dob o 9 do:y o, ' he said he would 
come ' ; ?ni beydif i x^'X^ Sim Kinjo he'ibiu, ' I said you would not 
get any dinner to-day ' ; mi bey dob hi zr a: hi, ' she said she would 
go ' ; ??iibydifi na vurja hi dim, ' I said it would not rain ' ; / o:yb 
hi dim sy gubod be deyda hi, ' she did not know what to say ' ; 
be. naun i ond deyd ^ gwi:r a deyd na naun i m ono vo ?, ' what 
should I do but tell the truth and say I wouldn't do it ? ' ; deyd uB 
ncin am beidjo, ' to tell some one not to ' ; wa:B i mi deyd karag 
a Bui na deyd rubaB uB 9 plant ma, ' I might as well speak to a block 
of wood (lit. say stone with a hole in it) as speak to these children ' ; 
deyd padar uQ berson, ' to teach one's grandmother ' ; zn deyd ar 
i beB maur anta, ' swearing hard, " jurant ses grands dieux " ' ; deyd 
mu:y, ' to exaggerate ', e. g. rots i sivadan vexan ibo vo hevo Kevn 
3 la:u o r hogyn m deyd mu:y (O.H.), ' I struck him lightly with the 
back of my hand and the boy exaggerated '. Imperative, dydux, 
du:x at the end of a remark ' -ever, I say, I wonder, let me see ' : 
be hary r kaBod, dydux ?> ' whatever is the matter with the cats ? ' ; 
pu.y sy na, du;x . p , ' I wonder who is there ? ' ; be 'vsbant n alu z<o, 
dydux A ' let me see, what used we to call it ? ' 

deydrod, s., deudroet, W.B., col. 22. 3, 'feet': Jterbad ar i 
beydrod y ' to walk ' (as opposed to riding, etc.). 

deybag, s. and adj., deuddeg, D., ' twelve ' : deybay njurnod, mi:s, 
usnos, waiB. 

deybegvad, adj., deuddegfed, D., < twelfth '. 

deybyb, s., deuddydd, D., s.v. * biduum ' ; 'two days'. 

d'eygant) deykant, s., deucant, D., s.v. 'ducenti '; ' two hundred '. 

deynau, adj. and s., deunaw, D., s.v. ' duodeuiginti ' ; 'eighteen, 
eighteen pence ' ; genath beynau o:yd. 

d'eyiwuvad, adj., deunawfed, D., s.v. ' duodeuicesimanus ' ; 
' eighteenth '. 

deynyb, s.m., pi. devwbja, defnydd and deunydd, D., ' material '. 
[deynyb is the popular form ; devnyb is a word of rather literary 
flavour used to translate Eng. ' use ', as gneyd devnyb o hono vo } ' to 
make use of it '. So also devm&jo, ' to use '.] 



d'eysulj di:arQ 8 1 

deysuU, s., deuswllt, G.O. ii. 138. 30, ( two shillings': pisin 
deysult, ' a florin, two shilling piece '. 

deyvor, s., deufor, D., s.v. ' bimaris ' = day vo:r in the phrases 
Kin haltada heli deyvor \ha:lt\ ; r o:n i vel deyvor pmarvod, ' I was 
all upset '(I. W.). 

di:, pron. [/]. 

di:-. A negative prefix used with nouns and verbs and rarely 
with adjectives. A few of these are given below, but they might 
be almost indefinitely extended. The prefix is generally treated as 
a separate word bearing full stress. Where this is not the case 
the vowel is naturally shortened. 

dirabsan ; dirabsant (O.H.), adj., diabsen, 'not given to 
slander' : dy:n 'dirabsant jaun am ne:b. 

diadal, s., diadell, D., s.v. ' grex ' ; ' flock ' : ma na ludun dy: wi 
mho:b diadal (E.J.), prov., ' there is a black sheep in every family'. 
Apparently only in this locution. [The usual word isgyr.J 

diraxos, diachos, D., s.v. * immeritb ' ; ' without cause ' : meltiQ 
9n 'diraxos ni da:tt (prov.). 

di:al, v., dial, D., 'to take revenge, avenge oneself : arna i: fy:8 
o n di:al. Also trans. di:al i li:d, ' to wreak one's vengeance ' 
(cf. W.B., col. 121. 23) ; di:al y kam, ' to avenge the wrong '. 

dialdb, dialedd, D., ' vindicta, vltio ' ; 'a great number ' : may 
gdno vo bed dialad o Sevaid ; may gmo vo anive'iljadm dtalad (O.H.). 
Cf. Hugh Machno in M.LI. ii. 311. 22 ; G.O. ii. 112. 5. 

dialgar, adj., dialgar, C.C.M. 436. 28, 'revengeful'. 

'diraj-y, adj., diallu, D., s.v. ' impotens ' ; ' feeble, powerless '. 

-diramkan, adj., diamcan, S.E., ' aimless, random '. 

di:an, n.pr. : vel di:an (f.) a loli (m.), ' like Dian and Loli ' 
(Rowland), said of two bosom friends or an affectionate married 
couple. (Cf. ' Darby and Joan '.) 

diranav, adj., dianaf, D.G. cci. 9, ' without blemish ' : an ja:x 
a -diranav, said of a new-born child ; wedi eni n 'Si'ranav. 

di:ar, dy:ar, di:a, Eng. ' dear ' in ' dear me ! ', etc. : di:ar annul /, 
n eno r di:ar /, di:ar ba:^!-, ' dear me !, good gracious !, my word !, 
etc.' ; dy:ar annul ! may o m brasgammy n aru /, ' good gracious ! 
how he strides along ! ' ; di:a ! may r dznas na m dobjo 9 plant m 
aru, ' my word ! that woman does beat the children '. 

dt'rardal, v., diarddel (diarddelw), S.E., 'to excommunicate, to 
strike off from membership in a chapel '. 

di:ar6, adj., dieithr, D., s.v. 'extraneus' ; dierth, D.F. [117] 21 ; 
M.LI. i. 209. 4, ' strange ' : dy:n di:arQ, 'stranger ' ; pobol 8i:ar6, 
'strangers', term commonly applied to visitors at seaside re- 
sorts, etc. 



82 dirasgurn "dtrdor 

'dirasgurn, dirasgun> adj., diasgwrn, S.E., ' weak, feeble ' : dy:n 
'dirasgurn. 

'diraval, adj., diafael, S.E., ' lazy, averse to work ' : dy:n di:og, 
'diraval. Cf. rieif ' o dim gaval mi hi, ' he won't buckle to '. 

'dirbaid, adj., dibaid, D., ' continual, without break '. 

diban, s.m., pi. dibenjon, diben, D., ' purpose ' : i riu biban, ' for 
some purpose ' ; i 8oy0 bibenjon, ' for some wise purpose ' ; appad 
3 diban, ' to answer the purpose '. 

-dirben, adj., ' empty-headed ' : dy:n 'dirben. 

dtrbeirdrau, adj., di-ben-draw. (i) 'interminable': furna 'di:- 
ben'drau. (2) ' mysterious ' : dy:n ' dirben' drau, ' a man one cannot 
" see through " '. 

dirberig, adj., diberigl, P.G.G. 45. 7, 'harmless, innocuous; 
safe': ma nu n holol 'Sirberig, 'they are quite harmless', e.g. 

patent pills ; le: -dirberig. 

dilin, s.m., dibyn, D. ; dibin, M.LI. i. 116. 14, 'precipice': 
mynd, swBjo dros 9 dibin, ' to go, fall over the precipice '; s^rBjo n 

dibin dobyn, ' to fall headlong '. 

'di'rbluk, adj., ' without pluck, unenterprising '. 

'dirbobol, adj., di bobl, 2 Esd. xvi. 26, 'uninhabited, sparsely 
inhabited. 



adj., diboen, D., 'comfortable, with mind at ease': 
wedi du:ad ar i furna m reit 'Sir boy n, ' having made his journey 
very comfortably '. 

"dirbri:od, adj., dibriod, S.E., ' unmarried '. 

dibris, adj., dibris, D., s.v. ' abjectus '. (i) 'wanting in self- 
respect ' : paid a bo:d mor dibris arnat ti: dz hy:n, ' do not lose 
your self-respect so '. (2) ' reckless ' : r 0:8 o n rhy: Dibris o lawar. 
(3) ' careless, not setting value on anything '. 

'dirbrif'o, v., dibrisio, D., s.v. ' abjicio ', ' despicio ', etc. ; ' de- 
preciate ' : dy:n m 'dirbrif'o i hy-:n, ' a man who has lost his self- 
respect ; who has gone to the bad ' ; also, ' one who is reckless ; 
who plunges needlessly into danger '. 

'dirbrovjad, adj., dibrofiad, S.E.., ' inexperienced '. 

dibuys, adj., dibwys, S.E. (i) 'unimportant, immaterial'. (2) 
' with little cause ' : kwyno n bibuys. 

'dirdaro, adj., didaro, D.P.O. 38. 3; 79. n, 'unconcerned, 
stolid ' = 'di:'gdnnur, 'di:'vattar. 

-dirdeimlad, adj., dideimlad, P.G.G. 63. 21, 'unfeeling'. 

'dirdor, adj., didorr, D., s.v. ' continuus ' ; ' continuous, without 
break '. 



'dirdorjad difommy 83 

dirdorjad, adj., didoriad, G.O. ii. 69. 12, said of one who has 
not been ' broken in ' when young, who has always had his own 
way, 'rude, unmanageable'. 

dirdramguyft) adj., didramgwydd, D., s.v. ' inocciduus ', ' in- 
offensus ' ; 'not easily taking offence ' : dy:n -dirdramguyb. 

-dirdrevn, adj., didrefn, B.C. 87. i, 'without order'. 

dirdroi, adj., di-droi, ' that cannot be turned aside ' : dy:n -di:- 
'droi. 

'dirdrsst, adj., ' untrustworthy '. 

diduyl, adj., didwyll, D., ' sincere '. 

dtia, adj., didda, W.S. [Wyth out goodes], ' without good ' : dy:n 
dt'drug, di8a, ' a nonentity, a man with nothing in him'. Cf. B.C. 95. 28. 

di:-8al, adj., di-ddal, ' unreliable, slippery ' : dy:n -dirdal. 

dt'8an, adj., diddan, D., 'amusing, pleasant, entertaining': he:n 
gumpeini diftan ydi o, ' he is pleasant company ' ; day 8y:n m 8i'8an 
hevo i gih'8, ' two men on pleasant terms with one another '. 

diftanux, s., diddanwch, D., ' the quality of being amusing, 
pleasant, or entertaining ' : may o n laun didanux- 

dt'Sany, v., diddanu, D., ' to comfort ' : may pe:6 ba:x zn i didany 
ht, ' a little thing comforts her '. 

'dirdarvod, adj., diddarfod, 'unending; that never wears out; 
long in finishing ' : may o n 'di."8arvod hevo t gdmuynas (work). 

-dirdaun, adj., di-ddawn, D.F. [85] 8, ' not gifted in speech '. 

dirtier bytrwjmab, adj., di-dderbyn-wyneb, ' not given to favour- 
itism, not being a respecter of persons '. 

di'rdeyd, adj., di and dywedyd, applied to one whom it is no use 
correcting, with whom it is useless to argue : 9 dy:n muya 'dir&eyd 
welis i ri-o:yd. 

didt'g, adj., diddig, D., ' good-tempered' (often applied to children). 

dt'8i'm; 'dtrSi'm (emphatic), adj., diddym, D.; diddim,W.Ll.xciv. 5; 
D.P.O. 50. 24 ; di-ddim, P.G.G. 153. 17, ' worthless, insignificant' : 
dy:n didim, ' a man with nothing in him ' ; <? dy:n muya -dirbim 
welts i rro.yd, ' the most insignificant man I ever saw '. 

di:'bi:olx, adj., diddiolch, S.E., 'thankless'. 

dirbjogi, adj., diddiogi, S.E., ' active ' : may n 8y:n holol 'dirty'ogi. 

dz'8os, adj., diddos, D. (i) ' rain-proof, damp-proof ': gneyd le: 
m 8i'8os. (2) ' cosy '. (3) 'sober' : dy:n di'8os (O.H.). 

diftosi, v., diddosi, D., 'to make rain-proof, damp-proof. 

dt'8rug, adj., diddrwg, D.F. [103] n, 'without badness' [dido]. 

ditommy, v., diddymmu, D., dyddymmu, D., s.v. ' annihilo ' ; ' to 
do away with '. 

G 2 



8 4 'direfaB dig jo 

'direfaB, adj., dieffaith, S.E., ' without effect ' ; ' having lost its 
virtue' (e.g. of medicine). 

di:e m gu}'3or t adj., diegwyddor, S.E., c unprincipled '. 
'direnaid, adj., di-enaid, 2 Esd. iii. 5, ' soulless '. 

difad, adj., diffaith, D. (i) of land, ti:r difaB, 'wild, full of 
thorns, bogs', etc. (O.H.). (2) 'anything that causes disgust': 
he:n hogla dru:g ddi pe:6 difaB (O.H.). (3) * mischievous, bad ' : 
dyn difaQ dy:n dru:g i gurs, dy:n am rieyd short. 

-dirfayl, adj., diphael, G.R. 117. 18; diffael, G.O. ii. 184. 5, 
' without fail '. 

difig, s., diffyg, D., 'defect, insufficiency' : difig treiljad kam- 
dreiljad, ' indigestion ' ; difig anadl, ' scantiness of breath ' ; difig 
govol, ' carelessness '. 

difod, v., diffodd, D., s.v. 'extinguo'. Fut. i. difotta. Imp. S. i. 
difotiun. Pret. S. i. difoltis, difis. PL 3. difodsun. Imperative 
difod, difa ; difottu\. ( i ) tr. 'to extinguish, put out ' : difod 9 
/amp, 'to put out the lamp'. (2) intr. 'to go out' (of a light or 
fire) : ma: r ta:n ivedi difod, ' the fire has gone out' ; fig. may hi 
wcdi difod arno vo, ' he is done for'. 

-dirfrut, adj., ' without any " go ", without stamina ' : dy:n dirfrut 
dy:n 'di."v0wyd, 'dirnerB, di:og. 

difruyB, adj., diffrwyth, D., s.v. 'iners', 'flaccidus'; ' limp ', 
e.g. of a child asleep : may i vrayx o n ftifruyB, ' he has lost the 
use of his arm '. 

difigjO) v., diffygio, D., ' to be worn out with fatigue ' : difdgjo 
o dan i vayx, ' to sink beneath his burden ' ; mi weiBis nes on i wedi 
difdgjo n la:n. 

di:g, s., dig, D., ' anger ' : gair i dmny di:g, ' a word to arouse 
anger '. 

di:g, adj., sup. dikka, dig, D., ' angry ' : dikka n 3 by:d vo: r 
Keiljog, kmta n 9 by:d d ka:n o (prov.), ' the angrier a cock is the 
sooner he will crow', said of some one who sings to hide his 
temper, i.e, dim y kany o x kalon ond dy kany i la:b ar zsbryd. 

digalon, adj., digalon, D., s.v. 'iners', ' remissus '. (i) 'down- 
hearted, depressed ' : digon kula a digalon, ' rather poorly and 
dejected'. (2) 'depressing': may r d0wy dn Digalon jaun. (3) 
' sad ' : pe:Q digalon. 

digalonni, v., digalonni, D., s.v. 'demitto'; 'to make (one) 
despair, to dishearten '. Intr. ' to be disheartened '. 

'dirges, adj., di and Eng. guess, ' feckless, without ideas ' (as to 
how to do a thing) : 9 dy:n muya 'dirges am neyd o welis i ri'o:yd. 

-dirgevn, adj., digefn ; C.C.M. 32. 29, 'defenceless'. 

digjo, v., digio, D. (i) ' to anger, offend ' : mi digi's hunnu, ' I 



dirgol 'dirgsxuyn 85 

made him angry '. (2) ' to be angry, offended ' : may o wedi digjo. 
(3) ' to be tired (of) ' : daxi wedi digjo uB wy:a />, ' are you tired of 
eggs ? ' (used facetiously). 

dirgol, adj., digoll ; C.C.M. 90. 24. (i) without loss ' : tori r 
moxyn mor 'dirgol ag sy m bosib, ' to cut up the pig in such a way 
as to cause the least possible loss'. (2) 'without defect, without 
blemish ' : blokkyn o dy:n solat 'dirgol. 

digon, digon, D. (i) s. 'enough': o:ys na digon o bo:b pe:B 
-gmoxi ru:an ?, ' have you enough of everything now ? ' ; may digon 

vi:n arno vo, ' it is sharp enough ' ; vsa i dim zy klu:ad m da: ond 
mi vzba i y klu:ad laun digon, ' I do not hear well, but I hear quite 
enough ' ; ar ben i digon, ' in clover '. (2) adv. (a) < enough ' : may 
n digon a digalonni y:n, ' it is enough to make one despair ' ; fy>:d 
m digon by:an at 9 dc:g } ' it will be soon enough at about ten ' ; mi 
vrta n digon am 9x hoydal xi vyndmo, ' it would be as much as your 
life is worth to go there '* ; (b) ' rather ' : digon gwantan ddi o, ' he 
is in rather a poor state of health ' ; digon legax ; digon gwaryl, 

1 so so '. 

digonad, s., digonedd, D., s.v. * satias ' ; ' enough, ' sufficiency '. 

dirg0unt, adj., di and Eng. account, (i) 'of no account': 
mynd m *irg0unt gin baub. (2) 'making of no account, setting 
no store by ' : m 'irg0unt o i gar/ra, o i blant, o i wraig. 

'dirgjBFunfjo, v., di and Eng. account, ' to make no account of, to 
set no store by ' : 'dirgewntjo i deyly ; 'dirgeruntjo i hy:n, ' to lose 
one's self-respect.' Cf. 'dirbrif'o. 

digri, adj., digrif, D., ' funny ' : fom'ra:ig go digri, ' rather funny 
Welsh ' ; may o n deyd pe6a digri, ' he says funny things ' ; le: digri 
jaun i vytta, ' a funny place to eat in ' ; he:n gradyr digri) ' a funny 
old character '. 

digul, s., digwyl, D., s.v. 'feralia' (i.e. dydd gwyl) ; digul 
dommos, ' St. Thomas's Day ', i.e. Dec. 21. 

diguy$>v. t digwyddo, D. (i) 'to happen': ma: n dign dn 
amal vejy, ' it often happens so ' ; mi diguydod 3 pedwar vynd i r 
y:n ty:, ' the four happened to go to the same house '. (2) ' to 
expire ' (of time) : ma i amsar wedi diguyd erbyn hyn (O.H.), ' its 
time has expired by now '. 

dirgwilib, adj., digywilydd, D. ; digwilidd, D.F. [47] 27, 
' shameless ' : mor 'dirgwi/id a pen rha:u, ' as shameless as the iron 
of a spade '. 

dirgyro, adj., diguro, S.E., ' which cannot be beaten, excelled '. 

'dirgtfro, adj., digyffro, D., s.v. 'inexcitus', 'placidus'; 'not 
agitated or excited, placid '. 

, adj., di-gychwyn, said of some one who has no ' go ' 



86 'di:gymuynas dil 

in him, no f grit ', no initiative ; ' feckless ' : mor ' 

malwan. 

dt:g9'muynas, adj., digymmwynas, G.O. ii. 19. 22, 'unpleasant 
(speaking of people) ; selfish '. 

-dirgmnig, adj., digynnyg. (i) 'not inclined to offer, to bid' 
(e.g. at an auction). (2) 'hesitating, in doubt': m Kirgmnig 
nay o ? gwaiB ai peidjo, ' in doubt as to whether he would do the 
work or not ' ; r o: o n 'Sirgmnig i n'eyd ? tul. (3) ' undesirable ' : 
le: 'dirgmnig jaun, ' a very undesirable situation'. 

dirgmnur, adj., digynnwrf, D., s.v. 'inexcitus', 'mitis', 'placidus' ; 
' stolid, unconcerned, indifferent, easy-going, lackadaisical '. 

'dirgavri, adj., digyfrif, S.E., 'innumerable, incalculable': riu 
bentur 'dirgwri (O.H.). 

dtrhajgar [dyalgar\. 
'dirhajys \_dyatys\. 

diharab, s.f., pi. diarhebjon, dihareb, D., s.v. ' prouerbium ' ; 
' proverb '. 

'dirhi:d, adj. (Eng. heed), ' unreliable '. 

dihirin, s.m., dihiryn, D., s.v, ' inhonestus ' ; ' scamp, rascal '. 

dirhtf, adj., ' unheeding, reckless, careless ' (I.W.). 

-dirhitjo, adj., ' heedless, unheeding ' : r o:S i wraig dn ftirhitjo 
o hono vo, ' his wife did not heed him, paid him no heed'. 

-dirildjO) adj., di-ildio, ' unyielding '. 

dik, ' Dick ': dikfon davyS, i.e. Dick John David, ' snob' (esp. 
of a Welshman who, for the sake of ' respectability ', apes English 
ways). From a ballad by J. Jones, Glanygors. 

dik pennog \bfant\. 

dtkra, adj., diccra, D., c cibi parcus ' ; cf. also D., s.v. ' fastidiosus ' ; 
(i) 'calm, stolid ' = -dirgmnur, 'dirdaro, -dirvattar. (2) ' slow ' : 
may o n bikra hevo i vuyd, ' he plays with his food ' ; dikra o r 
buyd, o i waiQ (O.H.). 

diktar, s.m., digter, D., ' anger '. 

, s.f., pi. dt'xefjon, dichell, D., ' astuteness, cunning, craftiness' : 
dru.-g, ' malicious cunning ' ; laun o di'xef/on d val (O.H.) ; 
di\cljon luynog (O.H.). 

dixelSrug ; di\elrug (O.H.), adj., dichellddrwg, T.N. 207. 12, 
' malicious, sly '. 

dixelgar, adj., dichellgar, D., ' astute, deceitful '. 

dil, s.m., pi. dilja, dil, D. dil me:l, ' honeycomb ' ; may r 
menyn m magy dilja vel knonod ba:x (]])> meaning 1 ; as excl. dil 
annul / 



dilbo dim 87 

dilbo, s.m., term of reproach : 9 dilbo gwirjon ! (O.H.). 

'dt."k:s, adj., diles, D., s.v. ' frustra ', ' vacuus ' ; 'good for nothing' : 
dy:n 'dirle:s. 

dirlewyrx, adj., dilewyrch, S.E., 'not thriving, not flourishing ' 
(in appearance or otherwise) : dy:n kry: gweiBgar, dim <>y 
gwastrafy, dim puysa plant, ag etto n 'i:'lewyr\ dim by:d m 
luybo tdo vo ; hem vyux ar 9 fair m 'dirlewyrx gin 9 porBmon (O.H.). 

di'ley, v., dileu, D., ' to do away with ' : di'ley po:b dru:g. 

dilidano (JJ.) ; diridano (I.W. ; O.H.), adj., ' pleasant ' : rubaB 
dilidano jaun. 

dilin, v., dilyn, D. ; dilin, M.LI. i. 140. 23. Fut. dilma. Im- 
perative dilin, dilma ; dihnux, ' to follow ' : dilin i alwedigaB, ' to 
follow one's calling'; dilin i foladsuyba, orixwiljon, 'to fulfil one's 
duties ' ; dilin i waiB, ' to follow one's occupation '. 

dilis, in the exp. dilis ku:n, ' sorrel ' (Bangor)- Cf. krentj, 
syrans. 

dirliu, adj., diliw, S.E.*, 'colourless'. 

diljo, v., ? dulio, D., s.v. ' supplodo ' ; 'to speak beside the mark ' : 
loljan a diljo. 

'dirlol, adj., 'without humbug, without nonsense'; 'without 
further ado ' : ary mi agor 9 dru:s m -^i:lol, ' I opened the door 
without further ado '. 

dilorni, v., diveiliorni, marginal gloss to ' dirmygy ' in i Tim. 
iv. 10 in Salesbury's New Testament (1567), 'to disparage, to 
be " down on " ' : may o n dilorni paub = may igorn o dan baub, 
may i gorn m nhi;n paub (O.H.). 

'di;-{y:n, adj., dilun, S.E., ' untidy, shapeless '. 

dilad, s.pl., dillad, D., ' clothes ' ; sing, diledyn, ' garment, article 
of dress ' : dilad gwely, ' bed-clothes ' ; ka:l mu:y na lond i Mad, ' to 
be too big for one's boots ' ; dilad Ki:g afudin, ' Sunday clothes '. 

dim, m (sometimes tim when emphatic), dim, D., s. ' thing, 
anything, (not) . . . anything, nothing ' ; adj. ' no ' ; adv. ' not '. 
I. ' thing ' in a few expressions, as po:b dim, ' everything ' ; 
gora o bo:b dim = gora o:l, ' best of all ' ; ma: Ki:g gavr kdslal a r 
y:n dim (O.H.), 'goat's flesh is as good as anything '; also used 
in some phrases to express ' the slightest particle, the slightest 
moment, etc.', e.g. i r dim, 'exactly, to a "t"' ; meun dim, (of 
time) ' in a moment, in less than no time ' ; (of place) ' within 
a hair's breadth ' ; dma vo meun dim i r drol, ' there he was within 
a hair's breadth of the cart' ; fig. o:y o meun dim i gal i la:8, 'he 
was within an ace of being killed'. Hence as substantive, (i) 
' anything ' : wel gin i 8im na ka:yl V9 sommi, ' I had rather any- 
thing than be disappointed ' ; du i n leikjo hi 3n -uoel na dim, ' I 
like it better than anything ' ; wa:6 bo xti wedi kodi am u:yB ar 



88 dim 

dim r u:ti wedi neyd, ' you might as well have got up at eight for 
anything you have done ' ; so with heb : heb dim, ' without any- 
thing ' ; heb awyb gneyt tim, ' without a desire to do anything '. 
(2) ' (not) . . . anything, (not) . . . any, nothing ' (cf. French ne . . . 
rien) : dim by:d (i. e. dim yn y byd), ' (not) anything in the world, 
nothing at all ' ; dim ond, ' (not) anything but, only ' ; / o.yd dim 
ar i gzvar o, 'there was nothing ready for him ' ; / o:s dim ly;n dim 
arno vo, ' there is no form of anything on it', i. e. ' it is like nothing 
at all ', ' it is all wrong ' ; */ qybanu n meul am Sim by :d ond am vynd 
alan a x a du ri:at, ' they thought of nothing at all but of going out 
and making a disturbance'; pe6a nad ddyn m da: i dim, 'things 
which are good for nothing ' ; dim amsar i Sim, ' no time for 
anything ' ; ma na i ovn nal o:ys na dim, ' I'm afraid there isn't 
any ' ; well's i dim fy:d, ' I saw nothing at all ' ; mi vy:d m haus i xi 
vytta na dim by:d aral, ' it will be easier for you to eat than any- 
thing else ' ; s gini dim ondgro:t, ' I have only fourpence ' ; ne'iB dim 
y:n o 'honynu dim ond gado, ' none of them will do anything but 
promise ' ; / o:ys na 'dim -ond mynd, ' there is nothing for it but to 
go '. (3) followed by o in the form m o, lit. ' anything of, (a) used 
after negative verbs to express the logical direct object : welts i m 
ono ?:o, ' I did not see him ' ; os na welsox X*' w'-', welis inna m ona 
X/Oa, ' if you did not see me, I did not see you ' ; os na welis i: x*-', 
welsox X 2 -' m na vinna, ' if I did not see you, you did not see me ' ; 
wel gin i 9 dru:g 2 gun i na r dru:g nas gun i m ono vo, ' I prefer 
the evil I know to the evil I do not know ' ; rhak ovn na 'welaxi 
m oni hi m 'vannaku, ' for fear you should not see it there ' ; deyd 
pc:B na: deydid o m ono vo zn dx gwynab \i, ' to say something he 
will not say before your face, (b) as logical subject of a negative 
clause : ne'iB m o hunna xwaM, ' that won't do either '. (c) after the 
veib ' to be ' : / o:ys m o r help, ' there is no help for it*. The 
original sense being forgotten, mo is sometimes used pleonastically 
after dim, as xe-'s i &'/ mo r hy:d ido vo, ' I did not find it ' ; rois i 
di?n mo r grta6 arno vo, ' I did not touch it with the knife '. (4) 
standing by itself dim = ' nothing' (so also dim by:d, 'nothing at 
all'), e.g. be: s 'gznoxi ? dim, ' what have you got?' ' Nothing '. 
(5) without a preceding negative : ' nothing ' : o:ys "gmoxi 'dim ? (dim 
strongly emphasized), 'have you nothing? '; mi prjoda i\iam dim, 
' I will marry you for nothing ' ; d3\ryn at dim, ' to be frightened at 
nothing ' ; dim ond aur vy:om i n dzsgy, ' I only took an hour to 
learn '. 

II. adjectively (dim is here, properly speaking, a noun followed 
by the genitive case), ' not . . . any, no ' emphasized by adding 911 
9 by:d after the noun : / o:ys dim djogi yn i gro:yn o, ' there is no 
idleness in him' ; ma: nu n deyd bo:d terwyd rhe:u m jaxax na dim 
/0wy aral, ' they say that frosty weather is healthier than any (than 
is not any) other weather' ; pe'idjo a gneyd dim lol m i gumpas o, 
1 to make no nonsense about it ' ; du:ad heb dim plait, ' to bring no 



dim dinistr jol 89 

plate ' ; dimforb, ' no road ' ; dy:n a dimfru:t mo vo, ' a man with 
no backbone ' ; / o:d 'gsnonu m plant, ' they had no children '. So 
in the phrases dim ods, ( no odds, no matter ' ; dim posib (posib 
used substantively), ' it is impossible ', as :dim ods gin z', ' it is all 
the same to me ' ; / ydi o m ods, ' it's all the same ' ; / o:ys dim 
posib, ' it is not possible ' ; dim posib i ne:b vynd i veun, ' it is 
impossible for any one to get in '. Similarly dimym, ' not a single 
one ' : r o:y gin i lawar jaun o wy:a ond dary dim y:n o 'honynu 
8y:or, ' I had a great many eggs but not one of them hatched '. 

III. adverb, ' not ' ; (a) in the form dt'm after a negative verb, 
' ni(d) ' having disappeared, leaving as its only trace the vocalic or 
spirant mutation of the verb, or / if the verb begins with a vowel ; 
cf. French ne . . . pas ; / ydi o dim m mynd, ( he is not going ' ; 
/ un i dim, (/ z)du i dim zy gubod, ' I don't know ' ; / a: i dim alan 
vory, ' I shall not go out to-morrow ' ; vedar o m d^sgy am dim by:d, 
' he can't learn for anything' ; neiB o dim kadti dim i>y:d, ' he won't 
keep anything'. (b) in the form dim, added for the sake of 
emphasis, ' not ... at all ' : wa:6 i \i vo:d m <?x gwely dim, ' you 
might every bit as well stop in bed', lit. ' (it is) not worse for you 
to be in your bed at all ' ; mi 'foljaxi na doda menyn dim ?n i ge:g o, 
' you would think that butter would not melt in his mouth (at all) '. 
(c) before other adverbs : dim mor greylon a r geirja, ' not so cruel 
as the words would seem to imply ' ; dim n agos Kimmint a v&a, 
' not nearly as many as there used to be ' ; dim m wel adi o, ' he is 
not better'. 

dim, s., dim, R., dim u:y, ' the membrane which surrounds the 
inside of an egg-shell ' : Kin dmy:ad a dim u:y (J.J.). 

dimbax, Dinbych; Dimbech, C.C.M. 134. 15; 'Denbigh'. 

dimma, s.f., pi. dim(e}ya, dimmai, D., ' halfpenny ' : gwerO dimma 
mewad, ' a halfpennyworth ' ; lair rhe:s o binna am dimma, ' three 
rows of pins for a halfpenny ' ; su:U a gro:t a dimma, ' one and 
fourpence halfpenny '. 

-dinab-man (I.W. ; E.J.), -dinad'man (JJ. ; O.H.), adj., dinod and 
man (cf. gwynab and gwymmad\ ' out-of-the-way ' : -le: -dinab'man, 
' an out-of-the-way place '. 

dirnerQ, adj., dinerth, D., ' weak, lifeless, without " go ", without 
stamina '. 

dinistr, s., dinystr, D., but dinistr, s.v. ' destructio ' ; dinustr is 
the mediaeval form. Cf. Prof. J. Morris Jones in ' Y Beirniad ' for 
June, 1912 (p. 124); 'destruction'. 

dinistrjo, v., dinystrio, D., but dinistrio, s.v. 'destruo'; dinustrio 
is the medigeval form. Cf. dinislr ; * to destroy '. 

dinistrjol, adj., dinystriol, D., dinistriol, B.C. n. 3, ' destructive ' 
(O.H.). 



90 diniwad 'dirovol 

diniwad, adj., diniweid, D., ' innocent ' : mor biniwad a r o:yn, 
a r glomman. 

diniwidruyb, dini'udruyb, s., diniweidrwydd, D., s.v. ' innocentia ' ; 
' innocence '. 

dinod, adj., 'not marked'; o:yn dinod, ' a lamb which has not 
been marked' (O.K.). 

dirno:d, adj., dinod, S.E., ' of no note, not remarkable, obscure ' : 
le: 'di:'nod. 

o 

dtykod, s.pl., dincod, D. (i) 'the pips of an apple' : diykod avol. 
(2) pen bydiQ ru:in air go far p uB ru:in aral, ma: nu n deyd bod 9 
diykod arno vo (O.H.). Cf. G.R. [195] 19; Jer. xxxi. 29. 

di:od, s.f., pi. diodyb, djodyb, diod, D., ' drink ' : ma na i ifo di:od, 
' I am thirsty '; fommux bi:od o de:, ' take a drink of tea ' ; also 
for di:od vebwol, ' intoxicating drink ' ; di:od daint 9 je:u, ( dandelion 
tea ' ; di:od dail, ' herb beer ' ; di:od vam, ' small beer '. 

dt'.-og, adj. (comp. djokkax}, diog, D., ' lazy ' : Kena di:og, ' lazy 
rogue ' ; he:n gostog di:og, he:n rabust di:og, hban di:og. 

di:olx, s., diolch, D., ' thanks' : di:olx*' di:ol\ i X*, ' thank you ' ; 
di:olx 3n vaur i \i, ' thank you very much ' ; di:ol\ am i\ieyd . . ., 
1 thank you for saying . . .'; di:ol\ bo xi wedi du:ad i gi:d ru:an /, 
' thank Heaven you have all come now ! ' ; di:ol\ byQ am fanny /, 
* thank Heaven for that ! ' ; di:ol\ byQ /, ' hurrah ! ' ; di:olx mairvo: sy 
n ixal hi ag nid yvi:, ' I am glad he is getting it and not I ' ; di:ol\ 
nad b'yun i mo, ' I am glad I was not there ' ; di:ol\ os rieiQ o, 
' I hope he will ' ; di:olx ba:x i \i am weiQjo n wel y xwartar nesa, 
1 small thanks to you for working better next quarter ', i. e. 'I dare 
say you will '...,' likely enough you will ' ; With a sense of ' that 
will do, that's enough ' : di:olx am bigon o gyro n 3 dru:s /, ' I hope 
you've knocked at the door enough ! ' 

di:olx, v. ? diolch, D., ' to thank ' : bary o di?n Kimmint a di:olx i mi 
am bu:ad a r Savod, ' he did not as much as thank me for bringing 
the sheep '. 

'dirolug, adj., diolwg, D.G. xviii. 36. (i) ' plain, insignificant ' : 
dr hogyn muya 'dirolug 9n ar 9sgol, ( the plainest boy in the school '. 
(2) k of unpleasant appearance': bar a 'dirolug, 'an'bgys. (3) 
' unpromising, without prospect ' : may n -birolug jaun am derwyb 
da: ; may hi n edrax ?n 'birolug, ' it looks unpromising '. 

'diros, adj., di-os, D., s.v. ' indubitanter ' ; 'without doubt': 

m 'Sir os. 

di.'o'valux, s.m., diofalwch, D., ' negligence, carelessness '. 

'dirovol, adj., diofal, D. (i) 'negligent, careless'. (2) ' safe ' : 
may n 'birovol i ni vyndfor na, ' it is safe for us to go that way ' ; 
dirovol 9dt dim (prov.), 'there is security in not possessing anything'. 



'dirraty'o 'dirsail 9 1 

-dirraty'o, v., diraddio, D., < to speak evil of, run down, decry '. 

-dirra:s, adj., di-ras, C.C. (ed. 1776) 38. 24, ' graceless' : 3 krjadyr 
muya 'dirra:s welis i rro:yd. Cf. Sian Robert gadd golled go gas, 
Sef dwyn ei cheiniogwerth o snisin, Gwnaeth hyn iddi regi'n 
ddi-ras. C. ' Marchnad Ca'rnarfon '. 

dirresum, adj., direswn, D., s.v. ' absurdus ' ; ' absurd '. 

dirgal, adj., dirgel, D., ' secluded, secret ' : le: dirgal, ' a secluded 
spot ' ; gn'e'yd pe:B m Sirgal, 'to do a thing in secret ' ; mynd i r 
dirgal i beyd peB, ' to go to a private spot to say something '. 

dirgelux, s.m., dirgelwch, D., ' mystery ' : dma r dirgelux, ' that's 
the strange thing about it ' ; may hynna n dirgelux holol i mi syt 
9 hmmoft hi o wi'o.yd, * it's a perfect mystery to me how she ever 
took him '. 

diridus [dridus]. 

'dirriujo, v., dirywio, D., s.v. 'degenero'; 'to degenerate, come 
down in the world ' = mynd i laur. Also trans. : 'dirriujo i hy:n, 
' to degrade oneself. 

'dt:ri'vedi, s., dirifedi, D., s.v. ' innumerabilitas ' ; 'an immense 
number': ma na 'i:ri'vedi o 'honynu. Also used adjectively, 
* innumerable '. 

di'rjo, v., durio, D., ' to point (horse-shoes) with steel in time of 
frost to prevent slipping ' : dirjo p^dola. 

dirmig, s., dirmyg, D. ; dirmig, G.R. 57. 9, 'contempt' : gosod 
dirmig arno vo, ' to show contempt for him '. 

di'rnad, v., dirnad, D., ' to imagine, guess ' : r oyhun i n me&y 
dirnadpa: adag o.yS hi, ' I had no idea what time it was ' ; ma na 
le i Dirnad bo:d . . . , ' one might imagine that . . . '. 

dirrodras, adj., dirodres, D., s,v. ' inambitiosus ' ; ' unassuming '. 
'Airraid, adj., di and rhoi, ' stingy '. 
-dirro:l, adj., ' unruly '. 

'dirrym, adj., dirym, D., s.v. ' ignavus ' ; ' without force ' : r 0:8 
d gzvraQ wedi mynd dn 'dirrym, ' the law had become a dead letter '. 

dirwin, dirun, v., dirwyn, D., 'to wind ' : dirwin davaS, ' to 
wind a skein '. Also intrans. : dirwin i ben, dirwin i r pen, ' to 
come to an end '. 

-dim&yd, adj., dirybudd, D., s.v. 'subitus'; 'without warning, 
sudden '. 

dirnmmy, v., dirymmu, S.E., ' to nullify '. 

'dirsail, adj., di-sail, D.P.O. 205. 30, 'without foundation': 
he:n stry:on 'dirsail, ' groundless stories '. 



92 'di:'se:l 'dr:so:n 

'dirse:l, adj., di and sel (zeal), c slack ' (at work) : bo:d dn 'dirse:l 
leysy i 8ylo. 

dirserx, adj., di-serch, 2 Tim. iii. 3, ' unattractive '. 

disgin, v., disgyn, D. Fut. S. 3. sgmniQ. Pret. S. 3. sgmno. 
PI. 3. sganson. Imperative, disgin ; sgmnux. (i) ' to descend, 
alight ', e. g. from a train or carriage. (2) ' to fall ', generally of 
things : ma: r gorjad wedi disgin i dro:yd 9 gadar, ' the key has 
fallen to the foot of the chair ' ; ma: r dail m disgin,, ' the leaves 
are falling ' ; may o n disgin i u le: bo:b kmnig, ' it drops into its 
place every time ' ; du:r dn disgin i laur ag an troi vel troxjon, 
1 water falling and seething with foam ' (lit. like soap-suds) ; also 
of persons : mi sgmnob ar i wynab, ' he fell on his face '. 

disglar, adj., disglair, D. (i) 'bright': gola disglar. (2) 
' comely ' : dy:n disglar = gla:n i wymmada igorf dJiappad(O.Y{.^. 
Also ty: disglar , etc. 

disgleirjo, v., disgleirio, D., ' to glitter ', e. g. of water in the 
sunshine. 

disgul, disgwil, v., disgwyl, D., s.v. ' expecto ' ; disgwil, B.C. 
32. 31 ; M.LI. i. 6. 9, etc. ; P.G.G. 2. 9 and passim. Fut. 
(di)sgwilja. (i) 'to expect': du i n disgul an aru, 'I quite 
expect ' ; r byun i n disgul hi o:y a heibju, ' I was expecting her 
yesterday and to-day ' ; / oybun i dim dn disgul vasun i n d ty: mor 
vy:an, ' I didn't expect to be back so soon ' ; rhaid i xi weitjad : 
r ddu i n i bisgul o bo:b mynyd, ' you must wait : I am expecting him 
every minute ' ; dn disgul sn foval am b6yr, ' anxiously expecting 
a letter ' ; ma: gryfy dgo:s dn disgul Kiu ba:x o r gasag na, ' G. J. 
is expecting a foal from that mare ' ; puy daxi n disgul i r ru:m 
??ia ?, ' whom are you expecting in this room ? ' ; mi vasun i n 
disgul rubaB mgenax na hsnny o'ruQaxi, ' I should have expected 
something better than that from you'. (2) 'to wait (for)': mi 
Sisgivilja i -uOaxi, ' I will wait for you '. (3) ' to hope (for) ' : 
disgul am amsar givel, ' to hope for better days '. Used sub- 
stantively : ?na na Disgul maur oruQo vo, ' there are great expectations 
about him '. 

dirsgurs, adj., ' taciturn '. 

disgwiljad, s.m., disgwyliad, D., s.v. ' expectatio ' ; ( expectation ' : 
hevo disgwiliad = hevo gobaiO, ' I hope so ' ; mi 'SeyBoxi alan vefy 
dn wel na r disgwiljad, ' so things turned out for you better than 
you expected '. 

disgdbly, v., disgyblu, ' to discipline, exercise control ; excom- 
municate (from a chapel) ' : if'o disgdbly d bobol, ' the people must 
be disciplined ' ; ne:b dn disgdbly dim, ' no one exercising any 
control ' ; meOy disgdbly i vebul. 

dirso:n, adj., dison, R., ' not spoken of : a:6 m 'di'rso:n am dano 
wedyn, ' nothing was heard of him afterwards ' ; also in good 



distau ditla 93 

sense : dy:n 'dirso:n am dano, ' a man against whom there is 
nothing to be said '. 

distau, adj., distaw, D., ' quiet, still, silent ' : Kin bistawad a 
Igodan, ' as quiet as a mouse ' ; r 0:8 9n dis/au bora kmta, ' it (the 
weather) was still the first thing this morning ' ; niul tu:yl, distau, 
' a thick, still mist ' ; ma: r van ma n le: reit bistau, 'thisis a very 
quiet place ' ; 0:8 o n reit Distau ar hmny, ' he was very quiet about 
that matter' ; riu so:n distau am rubaO, ' a whispered rumour about 
something ' ; klyun hi n agor 9 fenast 3n disfou, 'I heard her opening 
the window quietly ' ; m distau 6a:x, ' silently '. 

distewij v., distewi, D., ' to be silent '. 

distil, s., distyll, D., ' ebb-tide ' : may r lanu ar Sisfil, ' the tide is 
ebbing ' ; pry:d ma: r du:r an mynd 3n Distil P, ' when does the tide 
go down ? ' ; may hi n dish'!, ' it is low tide '. 

distin, s.m., pi. distja, cf. dist, D., s.v. 'tignum'; 'beam', e.g. 
one of those supporting the planks of a floor. 

dist0uruy, s.m., distawrwydd, D., ' silence '. 

distriu, s., distriw, S.G. 302. 7 ; distryw, D., ' destruction '. 
(Scarcely colloquial. Cf. dinistr.) 

distriujo, v., distrywio, D., 'to destroy'. (Scarcely colloquial. 
Cf. dinistrjo, diva.) 

'dirstymmog, adj., di and stumog, ' without appetite '. 

distarlyd, adj., diystyrllyd, S.E., ' apt to disparage, contemptuous, 
disrespectful ; disparaging ' : farad dn bisterlyd, ' to speak dis- 
paragingly '. 

distdrux, s., diystyrwch, D. ; distyrwch, G.R. [112] 18, 'con- 
tempt, disrespect'. 

distdry, v., diystyru, D. (i) 'to treat with disrespect'. (2) 'to 
pass by (some one) pretending not to know him, to cut '. (3) ' to 
show disfavour towards ' : ta:d m distary y:n o i blant. 

'dirsutta, adj., diswtta, D., s.v. ' desubito ', ' improvise ', ' subito ' ; 
'sudden, abrupt ' : mi: a:6 ifurb m -Sirsutta (= suttd]. 

'dirsylu, adj., disylw, S.E., 'not remarkable, insignificant, not 
attracting attention ' : le: 'di:-no:d, 'dirsylu ; rubad -dirsylu ddi o, 
' he is a man of no presence '. 

dirsyt, adj., disut, S.E.*, 'without tidiness or order'. 

-dirsdlwab, adj., disylwedd, S.E., ' without substance '. Applied 
to one who has ' nothing in him ', ' no good stuff in him ' : plant 
'dirszlwab. 

dif'a, s.pl., dis, D.; disieu, W.S. ; B.C. 23. 15, 'dice'. 

'dirfa:p, adj., ' shapeless '. 

ditta, s.pl., ' dribblings from the mouth ' (= tida). 



94 



dittal divir 



dittal \iikkai\. 

diitan, s., titen, W.S. ; diden, D., s.v. ' mamma ', ' ruma ', ' rumis ' ; 
' teat ' (= te:B\ 

ditlu, s.f. Cf. fy nitw, C.L.C. ii. 13. 17 (i.e. 'my pussy'), ditiu 
dommos la:s, ' torn-tit ' (Parus coeruleus). 

diujol, adj., duwiol, D., ' godly '. 

diva, v., difa, D., 'to destroy ' : may r gwniyod wedi diva lawar 
faun o r knu:d, 'the rabbits have destroyed a great deal of the 

crops '. 

dirvai, adj., difai, D. (i) 'without fault': Kefyl 'dirvai ddi o. 
(2) ' good enough ' : may n '^irvai z'8o vo, ' it is good enough for 
him ' ; or, more emphatically, may n -birvai i u SannaS ; o.yd 9n 
dirvai enu ami hi, ' it was a very good name for her '. 

dirvaxy, adj., di and bachu, ' slack (in working) ' : dy:n -dirvaxy, 
' a man who cannot be induced to stick to anything ' dim ius 
i vaxy o, weiQiQ o dim. 

dirvalas, adj., difalais, I.G. 230 [59], 'innocent, well-intentioned'. 

diva/x, adj., difalch, L.G.C. 76. i; B.C. 15. 9, 'unassuming': 
da\i wedi bo:d mor divalx a bytta hevo mi. 

dirvantas, adj., difantais, S.E.*, ' unprofitable '. 

divar, adj., edifar, D., in the phrase may n divar gin i, 'I am 
sorry, I regret' : may n divar gin i -hy:d 9r 'aur 'hon, ' I regret it 
to this very hour '. Also with /': fy:d m divar i ti, ' you'll be sorry 

for it '. 

'di:va'terux, s.., difaterwch, T.N. 285. 26, 'apathy, indifference; 
carelessness '. 

-dirvattar, adj., difatter, B.C. 62. 4; P.G.G. 26. 12, etc., 
' apathetic, unconcerned, stolid, indifferent, unperturbed '. Cf. 
dirgmnur, 'dirdaro, 'dirgzfro, -dirveind. 

dirvedar, adj., difedr, S.E., ' incapable '. 

'di:-7)e$ul, adj., difeddwl, S.E. (i) 'without thinking': neyd o n 
-dt'rvedul bary mi, 'I did it without thinking'. (2) 'indifferent, 
casual ' : peidju\ a bo:d mor 'Sirvebul, ' give your mind to it ', 
1 don't be so casual '. 

'dirveind, adj., di and Eng. mind, said of a worthless, devil-may- 
care individual m meindjo dim dn ne:b. 

dirveys, adj., difeius, Eph. v. 27, ' faultless ' : dy:n 'dirveys (O.K.). 

-dirvi:n, adj., difin, D., s.v. 'retusus'; 'blunt'. 

divir, adj., difyr, D. ; difir, P.G.G. n. 10, 'pleasant, amusing, 
entertaining ' : sgurs divir, ' entertaining conversation ' ; y:n divir 
jaun i wrando arno vo, l one who is very interesting to listen to ' ; 
h: divir i blant, ' a nice place for children '. 



divja divsrux 9 5 

divja, s., difiau pro Dydd lau, D. ; D.G. xxxiv. n ; cxxix. 15, 
1 Thursday ' : divja 3 drzxaval, ' Ascension Day '. 

divlanny, v., diflannu, D., 'to vanish ' : mi dtvlannod o yolug i. 

divlas, adj., diflas, C.C. 453. 13 ; B.C. 26. 13, 'dry, uninteresting': 
przgeQur divlas, ' a dry preacher ' ; le; divlas, ' a nasty, uninteresting 
place '. 

-di:-vla:s, adj., diflas, D., tasteless ' : Ki:g -dirvla:s mervad. 

divlastod, s., diflasdod, S.E., 'coarse language ': paid a farad 
divlastod 'an'wedys. 

divlasy, v., diflasu, D. (i) tr. 'to disgust': may n bigon a 
divlasy ru:in, 'it is enough to disgust any one'. (2) intr. ' to be 
tired of ' : du i wedi divlasy arno vo, ' I am tired of it '. 

divlin, adj., diflin, D., s.v. ' infatigabilis ' ; ' untiring '. 

-dirvlino, v., diflino, ' to rest ' : stebux i 'dirvlino. 

'dirvodi, v., difodi, S.E., ' to do away with by removing, breaking 
to pieces, etc.' : -dirvodi 9sgol o r pluy, ( to do away with a school 
from the parish ' ; 'dirvodi po:b pe:B sy y grieyd dru:g. 

'di'v0wyd, adj., difywyd, D., s.v. ' inanimatus ' ; ' lifeless, in- 
animate '. 

divrau, adj., difraw, D.F. [n] i, 4 ; Isaiah xxxii. 10, 'fearless, 
cool, indifferent ' : dy:n dz'vrau, ' a cool customer '. 

divri, adj., difrif, D., 'serious': o: ivri (cf. B.C. 28. 21), o: 
bivri kalon, ' seriously ' ; ma: r ta:n wedi kmna o: divri ru:an, ' the 
fire has burnt up properly now ' ; rhaid i xi vo:d uBi o: divri, ' you 
must set to in earnest ' ; daxi n mynd alan o: divri kalon bo:b dy:8, 
1 you make a point of going out every day ' ; zdi o n sais o: divri 
kalon ?, ' is he a real Englishman ? ' 

divrivol, adj., difrifol, D., s.v. ' tantopere ' ; ' serious ' : farad m 
divnvol, to speak seriously' ; r o:d o n Sivrivol aryQrol wnna, i it (the 
storm) was extremely serious here ', ' it was a terrible state of 
things here '. 

divrod, s.m., difrawd, D., ' destruction ', e.g. of property by a 
storm : mi na:B 9 gla:u divrod maur, ' the rain made great havoc '. 

divrodi, v., difrodi, D., ' to work havoc upon ' : r o:d ar haid wedi 
kayl i Divrodi n dexrmfyd. 

'dirvulx, adj., diuwlch, M.A. i. 3893. 5, 'without flaw' (of 
persons or things) : fomerfad 'dirvu/x, ' a flawless character '. 

-di;-vy:d, adj., difudd, D., s.v. ' inutilis ' ; ' unprofitable ' : prmny 
pe:B 'dirvy:d. 

'dirvmad, adj., diamynedd, D.G. ccxv. 49, ' impatient '. 
zrux, s., difyrrwch, D. 5 ' amusement '. 



96 divsry dja:n 

divsry, v., difyrru, D., ' to amuse ' ; ' to take pleasure in ' : 
i n divsry hevo r peBa na (O.H.). 

-dirvytta, adj., di and bwytta, 'without appetite'. 

diwaft, s.m., diwedd, D., ' end ' (in the immaterial, abstract 
sense) : dn ? diwad, ' in the end ' ; diwab 9 mi:s ; mi 8a:u diwab 
9 ly:d tok, ' the end of the world will come soon ' ; o r diwaS, ' at 
last'. As exclamation, euph. for dyu; in this sense, often pro- 
nounced dywad: diwad (dywaB) annul! 

di:w&hanja6, adj., diwahaniaeth, T.N. 107. 17, 'without dis- 
tinction ' : may o m p^3geBy hevo paub dn 'i:wa'hanja6 ; may dyu m 
rhoid i baub dn 'bi:wa~hanja6. 

dirwaiB, adj., diwaith, Isaiah xxxii. 9. (i) 'unemployed': 
du in '8t."wai& er s talumjaun. (2) Mazy, averse to work': syt 

dy:n o:d o ? r o:y o n holol 'dirwaiO. 

-/ o 

'dirwal, adj., diwall, R., ' without imperfection ' : dy:n truybo 
dirwal. 

di'wedar, adj., diweddar, D., Mate' : vala diweftar, Mate apples ' ; 
,m diwedar, ' lately ' (but kodi n hu.yr, ' to get up late '). 
diwety, v., diweddu, D., ' to end '. 
-diriuenwyn, adj., diwenwyn, S.E.*, ' not jealous '. 
'di:wer6, adj., diwerth, S.E., 'worthless'. 

dirweylod, adj., di-waelod, Rev. xx. i. (i) ' bottomless ' : mor 
a pul Keris (cf. dyvii). (2) ' unprincipled '. 



diwid, adj., diwyd, D. ; diwid, P.G.G. 42. 16; 43. 9; 105. 15, 

' industrious'. 

diwidruyb, s.m., diwydrwydd, D., 'industry', 

diwigjad, s.m., diwygiad, D., s.v. ' correctio J . (i) 'a (religious) 
revival': kodi diwigjad, 'to start a revival'. (2) 'conversion' (in 
religious sense) : ka:yl diwigjad, ' to be converted '. 

'dirwreity'o, v., diwreiddio, D., ' to uproot '. 

'diwmadvarO, adj., diymadferth, D., s.v. ' iners ' ; ' helpless ', 
e.g. of an infant. 

, adj., diymddiried, S.E., ' unreliable '. 

, adj., diysbryd, D., s.v. ' excors, iners ' ; ' spiritless ' : 
dy:n 'di:'dsbryd, ' a man with no " go " in him '. 

djagan : mm djagan if, expletive. 

djail, euph. for djaul : djail a m pi: ! pu:y 0:8 ?no ond 9>vo: ; 
djail i! 

djaist: djaist a minnaf, mm djaist tif, expletives. 
dja:n, expletive, ' upon my word ! ' 



djaux dle:d 97 

djaux, expletive, euph. for djaul 

djaul, s.m., pi. djerulad, diawl, D., s.v. < diabolus ' ; ' devil ' : 
djaul a m sgybo t f, ' the devil snatch me ! ' ; djaul a i jlamjo vo ! ; 
un i dim be djaul s arno vo, ' I don't know what the devil is the matter 
with him' ; nid in hi:r 9 Keidu r djaul i wa:s (prov.), ' the devil does 
not long preserve his dupe ' ; ayalpenforft, djaul pen pentan (prov.), 
said of one whose pleasant manners are only seen away from home ; 
may o vel djaul dan garag, ' he is continually nagging, grumbling ' ; 
xwara te:g i r djaul (prov.), ' the devil is not so black as he is 
painted ' ; rhuy 9 djaul a i gum/on, ' between the devil and the deep 
sea ' ; ba:u djaul, ' asafoetida '. 

djaust, expletive, diawst, T.N. 115. 27: djausi gwy:U ! be n:ti 
wedi grie'yd vel hyn ? 

djo8a, v., dioddef, D. Pret. S. 3. djodo8, ' to bear, endure, suffer ' : 
vedra i 8i'm djofta nu, ' I can't bear them ' ; / qyftanu 8im m djoba 
if'o, ' they used not to suffer want ' ; may n we/ djo8a po:b pe:&, ' it 
is better to put up with anything ' ; du i wedi djoba lawar jaun oruQ 
vanno8, ' I have suffered a great deal from toothache '. 

djoftevgar, adj., dioddefgar, D. (i) ' patient, not yielding to pain ' : 
ma: rhei m tyxan pen -vidanu wedi brivo, a rhei m vu:y djobevgar, 
1 some complain when they are hurt and some are more enduring ' . 
(2) of stone, etc. * workable, not breaking when worked '. Opp. 
farp. 

djogal, adj., diogel, D., ' safe '. 

djogi, s.m., diogi, D., ' laziness ' : / o:ys na 8im djogi n i groyn o, 
' there is no laziness in him '. 

djogi, v., diogi, D., ' to be lazy '. 

djogyn, s.m., diogyn, O.P., ' a lazy fellow '. 

djolxgar, adj., diolchgar, D., ' thankful ' : rhaid i ni vod m 
ty'olxgar am dam' hi\ ' we must be thankful for it '. 

djolxgarux, s.m., diolchgarwch, D., ' thankfulness, thanksgiving ' : 
kwarvod djolxgarux, ' harvest thanksgiving service '. 

djom, s.m., daioni, D. ; cf. d'ioni, T.N. 163. 40, 'good': mi 
nei& o 8Jom' maur, ' it will do a great deal of good ' ; wa:y6 be di o 
os 3di y gneyd djoni i xi, ' it doesn't matter what it is so long as it 
does you good ' ; vy:o rro:yd dru:g na vy:o n 8joni i ru:in (prov.), 
' it is an ill wind that blows no one any good ' . 

djotta, v v diotta, D., ' to tipple ' : may o n djotta ar z muya. 

dj0uledig, adj., diawledig, C.C.M. 199. 10, 'devilish '. 

dj0uljo, v., diawlio, T.N. 222. 1 1 , * to swear ' : m rhegi ag zn djvuljo, 
1 cursing and swearing ' . Said of human beings and of cats. 

dle:d t drtad, s.f., pi. dledjon, dzledjon, dyled, dyled, died, dylyed, D. ; 
died, B.C. 83. 19 ; M.LI. i. 143. 23. (i) 'debt' : taly i teledjon, 



9 8 dledog dol&elan 

' to pay one's debts ' ; mynd i dtfad, ' to get into debt ' ; may o n 
sup o dle:d, ' he is over head and ears in debt '. (2) ' obligation ' : 
tmny x* i fo/ad, ( to put you under an obligation ' ; / o:s na dim 
dzlad arna i, ' I am under no obligation '. 

dledog, adj., dyledog, D., ' in debt ' : rhei dledog ovnaduy 'ddynu, 
' they are fearfully in debt '. 

do:, adv., do, D., ' yes ' : after verbs in the preterite or perfect 
tense, as "welsoxi o ? (bary xiweld o ?) do:, na: do:, ' did you see him ? 
Yes '. ' No '. daxi wedi weld o ? do: (or adit), ' have you seen him ? 
Yes ' ; mi'gwelsoxi o, n do: ? (n to: ?), ' you saw him, didn't you ? ' 

dob, s., ' lot ' : mi danna i dob pu:y eid i u wely gmta, ' I will draw 
lots to see who goes to bed first '. 

dolifo, dgobjo, v., dobio, T.N. 282. i. Eng. (Dial.) dob [' to strike ; 
to give a blow', s.Not. ; 'to throw stones, etc., at a mark', w.Yks., 
s.Ches., Nhp., Cor.], ' to beat, strike ' ; ' to squash ' ; fig. ' to hammer 
in ' : di:ar ! ma:y r fonas na n dobjo 9 plant ^n aru /, ' my word ! 
that woman does beat her children ! ' ; mi dob if o afastun, ' I beat 
him with a stick ' ; dobjo hgod a x^rig, ' to throw stones at mice ' ; 
ma: r gla:u m dobjo ar 9 gwynab, ' the rain beats upon the face '. 

dolyn [dibin\. 

dodran, s.m., dodrefn, D., ' furniture ' : dodrevnyn, dodrenyn, ' a 
single piece of furniture '. 

doduy, dvduy, dzdiiy ; dzduyb (E.J.), v., dodwy, D., ' to lay (eggs) '. 
doidinab, s.m., doethineb, D., ' wisdom '. 

dokkyn, s. \tokky ';/]. 

do&for,s.m.,pl. doktorja(i)d, doctor, W.LI. xx. n, dokdor, v. 35, 
' doctor '. 

doktoras, s.f., pi. doktoresa, ( female doctor ' : may hi n dippin o 
toktoras. 

dol, s.f., ' doll '. Also babi dol. 

do:/, s.f., pi. doly, dol, D., ' a level field in a low-lying valley '. 

do/an, s.f., pi. dolenna, dolen, D., ' link, loop ' : darn o heyarn an 
fyrvjo dolan (J.J.), ' a piece of iron forming a link ' ; phgy n Solan, 
( to bend into a link ' ; dolan le: i Ia:u, ' a loop to catch hold of ; 
dolan redag, ' noose '. 

dolan, s.f., pi. dolenna, dlenna, dolenni, dalennt, dolen llyfyr, W.S. ; 
dolennau D.F. [120] 26. 28 ; dalen, D. s.v. pagina ', ' leaf of a book, 
page ' : troi r Man, ' to turn over the leaf ; tori dlenna, ' to tear 
out pa^es ' ; rhigo dolan, i to tear a page ' ; in speaking of clover, 
etc. ; d'eilan bedar dolan, c four-leaved '. 

doldelan, Dolwyddelan. 



dolennog 

^ dolennog, adj., dolennog, D., s.v. sinuosus ' ; ' winding ' (of a 
river) : avon Dolennog. 

dolig, mdolig, s.f., Nadolig, D., ' Christmas ' : ty: a dolig, 'about 
Christmas time ' ; dolig lawan a bluytyn newyb 8a: i xt\ ' a Merry 
Christmas and a Happy New Year to you ' ; no:s dolig, ' Christmas 
Eve ' ; ky:f dolig, < yule log' ; mi 7,>r:d dolig m <?r ha: Kin Hei di 
o, ( you won't get it till the Greek calends ' ; gwilja mdolig, ' Christ- 
mas holidays '. 

dolirjo, v., dolurio, D., ' to wound ', generally in fig. sense : dolirjo 
i teimlada, ' to wound their feelings '. 

dolyr, s.m., pi. dolirja, dolur, D., 'wound, hurt' = briu: gcif 
i bo:yn garu oruQ 9 dolyr, ' I had great pain from the wound ' ; 
paub a i vy:s le bo: i 8o/yr (prov. exp.), ' each man knows where the 
shoe pinches in his own case ' ; dolyr di:arB, said of something 
which will not heal, e.g. an ulcer. 

dondjo, v., dondio, T.N. 46. 27, 'to scold ' = durdjo. [J.J. always 
used dondjo, E.J. durdjo ' equally common ', O.H.] ; may mam ;>i 
dondjo n aru, ' mother is scolding terribly '. 

donjol, adj., doniol, T.N. 118. 15. (i) 'funny, amusing': ).-// 
donjol sdi o, ' he is a funny, amusing man ' ; fadur donjol, ' a witty, 
amusing speaker '. (2) ' gifted in speech ' : pr^geOur donjol, 

do:r s.f., dor, D., in old-fashioned cottages ' the inner of two 
doors, the outer one of which (rhagbor) is half the height of the 
door '. 

dormax, s., ? torrmach, D., s.v. ' vadimonium ' ; u:ti n dormax 
arna i, ' you are a burden to me ' (m 9x gwasgy xi ruvob m rhoi 
bayx 'arnoxi o hy:d] O.H. 

do/jo, v., dotio, W.S. [Dote]; M.LL i. 207. 24 ; 264. i ; dottio, 
C.C. 12. 23. (i) 'to dote ' : du i n doijo aftynu (E.J.), ' I am very 
fond of them'. (2) 'to be astonished (at), taken (by)': dotjo at 
Smas hard, dotjo at i glendid hi = smny (O.H.). 

'd0u'dmi, adv., ' slowly, at one's ease ' : mynd 'd0u'd0u = mynd. 
linkyn loykyn, ' to go jogging along ' ; mi &ois m '0u'd0u o r van a 
r van. 

d0uka, duka, dukar, Eng. (Dial.) doucker, douker, i.e. ' ducker, 
diver ', in bili d0uka, ' razor-bill ' (Alca torda). 

d0ukjo, d0ukjan, v., dowkio, W.S. [douke], Eng. (Dial.) douck, 
douk, dowk [to dive, plunge under water], (i) ' to duck ' (of ducks, 
geese, etc.). (2) 'to bob up and down ', e. g. while bathing; of 
boats in rough weather ; or of a horse walking in an unnatural way. 
(3) 'to dive ' : mi detuKifi i r mo:r. 

d0ukva, s.f., 'a ducking, wetting' (I.W.). 

d0uxal, v., dymchwelyd, D. s.v. ' euerto'; 'to pour down ' pistil) o 
i laur. Cf. damxyoal. 

H 2 



ioo dvunsrag draxt jo 

daunsrag, s.f., dawns wraig, S.E., ' dancer '. 

d0unf'o, v., dawnsio, D., to dance.' 

dyunfur, s.m., dawnsivvr, T.N. 345. 16, ' dancer'. 

djvunys, adj., dawnus, D.G. ccxli. 39, ' gifted in speech '. 

do:v, adj., pi. dovjon, dof, D., ' tame ' : kadu nu n bovjon, ' to keep 
them tarne '. 

dovi, v., dofi, D. (i) tr. ' to tame ' : dovianivalgwydt, ' to tame a 
wild animal' ; dovi arno vo dippin, ' to tame him a little '. (2) intr. 
' to become tame '. 

do:y, adv. and s. (generally do.y], doe, D., * yesterday ' : / ddu i dim 
wedi mcgy 8o.y, ' I wasn't born yesterday ' ; mi 'roisoxio:y i r brenin, 
' you got nothing done yesterday ' ; he'&ju a do:y, ' to-day and 
yesterday '. 

do:y6, adj., comp. duryQax, doeth, D., ' wise', 

drabja, s.pl. Eng. (Dial.) drab [small quantity], Yks., Chs., 
' pieces ' : maly n drabja ylu, ( to chop into bits ' ; drabja Kiljon (O.H. 
in speaking of bacon), ' thin slices '. 

drabjo, v., 'to pull to pieces', lit. and fig., e.g. drabjo dilad, 
hmerjad. In shearing drabjo is to tear the fleece by working 
clumsily (O.H.). 

drag, s.f. ; may o wedi mynd i r brag (dros i ben}, ' he has made 
a grave mistake (and so done himself an injury) '. O.H. 

drag jo, v., dragio, W.S. [Rente]; D., ' lacerare, dilaniare ' ; 'to 
pull to pieces, tear, spoil ', e. g. ' clothes ' : p'eidjux a lavnjo xgili a 
dragjo x dilad \ (fig.) dragjo i hv:n, ' to do oneself a (moral) injury '. 
Also ' to drag ', e. g. dragjo trol O.H. (but Jysgo drain, Kerig, sle:d, 
etc.). 

drain, s.pl., sing, drayn, m., dreynan, f., draen, D., ' thorns ' : 
drain dy:on, ' black thorn ' ; drain gunjon, ( white thorn ' ; drain 
mory:on = drain meri, * brambles ' ; bvny hevo drain a briga bedu, 
' to harrow with thorns and birch-twigs ' ; klaub drain, ' thorn 
hedge ' (used for the sake of distinction since klauft = ' hedge ' and 
' wall of loose stones ') ; tavly i enaid ar 9 drain, l to be on thorns '. 
drey nan is generally ' a thorn-bush ', ' a branch of thorn '. drain 
gwynab (sing, dreynan wynab), ' sort of pimples on the face, out of 
which, when pressed, a kind of worm-shaped matter issues '. Cf. 
D. gwraint, sing, gwreinyn, ' vermiculus ', etc. 

dra:x, prep., drach, D., ' over ', only in dra:x * tthevn, dra:x i gevn, 
etc., as in edrax dra:x i gevn, ' to look over one's shoulder '. 

drax?, ?.m., dracht, T.N. 115. 25, 'draught, drink': uti wedi 
kayl di:od m aru ? na:, x e:s i im ond y:n draxt ; draxt o di:od. 

draxfjo, v., drachtio, ' to drink ' : paid a dra\tjo r levriB na, vj:d 
na dim i ni i de:. 



drapja dridus \ o i 

drapja, inter]., Eng. (Dial.) drab, s.Lin., Dev., only in drapja vo 

(ynwaB)!, 'drat it!' 

dratja, interj., only in dratja vo (ymvaB} /, ' drat it ! ' 

dra:u, adv., draw, D., s.v. ' ultra '; 'yonder': pel dra:u, 'far 

away over there ' ; 3 mhen dra:u r by:d, ' at the end of the world ' ; 

m ne:s dra:u, ' further on ' ; kadu dra:u, ' to keep off ' ; truybo dra:u, 

' through and through ' ; ty: dra:u i, ' beyond ' ; / beniir "a dra:u, ' to 

Pentir and beyond '. 

dreidi, s.m., direidi, D., ' mischievousness ' : dreidi dru:g, dreidi 
'di'niwad. 

dreigja, s.pl., dreigiau (pi. of draig), B.C. 51.21, 'sheet-lightning ' : 
may hi y gleyo dreigja. 

dreinjog, adj., dreiniog, D., s.v. ' dumosus ' ; ' thorny '. 
dretvar, s.m., ' driver '. 

drekf'un, s.m., Eng. direction ; ' address ' (of a letter). 
drektjo, v., Eng. direct ; ' to address ' (a letter). 

drextyn, s.m., drechtyn, T.N. 115. 22. Dim. of dra\t, 'a little 
draught '. 

drey, adj., dreng, D. (i) ' stubborn, morose '. (2) ' rude ' : rri: 
sy n 8rey uQa-xi: m farad vel 'tasaxi n hogyn ba:x ; paid di ag attab 
da da:d a da vam 9n drey (O.H.). 

dreygar, adj. (i) 'stubborn, morose'. (2) 'peevish': may o n 
y:n dreygar ( lli:n, ty An'-'o), ' he (the child) is peevish, cross '. 

dreylo, v., ymdreiglo, Jer. xxv. 34, ' to lie on the back and kick 
up the legs in the air (of horses) ; to wallow '. 

dreyys, adj. = drey. 

dreugt, s.m., drewgi, B.C. 118. 26, 'a filthy fellow ' : ta:u r he:n 
dreiigi bydyr ! 

dreulyd, adj., drewllyd, M.LI. i. 135. 13, ' stinking ' : wy:a dreulyd, 
' rotten eggs '. 

drewi, v., drewi, D., ' to stink ' : drewi vel giygron, vel fulbart ; 
drewi o hogla kuru ; may o n drewi n fi:a. 

dreydys, adj., direidus, S.E., ' mischievous '. 

dreynog, s.m., pi. dreynogod, draenog, D. (i) 'hedgehog'. (2) 
' bass ' (Morone labrax), Bangor = drayn i:og (O.H.). 

-drib' drab, adv., ' bits, smithereens ' : maly n -drib' drab (J.J. ; 
O.H.); wedi ka:l i rieyd m riu 'drib'drab. Also 'little by little, in 
driblets ' : ma: nu n du:ad i vjaun m 'drib'drab, e.g. of money lent. 

dridus; diridus (W.H.); dzridust (Bangor), s.pl. and sing., 
drudwy and drudwen, D. Cf. drwdwst, M.F., 'starlings' (Sturnus 
vulgaris). 



i o 2 drinus dros 

drinus, s.f. : drinus ba:x, drinus velan, ' yellow-hammer' (Emberiza 
citrinella) = dznas (dinas) benvelan. 

driyo, v., dringo, D. Pret. PI. 3. drinson. Imperative driy, 
driya, ( to climb ' : driyo koydan, ' to climb a tree ' ; driyo i vri:g 
9 goydan, ' to climb to the top of the tree '. 

driyur, s.m., dringur, S.E., ' climber ' : may r hogyn m dn'yur 
jaun i vsny r ko:yd. 

driu, s.f., dryw, D., ' wren ' (Troglodytes parvulus) generally 
driu ba:x- Does not mutate, e.g. 9 driu ; driu wen, ' whitethroat ' 
[Forrest] (Sylvia cinerea). r o:d 3 ty: vel ny:6 driu, said of a neat, 
cosy house. 

drogan, v., darogan, D. (i) 'to say beforehand, to express an 
intention ' : du i h drogan mynd (E.J.) ; hu:y drogan gwaiQ na i 
myd (prov.), l it takes longer talking about, preparing to work than 
to do it '. (2) generally in conjunction with dru:g, ' to forebode ' : 
j'.v/ garujaun i brogan dru:g 9di o, ' he is a terrible fellow for croak- 
ing, foreboding evil ' ; also of the weather : may hi n drogan dru:g, 
'there's bad weather coming'. 

drogan, s., apparently a corruption of crogen, D., 'gills of a 
fish' = tagal; 9 drogan, 'the gills', i drogan, 'his gills', imply 
a radical form trogan, but this is not in use. (I.W. ; J.J.) 

drogan, s.f., pi. drogod, trogen, torrogen, D., ' ricinus ', ' a kind of 
tick which adheres to the skin of cattle in summer', J.J. = krogan 
O.H. Cf. T.N. 334. 36, i'r hyslaw a'r drogod. 

droni, v., dironi, S.E., ' to shed grain ' ( = buru, koti). Also trans. 
' to spill grain ' by handling the corn carelessly, etc. : droni r y:d. 
dror, s.m., pi. drors, ' drawer '. 

dros (rarely tros), prep., tros, D. With pronouns. S. i. dros fa z', 

2. 'drostati, 3. drosto (vo\ drosti (hi\ PI. i. -drosiani, 2. 'drosta\i, 

3. 'drostynu. Before vowels generally dros/: (i) 'over' (in all 
senses, both of place and time): -vy:o\i drost 3 bontP, 'have you 
been over the bridge ? ' ; edrax dros 9 klatib, ' to look over the wall ' ; 
dros 9 fri: ag m sy:Q ar <?x />*, ' over the field and straight on ' ; 
drost 9 ford i ( gzverbyn a), ' opposite, on the opposite side of the 
road to ' ; dros 2 rhinjog, ' over the threshold ' ; mi a:B 9 drol drosto 
TO, ' he was run over by the cart ' ; neidjo dros 9 klauti, ' to jump 
over the wall ' ; mynd dros 9 ga:t, ' to get over the gate ' ; swQjo 
dros 9 dibin, 9 dorian, ' to fall over the precipice, down the bank ' ; 
ar o:l t&i vrigo mi r o:d na ru:d go de:u drosto vo, ' after the frost 
there was rather a thick mist (over it) ' ; aros dros 9 no:s, ' to stay 
over night ' ; gneyd 9 gwair 9n V9d9la dros 9 sy:l, ' to gather the hay 
in heaps over Sunday ' ; bary hi sgrexjan drost 9 ty:, ' she shrieked 
(so as to be heard) all over the house ' ; xwerQin dros bo:b man, ' to 
laugh loud '. With i gi:d, ' all over ' : 9y go:x i gi:d drosto, ' red all 



drosod dru:g 103 

over ' ; followed by ben, ' over (the top) ' ; mi neidjob 9 8avad dros 
ben 3 fa':, ' the sheep jumped over the dog ' ; dros ben 9 klaub, ' over 
the wall'. (2) 'over, more than' (with numbers): may o dros 
buy la:6 o daldra, ' he is over six feet in height ' ; dros 8qy gant, 
' over two hundred ' ; may o dros/ i hannar kant, ' he is over 
fifty ' ; er s dros igjan mlmaS, ' for more than twenty years ' ; 
similarly dros 8e:g, 'after ten o'clock'. (3) 'for, on behalf of: 
gwe-8i:o dros/ i 6a:d, ' to pray for her father ' ; ma: n bnt:g k'in 
i 'dros taxi ag ?n ru:g uywa& dros fa vi: vi hy:n, ' I am sorry 
for you and twice as sorry for myself. (4) 'for': rhesum dros 
neyd, ' a reason for doing '. (5) dros ben, used "adverbially, 
(a) * exceedingly ' : da: dros ben, ' exceedingly good ' (= m odjaB 

da:) ; (b) ' over and above ' : am draguyboldab a durnod dros den, 
' for ever and a day '. 

droso8, dros/o8, /roso8, adv., drosodd, D., s.v. ' superfero ', etc. ; 
' over ' : may po:b pe:B droso8, ' it is all over ' ; gzry /roso8 attynu, 
' to send over to them ' ; mi ncidjo8 9 taru droso8, k the bull jumped 
overboard ' ; er s tr igjan mhnab a 6roso8, ' sixty years ago and more '. 

drovyn, v., darofun, cf. 'Y Beirniad' for June, 1912, p. 121, 
' to intend ' : m drovyn mynd 9no o hy:d. 

dru:g, adj., comp. gwa.yd, eq. gweyQad, sup. gweyda, drwg, D., 
' bad ' : hogla dru:g, ' a bad smell ' ; plant dru:g, ' naughty children ' ; 
sbndjon dru:g, ' evil spirits ' ; gu:r dru:g, ' the devil ' ; in rare cases 
dru:g precedes the noun : sgdrljo meun dru:g nattyr, ' to scold 
when in a bad temper ' ; o.y8 o n 8ru:g ?, ' was it nasty ' (e. g. the 
medicine); may o y klu:ad m ru:g, 'he is dull of hearing' ; 
dru:g odjaQ vy:8 9 d&wy8, ' we shall have very bad weather ' ; araQ 
8ru:g, ' bad language ' ; enu dru:g, 4 bad name, term of reproach ' ; 
rtu he:n gastja dru:g, ' mischief ; Ki:, taru drtt:g, ' a dangerous dog, 
bull ' ; may 3 nhevn m ru:g jaun u6 ger8ad, ' my back is very bad 
while walking ; a:6 m 8ru:g 'rlwyBynu, ' bad blood was stirred up 
between them '. Followed by ar, ' hard upon ' : may n 8ru:g ar i 
rhreni, ' it is hard on their parents ' ; followed by gin, ' sorry ' : ma: 
;/ 8ru:gjaun gin i vod o wedi difod, ' I am very sorry it has gone 
out ' (of a fire) ; ma:n 8ru:g Kin i 'drosta\i, ' I am sorry for you '. 

dru:g y s.m., pi. draga, drwg, D., ' matter, wrong, evil, hurt ' : du 

1 wedi ka:yl hy:d i r dru:g, ' I have found out what is the matter ' ; 
wedi kayl 9 dru:g ma njaun i e\ra mi vy:$ riu obai'6, ' after getting 
that right to begin with there will be some hope ' ; dma r dru:g, 
' that's the worst of it ' ; ka:l dru:g, ' to get the blame ' ; gneyd 
dru:g, esp. as applied to women, ' to go wrong ' ; vy:o ri'oyd dru:g 
na: vy:o n bjoni i ru:in (prov.), ' it is an ill wind that blows no one 
any good ' ; / o:s o r dru:g ond dru:g i bisgul (prov.) = nearly, 
' honesty is the best policy ' ; wel gin i 9 dru:g 9 gun i na r dru:g 
nas gun i m ono vo, ' 1 should rather have the evil I know than the 
evil I do not know ' ; mi geu\i 8ru:g, < you will hurt yourself ' ; also 



1 04 dries dramjo 

' you will get into a row ' ; o:d dru:g i mi gay hun />, ' was I wrong 
in shutting this ? ' 

dries, s.m., pi. dwsa, drws, D., * door ' : klikjad 3 dru:s, ' door- 
latch ' ; durn 3 dru:s, ' door-handle ' ; dru:s 9 frwt, ' front door ' ; 
dru:s 3 Kevn, ' back door ' ; rhoi klep ar 3 dru:s, kay 9 dru:s 9y glep, 
' to bang the door ' ; may r dru:s ay klepjan, ' the door is banging ' ; 
rhoi klo: ar 3 dru:s, ' to lock the door ' ; kyro, knokjo 3n 3 dru:s, 'to 
knock at the door ' ; may ozn3 dru:s, ' he is at the door ' ; sevyl ar ben 
dru:s, ' to stand at the door ' (often implying ' to gossip ') ; troi o dros 
ben dru:s, ' to turn him out '. 

dry:d, adj., drud, D., ' fortis, strenuus, audax ' ; comp. dryttax, 
dear ' (of price) ; Kin Sryttad a pyppyr, ' as dear as pepper ' (O.H. 
obs.). 

dry in y s.m., pi. dwmja, trum, D. ; cf. also D., s.v. c lira'. (i) 
'ridge' (in general, e.g. between two watersheds) = top 3 ti:r* 
The term 9 drym is applied especially to the long ridge extending 
from the western side of Bwlch y Ddeufaen to the further slopes of 
Carnedd Ddafydd. (2) 'the top of a ridge in ploughing' = kanol 
Kevn. 

dwgab, s.m., drygedd, D., s.v. 'malignitas '; 'evil*. 

dragjom, s.m., drygioni, D., ' evil '. 

dr?gy> v., drygu, D., s.v. ' vexo ' ; 'to degenerate, deteriorate '. 
Also drsgy i hy:n, < to harm, injure oneself (morally), e.g. hevo 
di:od. 

drzKinlyd, adj., dryghinllyd, S.E., ' stormy ' : may na olug draKin- 
lydjaun ami hi, ' it looks like very bad weather '. 

dwKinog, driKinog, adj., dryc-hinog, D., s.v. ' tempestuosus ', 
' stormy '. 

dnkKin, d?'ikKm, s.f., pi. drsKino^ drittinob, dryg-hin, D., s.v. 
1 vireo ' ; ' bad weather ' : may hi n SrzkKin ovnaduy (^rakKin vaur), 
4 it is terribly bad weather ' ; Ki: drakKin, ' a partial rainbow '. 

dr^xaval, s.m., dyrchafael, D. ; cf. drychafal, W.B., col. 128. 14, 
' ascension '. Only in divja 9 dr^xaval, ' Ascension Day'. 

drzljo, v., dryllio, D., 'to tear, break' (not often used): 9 gwynt 
MI drajjo to:, ta:s. paid a drzjjo dd &lad uB hel ns&od adar, ' do not 
tear your clothes by bird-nesting '. 

dwljog, adj., drylliog, D., ' apt to break ' (only used in fig. sense) : 
may n Sralfog jaun m i deimlada, ( he has very tender feelings- 
breaks down easily ' ; may n brdlfog jaun ar i linja> ' he gives way 
to his feelings when praying ' ; 0:8 o n rd]jog jaun dan 3 bregaO, 
' he was much afTected by the sermon '. 

drzmjo, v. (i) ' to make a noise like a drum ' : S9r6jo nes " 
n dramjo ar s faur (O.H.). (2) 'to pummel ' : mi d? ftrymja i di\ 



drmtol du:ad I o - 

drmtol, s.f., dryntol, D., < a bent piece of wood with a piece of 
iron fastening the two ends, and a rope fastened to the iron for 
carrying burdens ' (O.H.). 

dnsgol, place-name : 9 dr^sgol = Y Drosgl name of a mountain. 
dnslyd, adj., dyryslyd, ' wandering in mind ; muddled in the 
head ; entangled '. 

dr^sni, s.m., dyrysni, Gen. xxii. 13; drysni, P.G.G. 180. 6, 
'thicket': anjalux a drJsm'(O.H.). 



drxux, s.m., dyryswch, D. ; cf. drysswch, G.C. 144. 22 ; 152. 17. 
(i) 'the state of being wandering in mind'. (2) 'puzzle, per- 
plexity ' : may hunna n dnsux aral i mi. (3) confusion '. 



dnsy, v., dyrysu, D. Intr. (i) ' to become entangled ', e.g. of 
the hair. (2) 'to be embarrassed, to get into a muddle'; may o 
wedi drysy dn i amkanjon bddol, ' his affairs have become embar- 
rassed '; mi Srm's m la:n, 'I went entirely astray'. (3) ' to be 
beside oneself, to be driven distracted ' : r oyun i dgest a drasy, 
' I was almost beside myself. (4) 'to lose one's wits, to become 
weak in the head', e.g. of old people; 'to go crazy, to become 
delirious ' : may o wedi drasy hevo r diwigjad, ' he has gone crazy 
over the revival ' ; may o wedi drssy m i snuyra, ' he is delirious '. 
(5) 'to be wrong'. Trans. (6) 'to entangle'. (7) 'to interfere 
with, upset ' ; ' baffle, balk ' : may n drzsy r gwaiB, ' it interferes 
with the work '. (8) ' to drive out of one's wits', e.g. by continual 
talking = muydro, b&ary. 

du:ad, v., dyfod, D.; dwad, G.R. (5) 12. Fut. S. i. do:(v), 2. dot, 3. 
da:u, doif\de:l\. PI. i. do:n, 2. deux, 3. do:n. Imp. S. i. dmm, db'yQun, 
2. do:t, 3. do:y, do:. PI. i. bey Ban, 2. SeyBax, 3. deyBan. Pret. S. i.dois, 
2. doist, 3. do:B, da:B. PI .1. deyBon, deyson, 2. deyBox, deysox, 3. deyBon, 
deyson. Imperative S. 2. /yd, 3. do:yd. PI. 2. d#ux> (i) 'to come ' : 
d0u\. Ans. do:(v\ na bo:(y\ ' come. (Ans.) Yes '. ' No ' ; fouxi ? 
do.-v, mi 8o:v fieno, 'will you come? Yes, I will come to-night'; 
do:yd a fte:l, ' come what may ' (O.H.) ; So.y o dim dros i grogi, ' he 
would not come on any account ' ; o b le: daxin du:ad P. ' where do 
you come from ? ' ; d#ux i edrax ta os na % xdilju\i, ' come and see 
then if you don't believe ' ; kmta -deyQonu, ' as soon as they came ' ; 
nes do:y o adra, * until he came home ' (habitually) ; nes 'deyQomi 
m i hola, ' until they came back ' ; erbyn da:u o, ' by the time 
he comes ' ; 8a:u o 8im truy de:g, ' he cannot be won over by kind- 
ness ' ; fry ly:n 8o:$ 3 kmijon ba:x, ' the chickens were hatched on 
Monday ' ; may n du:ad i r y:n van, ' it comes to the same thing ' ; 
of plants : du:ad or du:ad a/an, ' to come up ' ; of fire ' to burn 
up ' : mi da:u m vy:an ru:an, ' it will burn up soon now ' ; followed 
by i and a noun or pronoun = ' let ', the idea of motion being often 
entirely absent : d0ux i mi weld, ' let me see ' ; tyd i mi gad o, ' let me 
have it ' ; where English usage requires * get ' : may hi n du:ad ?' 



io6 dubin dulni 

drevn, ' it is getting into order ' ; 'vedruxi du:ad o: na ?, ' can you 
get out from there ? ' ; derux i r gadar ma, ' get into this chair ' ; wedi 
du:ad i wel sevdlva, ' having got into a better position ' ; to come to 
the acquisition of a certain faculty : mi 0uxi i farad znjaun, ' you 
will get to speak right ' ; may o n du:ad i farad (of a child), ' he is 
beginning to talk ' ; similarly of the weather, ' to begin, to come 
on ', etc. : may kin du:adivuru, ' it is coming on to rain ' ; may hin 
du:adm hay I, ' the sun is coming out ' ; hurax mi 8a:u i godi at 9 
pnaun, l perhaps it will clear up by the afternoon ' ; ' to do ' 
( gneyd 9 tro:}^ : mi 8a:u vel na hevyd, ' it will do that way too ' ; 
impersonally with hevo, ( to get on ' : syt So:d i hevo xi ?> ' how did 
you get on ? ' with a, ' to bring ' : d0ux ag 3mba*rel hevo xi, ' bring 
an umbrella with you ' ; d0ux a luy i godi r pudin ma, * bring a 
spoon to help this pudding ' ; d0ux a vo: i four, ' bring it down ' ; 
d0ux a hi: m o:l i r van ma, ' bring it back here ' ; ma: gin i dair 
davod heb 8u:ad ag u:yn /mi, ' I have three sheep which have had no 
lambs this year ' ; the preposition is often omitted and the verb 
used transitively : tyd i mi xwanag o de:, ' bring me some more tea ' ; 
with hy:dat, hy:d i, ' to find ' : mi'Seydonu o hy:d io vo rusyt, ' they 
lound it out somehow '. (2) ' to become ' (from bad to good) : mi 
st&is i laur tan 281 du:ad m de:g, ' I sat down till it cleared up '. 
with o ' to become of ' ; be vasa n du:ad o 'honoxi ?, ' what would 
have become of you ? ' ; be 8o:& o hono vo triad ?, ' what has become 
of it, I wonder ? ' 

dubin, s., dwbing, W.S. [Dawbinge] ; 'cow-dung or other sub- 
stance formerly used for closing up the chinks of an oven' (O.H.). 

dubjo, v., dwbio, W.S. [Daube] ; ' to stop up the chinks of an 
oven ' [see above]. 

dubul, adj., dwbl, D. ; D.G. iv. 12; 'double': m i 8qy bubnl, 
' doubled up '. 

dudljan, v., 'to loiter, potter about ' (Bangor). 

dutiy y v., dowyddu, dywyddu, etc., D., (of cows) 'to swell with 
milk before calving, to spring ' : pa bry:d vy: 3 vyux vn du:ad 
a lo: P vy: hi dim m hi:r ru:an, may hi n dexra du$y, ' how long 
will it be before the cow calves ? She won't be long now, she is 
beginning to spring '. 

duibig y adj., dwybig, D., s.v. * bidens ' ; G.O. ii. 58. 17, ' having two 
points ' : in phrase troi m 9 tresi a xwara fon buibig (W.H.), said 
of some one who is cornered and tries to escape by double-dealing. 

duity'ad, s.f., nodwyddiad, ' needleful ' : duibjad o eda. 

dul, adj., dwl ne hurt, W.S. [Dull], ' misty, hazy (opposite of 
clear) : ma: r d#uy m dul, ( the weather is hazy ' ; of persons, 
4 ignorant '. 

dulni, drtni, s.m., ' mistiness, haziness ' ; of persons, 'ignorance '. 



dumpjan durnod 107 

dumpjan, v., pendwmpian, D., s.v. ' titubanter ' : dumpjan hsgy, 
' to doze, to nod the head when sleeping '. Also pendumpjan. 

dundro, v., dwndrio, B.C. 24. 9, 'to make a noise ' = kadu turn. 

dundur, s., dwndwr, B.C. 57. 25; P.G.G. 314. 14 ; T.N. 224. 32 ; 
dwnndwrr, M.LI. i. 232. 6 ; Eng. (Dial.) dunder [a loud rumbling 
noise like thunder ; a reverberating sound], Sc. ' noise, uproar, 
hubbub '. 

du:r, s.m., pi. dzvroS, dwfr, dwr, D., ' water ' : du:r kodi, ' spring ' ; 
du:r lonyb, ' stagnant water ' ; du:r rhedegog, ' running water ' ; dur 
newyft, * spring tide ' (?) JJ. ; rhedva, rhedjad du:r, 'watershed ' ; 
du:r berwedig, ' boiling water ' ; / adi r sgidja ma dim ?n dal du:r, 
' these boots are not watertight ' ; rhoi du:r i r ard, ' to water the 
garden ' ; rhoi du:r o.yr am ben peB, ' to throw cold water over 
something' (fig.); a i ben dan u:r, 'in low Water' (fig.); mynd i 
no: I du:r dros avon, forxy du:r dros avon (prov. exp.), ' to go a long 
way for something which can be got close at hand ' ; i bant 3 rhe:d 
3 du:r (prov.), ' money goes where money is '. du:r po:y6, ' heart- 
burn ': may du:r po:yQ arna i. 

durdjo, v., ystwrdio, D., s.v. ; objurgo ' ; dwrdio, Judges viii. i, 
' to scold ' (=. dondjo) : durdjo 3 bu:yd a i vyita (prov. exp.). 

durn, s.m., pi. forna, dwrn, D. (i) ' fist ' : gwasgy r durn, ' to 
clench the fist ' ; gwasgy d^rna o gumpas 9 mhen a sgmgy damiab ; 
kay r durn, ' to close the hand ' : kay i 8urn ar 3 pe:Q s gmo vo 
m i !a:u, also ' to clench the fist : paid a kay dz durn arna i ; 
durn Key ad, ' clenched fist ' ; lond durn, ' handful ' ; \wer6in dn t 
burn, ' to laugh in one's sleeve ' ; r 0:8 2 ywyni zn 3 nurn i, i my 
heart leapt to my mouth '. (2) ' handle ' of a door, of a plough, etc. : 
dzrna 3 bladyr, ' scythe handles ' 3 durn y\a, nearest the mower, 
y durn isa, nearest the blade. 

durnod, s.m., pi. dwnodja, nodja, diwrnod, D., 'day': day bur nod 
(not day $}>:&), ' two days ' ; day burnod ar o:l i gilib, ( two days 
running ' ; day ne dri: o fornodja, ' two or three days ' ; said njurnod, 
nurnod, ' seven days ' ; durnod (?) varxnad, ' market day ' ; durnod 
golxi, ' washing day ' ; durnod guy I, ' holiday ' ; 3 durnod duyQa o r 
im':s ' the last day of the month ' ; (<?) durnod o r bla:yn, ' the other 
day ' ; 3 durnod b3ra> ' the shortest day ' ; 9 durnod hira, huya, ' the 
longest day ' ; durnod hnta r ha:, ' the first day of summer ', i.e. 
May i ; durnod 3 kmbrun, ' the day Of the funeral ' ; durnod bra:v, 
po:y&, ' a fine, hot day ' ; 3 durnod 3 ganuyd vi:> ' the day I was 
born ' ; vyo vo dim zmma er s nodja, ' he has not been here for 
days ' ; 9% rjhorf 3 durnod, ' in the course of the day ' ; ka:yl arjan 
heb roid durnod te:g o waiQ am dano vo, ' to get money without 
having done a fair day's work for it ' ; gora bo: r durnod gora bo: r 
gwaiB (prov.), ' the better the day the better the deed ' ; rhaid i ni 



io8 dusin dy: 

^yu meun gobaiB o hy:d, mi 8a:u o n wel riu burned, ' we must live 
always in hope ; things will be better some day '. 

dusin, s.m., pi. dusina, dusina, dwsing, G.O. ii. 30. 16 ; 144. 16, 
'dozen' : dusin o eirja, 'a dozen words' ; hannar dusin, 'half a dozen '. 

duyaur, s.f., dwyawr, W.LI, xliii. 108, ' two hours'. 

duyfon, s.f., dwyffon, ' two sticks ' : mynd ar 3 nuyfon, ' to walk 
supported by a stick in each hand ' (O.H.). 

duylaB, s.f., dwylath, 'two yards '. 

du:yn, dugyd, v., dwyn, D. Put. S. i. duyna, duga. Pret. S. i. 
dugisj duinis, 3. dugob, duynob. PI. 3. dukson, duynson. Imperative 
duga, duyna ; dugu\, duynux- Pret. Pass, dzgud (].].), dugud (O.H.). 

(1) 'to bear', only in a few semi-literary or stereotyped phrases as 
du.yn enu, ' to bear a name ' ; du:yn se:l, ' to show, have zeal '. 

(2) ' to bring ', also as above : du:yn i go:, ' to bring, call to mind ' ; 
anob du:yn ( = tmny) dy:n 0:8 ar i dzluyB (prov.), 'what is bred in 
the bone comes out in the flesh '. (3) ' to steal ' : mi dmnis i golar 
0:8 am i ubu vo rhag i ru:in u:yn o, ' I took his collar off for fear 
some one should steal it ' ; taly r hem a du:yn d newy (prov. ex p.), 
'to pay for the old and steal the new', i.e. 'to pay for goods 
bought previously and take the present purchase on credit '. 

duyno, v., difwyno, diwyno, D. ; dwyno, D.F. [vii] 13, [125] 4 ; 
'to ciirty ' (= mey.by\ but scarcely used except euphemistically for 
small children ' messing ' their clothes. Cf. D., s.v. ' imbulbito '. 

duyran, s.m., dwyrain, D., ' east ' : gwynt 9 duyran, ' east wind ' ; 
os kyl 9 gla:u \ o r duyran d da:u, \ os kyl 9r him$a \ o r duyran da:u 
hi&a ; duyran am dridja, duyran am dair usnos, weather proverbs. 

du:ys, adj., dwys, D., ' intense, deep, reserved ' : may m buru n 
buys, 'it is raining continuously' (of fine rain); teimlad du:ys, 
1 deep feelings ' ; y:n du:ys distau, ' a quiet, reserved person ' ; 
dmas ti:ys, ' a reserved woman ', e. g. who keeps grief to herself. 

duyBa, adj., diwethaf, R.B. 54. 16; diwaethaf, D.F. [100] 4, etc.; 
diweddaf, D. ; ' last ' : dy gwenar duyBa, ' last Friday ' ; 9 tro: duyBa, 
1 last time ' ; r usnos duyBa, l last week ', Fr. ' la semaine derniSre ', 
or ' the last week ' (= r usnos old], Fr. ' la derniere semaine ' ; 
3 durnod duyBa y:n, ' the very last day ' ; r o.y o m merByr SuyBa, 
' he was in Merthyr last '. 

duyvray%, adj., dwyfraich, 'having two arms': kadar buyvrayx, 
' arm-chair ' (seldom used). 

duywaB, adv., dwywaith, D., s.v. 'bis'; ' twice'; d o:ys dim 
duywaB, ' there is no doubt about it.' 

dy:, interjection expressing surprise. 

dy:, adj. and s., pi. dy:on, du, D., ' black ' : gwarBag dy:on, ' black 
cattle ' ; muyar y:on 'blackberries '; gwa:ll dy:, ' dark, black hair ' ; 
Kin y:ad a r vra:n, a r simba, a \ro\on, dy: vel m0unan, vel 3 



dy:al dyntyr 109 

1 as black as a crow ', etc. ; dy: !a:s, ' dark blue, purple ' : gwynab dy: 
la:s ; ' dark ' : ma: r geya dy: 9n dmmyl ; 3 dzdfa dy:on ba:x, 
' the days each side of December 21 ' ; may hi meun dy:, ' she is 
in mourning'. 

dy:al [da:lj\ 

dyalgar ; -dirhalgar (O.H.), adj., dyallgar, D., 'intelligent'. 

dyalturjaQ, s., d(e)alldwriaeth, D. ; s.v. ' intelligenlia ' ; ' an under- 
standing'. 

dyalys ; 'dirhajys (O.H.), adj., dyallus, D., 'intelligent'. 

dy:8, s.m., pi. dyd/a, djdd, D., 'day'. Days of the week: dy 
sy:l ; dy ly:n ; dy maurd (m&ur&) ; dy merxar ; dy:^ jay, divja ; 
dy gwenar ; dy sadurn.dy lyn, 'on Monday'; ar fy lyn, ' on a 
Monday ' ; 3 dy: huya, fora, ' the longest, shortest clay ' ; dy:8 da: 
i x*> ' good day ' ; ar hy:d 9 dy:d, tru: r dy:b, o hy:d tru: r d_y:8, 
' all day long ' ; uQ liu dy:, ' by daylight ' ; bo:b dy:8, ' every day ' ; 
dy:8 geyavol, ' a wintry day ' ; may r dy:8 m rtustyn, bwha:y, ' the 
days are getting longer, shorter ' ; hannar dy:$, ' mid-day ' ; adag 

* d^ja dy:on bax, ' the season of the short, dark days', i.e. on each 
side of December 21 ; may o wedi gweld gwel did/a, 'he has seen 
better days '. 

dygox, adj., dugoch, B.C. 65. 15, 'dark red'. 

dyl, s.m., pi. dj'j/a, dull, D., ' manner, form ' : dyl o farad, ' a 
manner of speaking, facon de parler ' ; mo:8 a dyl, ' way and 
manner' ; dyl givla:d o farad, 'a way of speaking in the country' ; 
wedi neyd r y:n dyl, ' made in the same manner ' ; an medry neivid 
dyl i la:u, ' able to change his handwriting ' ; riu hem yl pry8a8 sy 
arno-vo, 'he has a melancholy manner'. 

dy:n, s.m., pi. dmjon, d^n, D., 'man' (=homo). As distinguished 
from gu:r, dy:n is a term of less respect, as e. g. in he:n u:r and 
he:n 8y:n. dy:n ba:x kju:s (= del] ydi o, ' he is a nice little man ' ; 
lump o y:n te:u, ' a big fat man ' ; dy:n to\an ba:x te:u, ' a tiny little 
fat man ' ; klamp o dy:n maur, ' a great big man ' ; may o n verx 
o dy:n., ' he is an old woman ' ; I)y:<$ <? dy:n dn lugy os na vraf'ux, 

- the fellow will starve if you are not quick '. Used indefinitely, 
' one, people ' : ma: dy:n an drum ar o:l Kinjo, ' one is heavy after 
dinner ' ; dma bay dy:n wedi ghxy n domman ag wedi mynd i u 
gwlay, 'there are two people (both women) who have got wet 
through and gone to bed ' ; kynt (kwervy&) day 8y:n na day vznyb 
(prov.), ' two people will meet sooner than two mountains ', i. e. 
' perhaps we shall meet again '. As euphemism for dyu : dy:n a i 
help(j)o! t ' God help him ! ' ; dy:n a stirjo /, ' poor fellow ! ' ; n eno 
dy:n /, or simply dy:n /, exclamation of surprise. 

dyntyr , s.m., tentur brethyn, W.S. [A tentar]; deintur, D., 
' Dentale, instrumentum ad extendendos pannos ' ; 'an instrument 



no dy:o dy&jo 

consisting of poles for stretching materials after they have been 
fulled, tenter' (O.H.); kay r dyntyr is a place-name at Llanfairfechan. 

dy:o, v., duo D., ' to blacken ; to become black '. 

dy:o ; deyo (Bangor), v., ? diduo, D., i Dimovere, domo privare ', 
' to shell ' (of beans and peas). 

dy:or, v., deor, D., f to hatch ' : r o:y$ gin i lawar jaun o wy:a, 
ond dary dim y:n o 'honynu 8y:or, ' I had a great many eggs, but 
not one of them hatched ' ; kyvrt y kmtjon Kin ybynu 8y:or, ' to count 
the chickens before they are hatched '. 

dy:r, s.m., dur, D., 'steel ' : nyduyb 8y:r, ' needle ' ; hoiljon dy:r. 
' steel nails put in horse-shoes to grip the ice '. 

dyrol, adj., durawl, D.G. Ixiv. 38. (i) ' very strong ': dy:n dyrol. (2) 
' hard ' : bar a dyrol, ' hard, stale bread ' : may r bara ma wedi mynd 
m ne:n jaun, may o n vu:y dyrol o lawar. Hence ' durable, not 
wasting ' : menyn dyrol (opp. to darvodedig}. 

dy:sg, s., dysg, D., ' learning ' : may dy:sg i u ga:yl o i vedy i u 
7>e:d (prov.), ' one lives and learns '. 

dysu, interj. : dysu la:\ f, dysu annul !, 'good gracious '. 
dyu, s.m., pi. diuja, Duw, D., ' God '. 
dyitks, interj. (euphemism for dyu), dyuks!, dyuks annul! 
dy:ux, s.m., ' blackness '. 

dyvn, adj., fern, devn, pi. dmnjon, comp. dwnax, dwfn, D., ' deep ' : 
fo:ys vaur 8evn, ' a large deep ditch ' (O.H.) ; Kin fovnad a pulKeris, 
1 as deep as Pwll Ceris' (in the Menai Straits); fi.g.jy:n dyvn^dzof, 
' he is a deep one '. Used also substantively as a ' depth ' of 
something, especially in slate quarries. Cf. te:u. So also in such 
expressions as trodvaft o dyun, 'a foot in depth'; rubad tebig i 
la&an o ftyvn, ' something like a yard in depth ' ; le: may r dyvn 
muya, ( where the depth is greatest '. 

d>, adj., dy, D., 'thy': may d? vam d ifo di\ 'your mother 
wants you ' ; ar dy o:l di, ' after you ' ; hel ar d o:H, ' fetch back ! ' 
(to a sheep-dog) ; d? da:d a d vam, ' your father and mother ' : 
i dy dy:, ' to your house'. (Forms like ' a'th ' and 'i'th' do not 
occur in the colloquial language except in stereotyped expressions. 
The only example I have heard is ka:n di bennil mu:yn i 6 nain, 
mi ga:n d9 nain i tiBa (prov.), ' one good turn deserves another'.) 
dy is frequently used before finite verbs to reinforce the ensuing 
pronoun di, as mi da gyra i di!, ' I'll beat you '. 

dybryd, adj., dybryd, D., ' terrible, awful ' : pe:6 dsbryd ; kam- 
gsmerjad dabryd. 

dad, in ar dad, ' on the verge of ' : ar dad gneyd rubaB (a dim in 
i neyd o). 

drtjo, v., dyddio, W.S. [Day], ' to dawn '. 



dabjol dalanwad 1 1 1 

dzbjol, adj., dyddiol, S.E., ' day ' : tsgol drtjol, ' day school '. 

d&ordab, s.m. Cf. didordep, M.A. ii. 346. 28. A book word, 
recently revived in the form ' dyddordeb * (cf. O.P.), but used quite 
frequently as an equivalent of ' interest ' in such phrases as hm?ny</ 
dtiordab meun, ' to take an interest in '. 

d&orol) adj., dyddorol, S.E., ' interesting '. See above. 

dtfe'ia, v., ' I defy ', in the phrase mi dyfeia i di i neyt fanny, ' I 
defy you to do it' ; also 'I assure', as mi dyfeia i di mai rvi: pi:a 
hi, { I assure you that it is mine/ 

dtfryn, s.m., pi. dtfnnnob, dyffryn, D., 'valley': lili r dtfryn, 
( lily of the valley '. 

dtgado, in phrase dagado paul /, i. e. ' Duw gadwo (gato) pawb ! ', 
excl. of surprise (J.J.). 

dtgyn, adj., dygn, D. ; dygyn, P.G.G. 101. 18; 106. 26 ; 'per- 
sistent ' : dy:n dagyn diwid, ' a persistent, industrious man ' ; gweiQjo 
n togyn tut r hy:d 2 dy: (O.H.), ' to stick to it hard all day ' ; 
gweiQjo n &gyn o ola i ola. 

dzgammod, v., dygymmod, D. (i) 'to suit, agree with' : / ?di <> 
dim zn ddgwnmod a vt:, ' it does not agree with me ' (e. g. of food) ; 
sdi o n dzgsmmod a i le: ?, ' is he suiting himself to his position ? ' 
(2) 'to make the best of: may r derwyti an -a-nivir, ond rhaid 
i ni fogammod a vo:. 

drhei'g, adj., deheuig, D., s.v. 'dexter', 'rotunde'. (i) 'skilful, 
dexterous ' : dy:n drheig am i waiQ = grieyd po:b pe:9 o: beBa. 
(2) ' tactful, politic '. 

ddheyol, adj., deheuol, D., s.v. ' meridionalis ' ; ' southern ' : r o\or 
foheyol. 

drltay, s.m., Eng. decay, ' consumption ' : neid o dim magy drKa:y, 
said of a healthy, cheerful person. 

dzksun = tabaksun, v., tebygaswn : daksun i\ 1 1 should think '. 

d9xtn3gy, v., dychymmygu, D., ' to imagine ' : ddxnwgy bo xi y 
gweld dy:n. 

daxryn, v., dychrynu, D. Pret. djxrwnis, xrmnis, 'to terrify, 
startle ' ; ' to be terrified, startled ' : d*xryn a//o vo, ' to be frightened 
of him ' ; dary x* n^xryn i n ovnaduy, ' you startled me terribly ' ; 
mi xrdnnis, ' you gave me a fright '. 

, s.m., pi. d9xryn'vey, dychryn, D., 'a terror ' : r 0:8 o n 
baub. 

, adj., dychrynllyd, T.N. 208. 20, ' terrible ' : going, 
nada daxrwlyd ; 'dsxrsnjyd o o:yr, 'terribly cold'. 

d9X9mmig t s.m., pi. d3xmdgjon, dychymmyg, D., 'imagination^ 
delusion '. 



ddlanwad, s.m., dylanwad, D., s.v. ' influentia ' ; ' influence '. 



ii2 ddlanwady dzmyno 

dalanwady, v., dylanwadu, S.E., ' to influence ' : ma: r derwyb m 
dalanwady 'arnynu rusyt, ' the weather exercises an influence over 
them somehow '. 

d^ledsuyS, dledsuyft, s., pi. d^ledsuyda, dyledswydd, D., s.v. 
' officium ' ; ' duty ' : dilin i foledsuyba, ' to fulfil, perform one's 
duties ' ; dsledsuyba teyly;a, ' family prayers ' ; kadu dledmyb, ' to 
have family prayers '. 

dzlivo, v. dylifo, D., 'to stream ' : r qy:8 9 xivy:s 9n ddlivo vel gla:u 
irana, ' the perspiration was streaming down like thunder rain ' ; 
may nu n dilivo i r fovarvod, ' a stream of people are going to the 
meetin '. 



dsljun, v. Imperfect of obsolete dylu, D., 2. drtat, $.drta. PI. i. 
ddlan, 2. dz/ax, 3. dzlan. ' I ought ' ; Plup. dzlsun, lasun, ' I 
ought to have, I ought ' : mi dj/a g9\un ne mi e'iB m no:s arno vo, 
' he ought to start or he will be caught by the darkness ' ; dma vel 
* drta vo:d, ' that is how it ought to be ' ; mi Mjun inna ga:yl vy 
suppar Max, ' it is quite time I had my supper too ' ; mi Ma \i6a 
myd sylu ono vo, 'you ought to pay attention to him too ' ; ma: peQa 
Tel na n darvod a darvod falan heiyd, ' things like that are dying out 
and they ought to die out too ' ; mi 'folsanu roid i \i digon, ' they 
ought to give you enough ' ; mi 'lasanu i roid o 280 vo heb ibo vo 
ovyn, ' they ought to have given it to him without him having to 
ask for it ' ; / qy:8 o Mm ay ka:yl 9 peda lasa vo ga:yl, ' he did not 
get what he ought to have got '. 

drty, v., 'to become hazy' (of the weather) : may hi n ddly. Cf. 
did. 

dalytan, s.f., pi. ddlyanod ; (d^]ly:od (O.H.), dylluan and tylluan, 
D. ; cf. W.B., col. 109. 28-31, 'owl'; also called deryn korf: 
r o:yb ar he:n bolol 971 arvar mynd i gammy d i kdmmyn 116 glu:ad 9 
foly:an jy gwi'xjan (J. }.), 'old people used to go and receive the 
sacrament when they heard the owl hooting', Used of human 
beings, men or women. ' one who wanders about at night ' or ' one 
who is always asleep ' or merely ' a fool ' : ly:od o tonjon (O.H.). 

dsmma (often timma), adv., dyma, ' here is, here are ', Fr. ' voici ' : 
dwimale 'by.onu n trot 9 bora ma, ' this is where they were ploughing 
this morning ' ; damma gmnur maur am roi tippin o lo: ar 9 ta:n /, 
1 what a fuss about putting a bit of coal on the fire ! ' ; often used in 
graphic narration, e.g. dtmma 8eydo8 o . . ., dsmma o:y o n deyd , . ., 
' here he was saying ' ; damma hi n niul arna i, ' here I was, caught 
in the mist ' ; dmima vo aita i, ' here he comes up to me ' ; dwima 
r leidar i vjaun i r loft, ' up comes the thief into the bedroom ' ; 
dwima Smas i vjaun i r kwarvod gwe&t, a damma hi ar i glinja, ' in 
comes a woman into the prayer meeting and down she goes on 
her knees '. 

d9myno t v., damuno, rectius dymuno, D., ' to wish '. 



dsmynol dasgur 113 

dtmynol, adj., dymunol, D., desirable, charming, comely ' : 3 ver% 
ivayk hard fomynol, ' the good-looking, charming young woman ' ; 
golug d^mynol ar 3 wybyr. 

d9na (often t*na\ na, adv., dyna, D., ' there is, there are ', Fr. 
' voila ' : dma r inig resum sy gin t, ' that is the only reason I have ' ; 
dma vo:, dma hi:, ' that's it ' ; da wi:r maidma be sy: ond bod ni dim 
m gubod, ' perhaps that is what it is, only that we don't know ' ; dma 
r dru:g, ' that's the worst of it ' ; dma gimmint a sy:, ' that is all 
there is ' ; often used in graphic narration, e. g. a dma vo y 
gwiltjo, ' and there he was, in a rage '. 

dmas, s.f. [pi. merxaid'], dynes, C.C.M. 142. i, 'woman' (less 
polite than gwraig) : dmas ba:\ del, ' a nice little woman ' ; dmas 
a/jy:og, ( a capable woman ' ; dmas (dinas) benvelan, ' yellowhammer ' 
(Emberiza citrinella). 

dmewad, s., pi. dmewid, dyniewed, D., s.v. 'juvencus'; 'a young 
heifer or bull between one year and eighteen months old '. 

dmwarad, dzwarad, v., dynwared, D., ' to imitate ' (but rather in 
the sense of ' to mimic ' than in a good sense). Cf. gwatar. 

danyn, s.m., dynyn, S.E.*, ' a conceited fellow ' : may hun a hun 
m he:n d^nyn garu ; r u:ti n dayos da hy:n 9n he:n dznyn garu. 

dwmdgy, dirmzgy, v., dirmygu, D., 'to mock, make fun of = 
sbe'ttjo, gwatwor, dznwarad, gambljo. 

d?rnad, s.m., dyrnaid, D., ' handful ' : dsrnad o bre:s, ' a handful 
of money '. 

ddrnod, s.f., dyrnod, D., 'a blow with the fist' : dsrnod ar vo:n 
3 gly:st ; dsrnodgdlaQ, a sheep's ear-mark, so called. 

dtrnol (I.W. ; J.J.), dsrnwil (I.W.), dsrnil (O.H.), s.pl. ; sing. 
dwnolan (JJ-), darnol (O.H.), dyrnfol, D., pi. dyrnfyl, but dyrnfolau, 
s.v. 'manica'; 'gloves used while cutting thorns': pa:r o form'l (Q.H.). 

dzrnur, s.m., dyrnwr, D., ' thresher '. Also ' threshing machine '. 

darnvad, s.f., pi. dyrnvedi, dyrnfedd, D., s.v. ' bipalmis ' ; ' hand ' 
(about four inches) used in measuring the height of horses : du i n 
medut 9 grieiQ i y glos jaun i dzrnvad ar bzmQag, ' I think she'll be 
very nearly sixteen hands '. 

dirny, v., dyrnu, D., ' to thresh ' : indgan torny t ' threshing 
machine'. 

dinvinan [derwman]. 

dzrys, adj., dyrys, D., ' perplexing, complicated '. 

d9sge'idja9 y s.m., dysgeidiaeth, D., ' doctrine '. 

dzsg/ad, s.f., pi. d9sgleidja, dysglaid, S.E.*, dyscled, M.LI. i. 140. 
1 6, 'dishful'. 

dtsgur, s.m., dysgwr, S.E.*, ' learner '. 



! 1 4 dasgy d3veryn 

dssgy, v., dysgu, D. Pret. S. i. ebsgis, disc's. Imperative tisga. 
(i) 'to teach': -tasa\i n veyax mi vasa n haus *\ dssgyf if you 
were younger it would be easier to teach you ' ; r o:yn m dysgy r 
davad bori (prov. exp.), "teaching one's grandmother". (2) 'to 
learn ' : <bsgy o>r gwraid, ' to learn thoroughly ' ; fagy i greft, ' to 
learn his trade ' ; tbsgy alan, to learn off, to learn by heart '. 

drifas, s.f., Eng. duchess, ' an imperious woman ' : hem dzt/as 
ovnaduy. 

dwdis, s.f., defeys, W.S. [Deuyse]; dyfais, M.LI. ii. 39. 19; 
D.P.O. 54. 10. (i) * device, invention, contrivance': fovais da: 
jaun, 'a very good invention '. (2) intent' ; ' contriving faculty ' : 
dwais $ru:g, ' evil intent ' ; iufo i tovais i dngjoni, ' to contrive 
evil'. 

dwal, adj., dyfal, D., ' persistent, steady, unremitting ' : \wiljo n 
toval \-dwal uB hel arjan \m disgul m teval am bByr, ' anxiously 
expecting a letter '. 

dwalux, s.m., dyfalwch, D., 'persistence'. 
dwaty, v., dyfalu, D., ' imagine, conjecture ' : wtlis i rotfun fovaly 
a dweif'O) ' I never saw such cudgelling of brains ' ; vedrun i Mm 
dmaly be oy o n i ve&ul, 'I could not imagine what he was 
thinking of '. 

droary, v., edifaru, D., 'to regret' : dary mi dim dwary, 'I did 
not regret it '. 

dm&fo, v., dyfeisio, G.R. (5) 12; B.C. 15. i. (i) 'contrive, 
devise ' : dro'tifo puyforb i x rhuydo \i, ' to contrive how to ensnare 
you'; also, dw&f'o pe6. (2) 'invent': dw&fo pe:6 gwel nag oyb 
-gmynu o r bla:yn, ' to invent something better than they had before ' ; 
ma: nu n d9veif f o po:b ma:6 o beBa 9 drtja ma, ' they invent all kinds 
of things these days '. (3) ' to make up ' : cbv&fo stori heb vo:d m 
wi:r. (4) ' imagine ' : vedra i dim dwe'ifa le may hi, ' I can't 
imagine where it is '. Cf. also dwaly. (5) ' to think of : 'tasa\i 
m peryd i mi dwe'ifo nu, ' if you made me think of them for myself 
(they would not come to my mind) '. (6) ' guess ' : tri:o dneif'o n 
hi:rjaun, ' to try and guess a long time '. 

dmerol, diverol, adj., diferol, Cant. v. 13, 'dropping, dripping': 
9n ly:b dzverol. 

dweryd, diveryd, v. diferu, D., ' to drop ' : ma: r vargod m dweryd, 
1 the eaves are dripping'; ma: nu n dweryd o xwy:s, 'they are 
streaming with perspiration ' ; used very frequently in an ad- 
verbial sense : may o wedi gb\y n dmeryd, ' he is wet ^through ' ; 
r o:d 9 ywadt 3n ly:b dmeryd, ' my hair was dripping wet ' ; ma: nu 
y gweiBjo n\wy:s dmeryd pen -vabuxizn agolug, ' they work till they 
are streaming with perspiration so long as you are in sight '. 

drveryn^ diveryn, s.m., pi. dwerjon, diverjon, diferyn, G.O. ii. 



et#:l 1 1 5 

276. 25, 'drop': d ruob o dim drueryn- wedyn, 'he never drank 
a drop (of intoxicating liquor) afterwards'; po:b diveryn, 'every 
drop ' ; heb toveryn o !a:u.-Cf. devni. 

dwetia, dveBa, v., difetha, D., s.v. 'consumo ' ; 'to waste ; to spoil ' : 
paid a dveQa mat/is, ' don't waste matches ' ; dveBa phntyn (fuvo 
moyQa), 'to spoil a child ' ; may y:n o "honynu wedi kubul HivtQa, 
' one of them is quite spoilt '. 

dweQdod, veBdod, s.m., difethdod, ' destruction, waste '. 

dyueBgar^ veQgar, adj., difethgar, ' wasteful ' : opp. to kmtrivjol, 
forbjol. 

druluyb, adj., dwyflwydd, D., s.v. * biennis ' ; ' two years old ' : 
m dwtuyd o:yd. 

dyvndur^ s.m., dyfnder, D. ; dyfndwr, C.C.M. 120. 32, 'depth ' : 
r o:d na drundur o igjan la:6, ' there was a depth of twenty yards '. 

divndgun, s.m., dyfn, influenced by Eng. dungeon ?, 'a deep hole 
or ravine ; gulf, abyss' (but more familiar than the English words) : 
strOjo i r drvndgun ; dwndgun plum> ' a yawning gulf. Cf. eigjon. 

dyun'hay, v., dyfnhau, D., 'to deepen '. 

dzvny, v., diddyfnu, D., 'to wean'. 

dwrduyst, s., dyfrdwst, ' a disease of cattle, strangury ' (J.J.). 

dwr&i, s.m., pi. drurguns, dyfrgi, D., * otter ' : m ly:b vel dwr&i, 
' like a drowned rat '. 

dwrjo, v., dyfrio, ' to water ' (of the eyes). 

dnualgi, dualgi, s., ymlab vel drwalgi, ' to fight fiercely ' (I.W.). 

dzwedjad, s.m., dy wediad, S.E.*, ' saying ' : he:n Bauedjad, ' an old 
saying '. 

dga:d, s.f., Eng. jade, opprobrious epithet for a woman : also dgadan. 

dgak, Eng. Jack, dgak sboyk = robin sboykjur, ' grasshopper ' : 
dgak lantar, ' will-o'-the-wisp ', also called dgak sboyk (JJ.) ; dgak 
do:, ' jackdaw ' (Corvus monedula). 

dgakmor, s.m., ' sycamore '. (O.H. always uses sarttan.) 

dgayglar, s.m., pi. dgayglars^ 'one who gossips, a loiterer at a 
street corner, etc.' 

dgaygljo> v., Eng. (Dial.) jangle ; O.F. jangler, ' to gossip, loiter ' : 
dgaygljo o gumpas. 

dgar, tfar, s.f., 'jar'. 

dgarjad, s.f., ' jarful '. 

dgebo, s., ' the devil, bogy ' : mw d^ebo. 

dgegyn, s. Cf. Eng. (Dial.) jag [a small load of coal, hay, etc.], 
' a small load ', e. g. dgegyn o dail. 

dgeinjo, v., ' to join '. 

dge:l, s.f., geol, W.B. col. 172. 16 ; G.C. 132. 5; ge*ol, D. ; siel, 
B.C. 34. ii ; g^ol, D.; 'jail, prison'. 

I 2 



1 1 6 dgelaitf dgoliherutjo 

dgelaitf, s.pl., gellhesg, D., ' flags ' (Iris pseud-acorus). For other 
forms cf. Kelaitf. 

dgeljo, v., ' to put in jail '. 
dgelus, adj., ' jealous '. 

dgempar, s.f., pi. dgempars, ' jumper ' : an instrument used in 
slate quarries for boring holes. There are two kinds dgempar 
uru and dgempar vanu. 

dgerman, dgermon, s.m., Eng. journeyman, 'a man employed by 
the day by quarrymen for splitting and dressing slates '. 

dgero, s.m., 'a tough customer', I.W. = he:n walx (JJ-)j u 
he:n dgero gurjon (O.H.). 

dgest, dest, gest, adv., Eng. just. Cf. Eng. (Dial.) jest, Shr., Oxf., 
Som. (i) 'on the point of, all but' : du i dgest am vynd i laur, 
' I am just going down ' ; r sdu i dgest 3m barod, ' I am just 
ready ' ; dgest i lond o, ' just full ' ; may r amsar dgest ar ben, ' the 
time is just up ' ; r sdu i dgest a ledy, ' I am almost sinking ' (with 
the weight) ; r 9du i dgest a gola ifo di:od, ' I am almost ablaze for 
a drink ' ; ru:an dgest, ' just now '. (2) ' exactly ' : dgest ry: va:6, 
1 just the same ' (= ?n in/on). 

dgtynar, s.m., pi. dgeynerja(i)d, 'joiner'. 

dgeynt, s.f., pi. dgeintja. Cf. Eng. geynt(t)e, i5th cent., Dial, 
jeint, ' joint ' : rhoi karag dros 9 dgeintja, in building. 

'dgilifrit \^silifrif\. 

dgob, s.f., pi. dgobsys, 'job': gw'eWjo ar dgob, 'to work by the 
piece '. 

dgob, s., ' ? mass ' : sarQjo ny:n dgob, ' to fall flop, to fall full length ' ; 
ma: r plant wedigneyd 3 davab dny:n dgob igi:d. Cf. { Nes ai 'r ddwy 
lob yn job i'r jail '. C. Annogaeth i bawb feindio ei fusnes ei hunan. 

dgob, dgobyn, s., siobyn, D., ' apex, apiculus ' ; 'a tuft ' (of hair, 
etc.) : riu dgobyn ar i dalkan o (I.W.). 

dgobjo, v., Eng. job = dobjo. 

dgoktii, s.m., Eng. jockey, 'a horse-breaker' = torur h/yla. 
[' Jockey ' is so used in Shropshire.] 

dgox, s.m. (i) ' a drink, draught, gulp ' : dgo\ o levriQ, ' a drink 
of milk ' ; i laur a vo:y:n dgox, ' down with it at one gulp '. (2) ' a 
spurt of liquid ' : terwalt dgox o hono vo ; dgox o boiri. 

dgoxjo, v. (i) 'to spill, spurt over' : may r du:r 9n dgoxjo, 'the 
water is spilling, spurting over '. (2) ' to squirt ' : dgoxjo du:r o i 
ge:g am ben 9 bobol, ' to squirt water from one's mouth over people ' 
(O.K.). (3) ' to gulp ' : dgoxjo bytta teukjo (O.H.). 

dgoUhffutjo, dgolihoitjo, v., ' to fool about, to gallivant '. mynd i 
laur i r dre: i dgolihautjo. Cf. gwilihoban. 



dgolpan eda 117 



dgolpan, s.f., ' a silly wench ' : he:n dgolpan wirjon. 
dgolpjo, v., ' to play the fool ' (of women). 




grulaQ 
of tobacco 

1 1 don't care a fig for him '. 

dgu:al, s.m., pi. dgu:ah, ' ear-ring '. 
dgug, s.f., pi. dgugja, 'jug '. 
d&gjad, s.f., pi. d&gtidja, ' jugful ' 
dgrtko, call to poultry. 



e, e:, in na:K e, nag e, D. ; Mid.W. nac ef; cf. W.B. col. 67. 17, 
' no ' [no] ; and in nt e: ?, t e: ?, onid e ?, used in interrogations 
expecting the answer ' yes ' [/]. 

e:, interj., idi o n da:S e:, odjaQ o da/ 

ebil, s.m., pi. ebitfon, piffon, ebill, D., ' borer, drill ' (used in 
quarries, etc.). Sometimes a greenhorn at a quarry is sent to ask 
for an ebi deydul. 

ebol, s.m., pi. boljon, ebol, D., ' foal ' (after weaning) : r u:ti vel 
ebol blu:y!> said of some one who frisks and plays about like 
a child ; dail karn ebol, ' colt's foot ' (Tussilago Farfara). 

ebra, v., eb, heb, D. ; cf. heb yr ynteu, R.B. 245. 13 ; eb yr mi, 
W.S. [Quod I]; heb 'r ef, D.F. [172] 9; ebr, B.C. 7. 13; 10. 9, 
etc. ; in ebra vi, ebra vo, ' said I, said he ' (only used by old 
people). 

ebril, s., Ebrill, D., ' April ' : m#ur& a !a:d, ebril a vh'y (prov.), 
' March slays, April flays ' ; / 9dt eira 3n ebril dim an sevyt mu:y na 
sevi6 u:y ar ben ebi'l (trosol), ' snow in April lies no longer than an 
egg will lie on the top of a drill (crowbar) ' ; sat eira m ebri mu:y 
na rhmjon meun rhidil (O.H.), ' snow in April lasts no longer than 
oatmeal in a sieve ' ; hgad ebril = dail 9 peils, ' the lesser celandine ' 
(Ranunculus Ficaria). 

ebux, s., ebwch, D. ; B.C. 56. 12; C.C.M. 163. 17; 'a strong 
effort ' : da\i dim an tri:o, da\i dim ?y gn'eyd ebu\ i neyd o, ' you are 
not trying : you are not making a real effort to do it ' ; mi do:6 
vel ebux ag mi /razvod hi i laur (O.H.), expressing a sudden unex- 
pected action. 

eda, s.f., pi. davad, edau, D., ' thread ; woollen yarn ' : eda dy:, 
wen, ' black, white thread ' ; eda n#duy& } ' thread ' ; eda gwrodab, 



1 1 8 edliu efro 

' linen thread ' ; eda driflig, eda dair gai'yk, ' thread of three strands ' ; 
davab gwey, ' wool ', e. g. for knitting ; davab gwaun, ' gossamer ' ; 
dirwin davad, * to wind a skein ' ; matja davab, ' woollen mats ' ; 
demx a naduyb ag eda i mi roi bottum arno vo, ' bring a needle and 
thread for me to put a button on it ' ; rhoux ?r eda an 3 n0duy, 
' thread the needle ' ; wedi gwisgo at ar eda, ' threadbare '. 

edliu, v., edliw, D. Pret. S. 3. edliujod, ( to reproach, upbraid ' : 
edliu i dy:n am . . ., edliu dragjoni dy:n. 

ednod, s.pl., ednogyn, D., ' culex, musca ', and s.v. ' scabro ' ; 
'eggs of flies' (in meat, etc.) (J.J.): buru ednod, 'to lay eggs' 
(of insects) (O.H.). 

edrax, v., edrych, D. Fut. S. i. draxa. Imperative edrax, 
draxa', draxux. (i) 'to look (at), to throw glances, to glance ': 
edrax *n aru orni hi, ' to look intently at her ' ; may r plant 
an driyo i vany ag an edrax dros 9 klaub, ' the children are 
climbing up and looking over the wall ' ; edrax tru: r gwry:x, 
* to look through the hedge ' ; edrax dan i sgaval, ' to knit the 
brows, to frown (upon) ' ; edrax an bgad a geinjog, ' to weigh 
every penny carefully '. (2) ' to look, appear ' : da\i n edrax in 
we!, ' you look better ' ; may r oraing an edrax m sy:r, l the orange 
looks sour ' ; may himeun oydran garu ag edrax mor da:, ( she looks 
very well considering her great age '. (3) ' to make inspection, to 
see ' : d0u\ i edrax ta, os na 'xoiljuxi, ' come and see then if you 
don't believe ' ; wedi tri:o gneyd po:b pe:B edrax na:nu godi, ' having 
tried to do everything to see whether they would get up ' ; edrax 
ar ax o:l xi 3 du i, i edrax sy daxin bihavjo obi kartra, ' I am looking 
after you to see how you behave yourself away from home '. 
(4) with am, ' to see, visit ' : mynd i edrax am dano vo, ' to go to 
see him ' ; mi 8o:0 o i edrax am a nhaid, * he came to see my 
grandfather ' ; also ' to look for ' (= xwiljo am). (5) with ar o:l, 
' to see after, look after ' : may o n edrax ar o:l i bre:s an jaun, 
1 he looks well after the money '. 

edraxjad) s.m., edrychiad, D., s.v. ' facies ' ; * appearance ' : o ran 
edraxjad, ' as far as appearances are concerned '. 

efad, s.m., pi. efeiBja, ephaith, G.R. [194] 14; effaith, R. ; 
' effect '. 

efeiejo,fei6jo,v., epheithio, G.R. [194] 14; effeithio, S.E., { to 
have an effect upon, to affect ' : ma: r leyad an efeiBjo ar aniv'e'iljad 
(J. J.), ' the moon has an effect upon animals ' ; / adi o dim an efeiQjo 
ar ax bytta, ' it does not affect your appetite ' ; may o wedi feiBjo n 
aru arno vo, * it has had a great effect upon him '. 

efei&jol, adj., effeithiol, S.E.*, < effectual ' : wedi wela vo n efeiBjol 

efro, adj.. effro, D., c awake ' : may o n efro ; rhuy kasgy ag efro, 
1 between sleeping and waking '. 



egar ti&o 119 

egar, adj., egyr, W.S. [Aeygre] ; eger, C.L.C. ii. 23; egr, D., 
' bad, rough, cold ' (applied esp. to weather) : durnod egar jaun, 
' a very cold, rough day ' ; dsrnod egar, ' a painful blow ' ; far ad in 
egar, ' to speak roughly, saucily '. 

fgt'n, s.pl., sing, eginin, egin, D., * sprouts, shoots ' : e&in main 3r 
y:d, ' tender shoots of corn ' ; e&in krrvjon, * healthy sprouts ', e. g. 
of potatoes appearing above the ground. 

e&*no> & no > v -> e gino> D., < to sprout ', e. g. of corn. 

egluys, s.f., pi. egluisi, egluysyb, eglwys, D., ' church ' : da\i n 
mynd i r egluys ?, ' do you go to church ? ' ; may o wedi troi i r 
egluys, ' he has gone over to the church ' ; Kin dlottad a fgodan 
egluys, ' as poor as a church mouse '. 

egluysrag, s.f., eglwyswraig, S.E., ' churchwoman '. 
egluysur, s.m., eglwyswr, D., ' churchman '. 

*gty r i a dj., e gl ur , D., ' clear ' : farad m eglyr, 'to speak clearly ' ; 
may n eglyr ( = amlug) i mi, ' it is clear to me '. Cf. amlug. 

eglyro, v., egluro, D., ' to explain '. 

egni, s., egni, D., * effort, vigour ' : gneyd i egni, ' to do one's 
best ' ; a i hc^ egni, nerd i egni, * with all one's might '. 

cgras, s.m. Eng. (Dial.), ee-grass, ea-grass, eye-grass, hay- 
grass, hee-grass [aftermath, after-grass]. Cf. also N.E.D., s.v. 
* eegrass '. Applied to grass, etc., one year old : ka:y o egras 
blu:y& ; devaid ym porir egras m zgwanuyn. Also used adjectively, 
gwair egras, ' hay one year old ' ; klovar egras. (J.J. ; O.H.) 

e sry> v - e o ru > D., s.v. ' muceo ' ; ' to go sour ' : may r levriQ 
wedi egry, ' the milk has gone sour '. Also * to go bad ' (of 
butter, etc.). 

egryn, s., (?) *egryn, D., ' timor, tremor, trepidatio '. Cf. M.F., 
S.v. / o:ys na fa'm egryn o wynl he'tiju (O.H.) = evlyn. 

eguyd, s.m., pi. eguydyb, egwyd, D., 'fetlock'. 

eguyl, s., egwyl, R., ' lull ' : mi a: i m 9r egul ma, ' I will go 
during this lull ' ; tasa eguyl i mi vynd, ' if the storm abated 
sufficiently for me to go ' ; na:6 i dim egul o him&a he&ju i neyd 
dim, ' there has not been a moment's lull in the weather to-day to 
do anything '. 

egwan, adj., egwan, D., * weak, delicate ' : plant egwan. 
eidjon, s.m., pi. eidjona, eidion, D., ' bullock '. 

eidrol, s., eidral, D. (Bot.) : dail r eidrol, ' ground ivy ' (Glechoma 
hederacea). 

mil, ttil; yvyl (O.H.), adj., eiddil, D., 'spare, slender, frail'. 
ado, s.m., eiddo, D., ' property ' : dy:n ag e&o gmo vo, ' a man of 



1 2 b eigjon eirja s 

property ' ; may o wedi kayl hmmyd i eido 0:8 arno vo, 'he got 
deprived of his property ' ; gwasgary r eido ar o:l maru, ' to dissi- 
pate (some one's) property after his death ' ; eido i vi 9di o, ' he is 
my property '. 

eigjon, s.m., eigion, D., ' depths ' : i eigjon isa r mo:r, ' to the 
depths of the sea ' ; yy yw'eylod tigjon 9 mo:r ; wedi S9r6jo i r eigjon, 
wedi s9rBjo dros graig i r eigjon ; mi trawa i o i eigjon r avon ma, 
' I'll knock him to the very bottom of the river ' ; yy ghanol (9m 
mhervati) eigjon 9 mmrioS, 'in the very heart of the mountains'. 
(All O.K.). 

eil, s.f., in eil vaun, ' a shed near a house for keeping peat '. 

eildyd, s., eilddydd, ' second day ' : bo:b dy: ne bo:b 9n eilbyb 
(O.K.). 

eiljad, s.m., eiliad, ' moment ' : meun eiljad, * in a moment '. 

eiljan, dyw gwyl Elian, W.S. [Hyllarys day] : aur vaur kalan (or 
jonaur\ du:y u:yl Viljan a Bair u:yl vair, os na by:b hi n bedair, ' the 
days lengthen by a good hour by the first of January, two by 
St. Elian's day, three if not four by the Annunciation '. (eiljan 
I.W.; ftr/a/O-H.)- 

eiljo, v., eilio, D., ' to wattle '. 

eilwaB, adv., eilwaith, D., ' a second time ' : pryn hem, pryn 
eilwaB, pryn newyb, ve bery byB (prov.), ' buy old, buy again : buy 
new, it will last for ever '. 

einjos, s., einioes, D., s.v. ' vita ' ; c life ' : 9n v* einjos (my it) welts 
i 9 va:6 be:B o r bla:yn, * I never saw such a thing before in my 
life'. 

eira, s.m., eira, D., ' snow ' : buru eira, ' to snow ' ; may hi n 
magy eira, ' snow is coming ' ; may r eira n de:u, dru\ys, may hi n 
eira maur, ' the snow is deep ' ; may n plyo eira maur, ' it is snow- 
ing large flakes ' ; dut y kovjo tri eira maur, ' I remember three great 
snow-falls'; ar eira maur, 'in time of deep snow'; pelan eira, 
' snow-ball ' ; kasag eira, ' a (rolled) snow-ball ' ; knu:d o eira, ' a 
fall of snow '; kodan eira, ' puff-ball ' ; (c6d euraid (?) D., coden 
hyred, O.P.) ; adar (r) eira, ' fieldfares ' (Turdus pilaris) ; \wiljo 
am eira lma, ' to be on a fruitless quest '. 

eirin, s.pl., sing, eiran, eirin, D. (i) ' plums ' : eirin mo:\, l haws ' 
(Bangor) ; eirin perBi, eirin ba:\ tcigy, ' sloes '. (2) ' testicles '. 

eirjas (eirjos O.H. sometimes), s. ; eirias and eirias-dan, D., a word 
without definite meaning, expressive of heat or flame : tendja di, 
may n eirjos bo:y& (O.H.), c mind, it is burning hot ' (but not 
necessarily red-hot) ; . . . a vo n eirjas o r ta:n (O.H.), * ... though 
it was hot from having been just taken out of the fire ' ; 9n y:n 
eirjas o dam (O.H.), 'one mass of fire ' (speaking of the phosphor- 
escent sea) ; ma na eirjas o dam, ' there is a splendid fire ' (i.e. in 
the grate). 



eirjaB eli 121 

eirjaB, s., aeriaeth, C.C.M. 214. 7, ' inheritance ' = pe:6ar o:lru:in. 
eirjo, v., ' to air '. 
eirlau, s.m., ' sleet '. 

eisin, s., eisin, D., (in bolting) ' the roughest part of the flour ' = 
bran ; eisin si:/, ' husks produced in purifying oats '. 

eiBa, adj., adv. eithaf, D. (i) before a noun or adjective, 'very 
good, excellent, splendid ; very, perfectly ' : may n eiBa kryor, ' it 
is very good advice ' ; mi vasa n eiBa pe:B i ii vynd mo, ' it would be 
a splendid thing for you to go there ' ; eiBa gwat'B a vo:, ' serve him 
right ' ; may fanny n eiBa gw:ir, ' that is very true ' ; eiBa te:g, 
' perfectly fair ' ; may hmny n e'iBa da: ond . . ., ' that is all very well, 
but . . .' ; so with gin and a pronoun : mi 0:8 ?n eiBa /in inad o:yb t 
' I was very glad it was not '. (2) standing by itself ' pretty good, 
well enough ' : o:& o n eiBa, l it was pretty good ' ; edrax yn eiBa, 
gubodm eiBa, ' to look, to know well enough '. Substantively : we/is 
j eiBa vo, ' I have seen his worst '. 

e'iBin, s.pl., sing. e'iBinan, eithin, D., ' gorse ' : lu:yn e'iBin, ' gorse- 
bush ' ; tumpaB e'iBin, ' a dwarfed rounded gorse-bush the effect of 
having been cropped K ;~ olicc^ ' (GO O.H., but the latter is often 
used for gorse-bush in general, I.W.) ; silod e'iBin, ' small stunted 
gorse '. 

e'iBinog, adj., eithinog, L.G.C., 52 [40] ' abounding in gorse'. 

ekrux, s.m., ecrwch, T.N. 10. 2, ' roughness ' (esp. of the weather): 
fkrux garu jaun. Cf. egar. 

ekstro, s.m. Cf. exdro, C.C.M. 174. 3; acstro, W.LI. (Voc.), 
s.v. ' echel ' ; ' brace and bit ' (carpenter's tool). 

e\al, s.f., pi. exela, exelyS, echel, D., ' axle ' : mynd 0:8 ar i exal, 
1 to lose one's temper ' ; paid a i dmny o o:d ar i exal, ' don't upset 
him'. 

exely, v., echelu, f to place on an axle ' : dim wedi exely n jaun 
(speaking of a cart-wheel). 

exnos, s. and adv., echnos, R., ' the night before last '. 

extoy ; extob (E.J.), s. and adv., echdoe, D., ' the day before yester- 
day'. 

exuyn, s.m., echwyn, D., ' loan ' : neuxi roid exuyn o dorB i mi V, 
'will you lend me a loaf?' ; taly r exuyn adra, 4 to pay the loan 
back ; to retaliate '. 

eli, s.m., eli, D., ' salve, ointment': ma: nu y gosod nu meun 
padal i x us y, &g wedyn ma: nu y gwasgy nu ag ?y gneyd eli hevo nu, 
' they put them in a pan to " sweat ", and then they press them and 
make a salve with them ' ; dsmma eli ?x kalon an du:ad ruan y ' here's 
the delight of your heart coming now ', i.e. tea ; mi ro: i ti eli I 



122 eor enu 

(ironically, to crying child), ' I'll make it better ! ' ; tori mhen a rhoid i 
mi eli (prov. exp.), ' to do me an irreparable injury and then offer a 
slight atonement' ; eli r indja, ' zinc ointment ' (I.W.). 

elor, s.m., elor, D., * bier '. 

elu, s.m., elw, D., l gain, profit ' : hurax gna:nu elu go da: i x*\ 
' perhaps they will bring in a good deal of profit for you ' ; o bo:b 
gwaiB da:u elu (prov.), ( every work brings gain '. See also helu. 

elvan, s., elfen, D. (i) ' element ' : may o m i elvan, ' he is in his 
element'. (2) < natural inclination, tendency'; ma na riu elvan 
ri'o:d 9no vo i bu:yn (O.H.), 'he has a kind of natural tendency to 
steal' (= asgari); magy elvan 9no vo, 'to excite a tendency in 
him'. 

ela, adv., fe allai, ' perhaps ' [gafy\. 

embyd, adj., enbyd, D., ' periculosus ' ; embyd, B.C. 51. 25, 
' dangerous ' ; * enormous ' ; also ' extremely, excessively ' : basun i n 
leikjo n embyd, 1 1 should like extremely '. 

embadys, adv., enbydus, W.S. [Dangerouse], ' extremely, exces- 
sively ' : r 0:8 o n val\ emfadys, ' he was excessively proud '. 

enaid, s.m., pi. eneidja, enaid, D., ' soul ' : u6i hi nerB enaid a 
xorf, l at it might and main '. 

enfyn, s.m., enllyn, D., ' anything eaten with bread, as butter, 
meat, cheese, etc. ' : / o:ys gin i dim enjyn, ' I have nothing to eat but 
dry bread '. 

ennil, znnil, v., ennill, W.B. col. 167. 5; ynnill, D. ; M.LI. i. 
193- i, 3> 4; W.L1. ii. 64, 65, 67, 70. Fut. nila. Pret. 
mil's. Imperative nila ; nilux, ' to gain, win, earn ' ; enil ser\, ' to 
win affection ' ; wa:yB i \i geinjog 'sbarju\i na Keinjog 'niluxi, ' a 
penny saved is a penny gained ' ; os na -ventru\i be6 'niluxi dim, 
1 nothing venture, nothing have ' ; rvo: nilod, l he won ' ; may 
r mo:r dn mni\ ar 3 ti:r^ ( the sea is encroaching ' ; of a watch : 
2nnil ta koli ma hi ?, ' does it gain or lose ? ' 

ennil, s., pi. nil/on, ynnill, D., ' gain ' : wedi gwastrafy i ni}fon, 
1 having squandered his savings '. 

, s., entrych, D., ' the highest point of the heavens ', esp. 
9r awyr. may r deryn wedi mynd i r entryx (O.H.), 'the 
bird is soaring up to the sky ' ; dy:n wedi kal i xufy gin bmdur i r 
entryx i V9ny (O.H.), ' a man blown up by gunpowder '. (Frequently 
used by O.H.) 

enu, henu (eno), s.m., pi. enwa, enw, henw, D., s.v. ' nomen '. 
(i) ' name ' ; be di d enu di ?, ' what is your name ? ' ; sy daxi n 
sun/o x enu ?> ' how do you pronounce your name ? ' ; / oy:s dim enu 



envy s erbyn 123 

arm hi, ' it has no name ' ; tori enu, ' to sign one's name ' ; n eno r 
ta:d/, n eno r laid (annul) /, exclamation of surprise. (2) 'reputa- 
tion (good or bad) ' : 9y kayl yr enu o vo:d . . ., ' having the 
reputation of being . . .'. 

envys, envysg, henvysg, s.f., enfys, D., Passim Enfysg, ' rainbow '. 

enwad, s., pi. enwada, en wad, O.P., 'sect': by:d rh'e'i n dadla m 
boyB am i henwada, l some people dispute hotly about their religious 
beliefs '. 

enwi, v., enwi. D. Imperative PI. 2. enwu\ (O.H.). Pret. Pass. 
ennuyd, ' to name '. 

enwog, adj., enwog, D. (i) 'conceited, vain'. (2) * famous '. 

enwyn, adj., enwyn, D., only in lay 6 enwyn, ' buttermilk '. 

eyan, s.f., eingion and einion, D. ; eingon, W.B., col. 490. 9, 
' anvil ' : mor beygalad ag cyan go:, l as hard-headed (i.e. obstinate) 
as an anvil ' ; Kiy glettad ag eyan, ' as hard as an anvil '. 

eylyn, s.m., pi. eybnjon, englyn, D., s.v. epigramma ' ; ' englyn '. 

eplas \heplas\. 

eplesy, v., eplesu, heplesu, * to ferment '. 

er, prep., er, D. (i) ' since ' : er neiQjur, ' since last night '; er 
pen may hi wedi gl'eyo, ' since it was light ' ; er s, ar s, as, er 
ys, ' for (of past time), since, ago ' : er s meitin, ' since some 
little time ', ' some little time ago ' ; er s talum, ' since a good 
time ', ' a good time ago ' ; er s talum jaun, * since a long time ', 
' a long time ago ' ; e r s fro:, ' lately, for some time ' ; er s tro: by:d, 
f a very long time ago, since a very long time ' ; er s amsar maiQ, 
1 for, since a long time ' ; vy:o vo dim ymma er s talum jaun , ' he has 
not been here for a long time ' ; may o 9mma er s dsrnodja, ( he has 
been here for days ' ; mi welis i o er s tair blmab, ' I saw him three 
years ago '. (2) ' in spite of ' : er i hoi grvqyB t ydt o dim m 
happy s T so ' although ' : er ibo n'e'yt hnny neiB o dim luy&o, 
' although he did that, he will not succeed '. (3) with muyn, ' for 
the sake of, in order to ' : er mu.yn po:b pe:6 gneu\ hynny, ' do that 
by all means ' ; er muyn po:b pe:B peidjux a gneyt hmny, ' don't do 
that, whatever you do ' ; m^mryn o 8u:r poyB er muyn ido vo gayl 
fodi, ' a drop Of hot water to make it melt '. 

erbyn, prep., erbyn, D. (i) ' against, in opposition to* (preceded 
by m), l%i:o kaylrubaB 9n y\ (h}erbyn xi, or i\ (h)erbyn, * to try and 
rake up something against you ' ; farad m i erbyn, ' to speak 
against him ' ; da\i n erbyn mynd ?, ' do you object to go ? ' (2) 
' against, implying contact with ' (preceded by m) : faro i ben m 
erbyn 9 parad, ' to strike one's head against the wall ' (usually 
expressed by m y parad) ; sevy[ M erbyn 9 wal, ' to lean against the 
wall '. (3) ' against, for, as a provision for ' ( = argwar) ; rhostjo 



I2 4 ergid eryr 

gu.yd erbyn dolig, ' to roast a goose for Christmas ' ; vzda i y gorvod 
kzmmyd pe6 heno erbyn vory, ' I am obliged to take some to-night 
for to-morrow morning ' ; as a conjunction : erbyn da:u hi etto, 
* for when she comes again '. (4) ' for, to wait for ' : kodi saxad ar 
ben klaub erbyn i drol baf'o, ' to put a sack on the top of a wall to 
wait for a cart to pass (" against" the passing of a cart) '. (5) * by, 
by the time ' : mi do: i n o:l erbyn Kinjo, ' I shall be back by dinner- 
time ' ; erbyn hyn, ' by this ' ; erbyn hmny, ' by that time ' ; erbyn 
du:ad m i hod, ' by the time she was back ' ; used as a conjunction ; 
erbyn -briuxi garlra, 'by the time you are home'. (6) 'from, to' 
(a resisting object) : hoy j an erbyn traust, ' to hang to a beam ' 
(speaking of a human being). (7) ' by ' (preceded by 2n) : mi tmna 
i di: m erbyn d? gly:st ti, ' I'll pull you by the ear ' ; itonny hi n erbyn 
gwadl if en, ' to pull her by the hair of her head '. 

ergid, s.f., pi. ergtdjon, ergyd, D. (i) 'a blow'. (2) ' a blast', 
e.g. in a quarry. (3) ' shot ', such as is used in a gun. (4) ' shot ' 
(the sound). 

erroyd, wi'oyd, ri-oyd, adv., erioed, D.; yrioed, W.LI. Ixxii. 26 ; 
'riod, B.C. 66. 31. (i) ' in the course of one's existence ' ; mi ge:s 
i lawar tro\va eri'oyd (O.H.), ' I have had many a soaking in my 
life '. (2) * ever ' (referring to past time) : welis i eri'oyd dy:n ba:\ 
mor 'crnivir avo, l l never saw such a disagreeable man ' ; 9 Ki:g 
gora glu:is i eri'o:d, ' the best meat I ever tasted ' ; vy:om i ri'o:d m 
9 ywely am Surnod, ' I never spent a day in bed ' ; welis i rotfun 
(= erioed ifasiwn) be:& (erroyd)!, 'I never saw such a thing!' 
(3) * always ', i.e. since his birth, since its beginning, etc. ; baxgan 
avjaxjaun qy:8 o eri'oyd, ' he was always a sickly youth '. 

erxuyn ; exuyn (W.H.), pi. erxwinjon, s.f., erchwyn and erchwynn, 
D., ' side of a bed (where one gets out) ' : le: da\i y hsgy ? uQ 3 
par ad ta ud 3r erxuyn /* 

erxyl, adj., erchyll, D., ' terrible ' : turu erxyl; tro: erxyl, { an 
abominable, shameful action '. 

ernas, s.f., ernes, D., * earnest-money ' : su:lt o ernas. 

er6yl, s., erthyl, D., ' abortion '. 

ervyn, v., erfyn, D., ' to entreat ' : ervyn arno vo (i). 

enyn [arva]. 

eru, s.f., erw, D., 'acre' (I.W.). O.H. considers the word 
obsolete. Common in place-names, e. g. eru vair (in Bangor), eru 
gron, eru gregog (in Llanfairfechan). 

eryr, s.m., pi. erwod, eryr, D. (i) 'eagle'. (2) 'shingles' 
(disease). [Certain people were supposed to be able to cure it by 
blowing on it. To acquire the power they were supposed to eat 
the flesh of eagles, or it was supposed that their ancestors had 
done so.] 



erm tslyn 125 

enri, s.pl., eryri, D., ' shingles', see above (2). 

esid, s.f., pi. sgidja, esgid, D., ' shoe, boot ' : pa:r o s&idja, ' a 
pair of boots ' ; tguyn esgid, ' toe of a boot ' ; Kcvn esid, * uppers ' ; 
kara es&id, * boot-lace ' ; gwaltas cs&id, ' shoe-welts ' ; rhmix 9\ 
sgidja am 9\ tgayd, ' put your boots on ' ; hnny sgidja, ' to take off 
boots ' ; [nay sgidja, ' to clean boots ' ; gloivi sgid/a, * to polish 
boots ' ; hiro sgidja a saim, ' to grease boots ' ; kay, dafod s&idja, 
1 to lace, unlace boots ' ; klem o dan csgid, l a patch underneath a 
shoe ' ; may r es&id ma n do:st ar 3 ghorn, ' this shoe hurts my corn ' 
may Kevn 9r esgidma 9m brivo nrhoyd i\ ' this boot hurts my instep ' 
na i if'o kobljo tippin ar 9 s&idja, * I must mend my shoes a bit ' 
sodli a gwadny sgidja, ' to sole and heel boots ' ; / 9di r s&idja ma 
dim 9n dal du:r, 'these boots let in water '= may r s&idja ma 9y 
koU du:r ; pa: s&idja da\t am wisgo fo'ibju /, ' which boots are you 
going to wear to-day ? ' ; du i y gwisgo V9 sfeidja ar 9r o\ra, ' I wear 
out my boots on the sides ' ; d eu\i byQ i v? sgidja i:, ' you will never 
get into my shoes ' ; may o n land i s^idja, ' he is a pompous man '. 

esgis, s.m., pi. es^isodjon^ esif'on, sgifa, esgus, and esgusod, D., 
' excuse ' : hel esgis, ' to find an excuse '. 

esgisodi, v., esgusodi, D., ' to excuse ' : neu\i v esgisodi iV, ' will 
you excuse me ? ' 

esgob, s.m., pi. esgobjon, esgob, D., ' bishop '. 
esgor, v., esgor, D., 'to bring forth '. 

esi0, s., ' wattle made of hazel to strengthen the eaves and the top of 
the thatch : gwi:al 9m piety tru: r sbaratf (O.H.). D. has aseth, 
' scolops ' ; ' a sharp pointed spar, to fasten thatch ' (pi. esyth), 
O.P. Cf. however D.G. cxl. 31, * Da nithiodd (i.e. y gwynt) dy do 
neithwyr ! Hagr y tores dy essyth/ 

esmuy6, adj., comp. smuyBax, esmwyth, D. (i) ' soft, pleasant ': 
esmuyB dan droyd (J.J.), ' soft for walking on, pleasant under foot ' ; 
le: esmuyB i gerdad, e.g. mznyd fyvn, gwastad (O.H.) also geirja 
esmuyB. (2) * comfortable ', e.g. of a garment. (3) easy in mind ' : 
un i Sim syt 9 may o n esmuyB 9n i gro.yn, ' I don't know how he can 
be at ease in his mind ' ; esmuyB gu:sg, pottas maip (prov.), ' tranquil 
sleep, turnip pottage', i.e. 'it is better to be contented with little 
than to live luxuriously on ill-gotten gains'. [The origin of the 
phrase (so the story goes) was as follows : Two families, equally 
poor, lived in neighbouring cottages, but whereas one lived on the 
poorest fare, the other had plentiful supplies of mutton. The reason 
was at length made clear when the head of the latter family was 
hanged for sheep-stealing.] (4) ' easy ' (of some one who has 
been in pain). (5) ' mild ' (of the weather). 

estron, s.m., pi. stronjaid, estron, D., ' stranger '. 

estyn, 9styn, v., estyn, D., but ystyn s.v. ' porrigo ' ; ystynn R.B. 



126 esys ewin 

229.17. Fut. stmna. Pret. stmnis. Imperative estyn, zstyn, stmna ; 
stmnux- (i) 'to stretch out' : estyn i go:ys, 'to stretch out one's 
leg ' ; fig. ' to die ', " to kick the bucket ". (2) 'to reach, to get ' : 
eslyn glo:, ' to get coal ' ; stmnux lu:y in U: hon, ' get a spoon instead 
of this'. 

esys, ey/os, adv., eisoes, D. ; eusys, D.F. [6] 26 ; B.C. 24. 5, 
25. 29, 28. 23; P.G.G. 328. 22, 'already': may o ey/os wedi 
darvod, ' he has finished already '. 

etto, adv., etto, D. (i) ' again ' : brzfux amma etto, ' come and see 
us again soon ' ; mi da:u o 9 pnaun ma etto, ' he will come again 
this afternoon ' ; na: iroid rheini an i kola etto ar o:lixi or/an, ' I'll 
put these back again when you've finished'; vefy etto, 'ditto'. 
(2) ' yet, still ' : dary mi dim gneyd mistar ami hi etto, ' I have not 
mastered it yet ' ; mi do: i hy:d atto vo etto, ' I shall find him yet ' ; 
may na dippin o forb etto, 'it is some way still'. Often used like 
French ' encore ' where English usage requires ' another ' or ' more ' 
as : "gzmmuxi ' gupanad etto ?, ' will you have another cup ? ' ; y:n bur 
etto if'o i glirjo, ' one more table to be cleared'. (3) ' another time ' 
(Anglo-Welsh ' again ') : mi beyda i 'uQaxi etto, ' I'll tell you another 
time '. 

eur, s., Mid.W. efwr (cf. examples in notes to B.B.C. p. 136), 
1 cow parsnip ' (Heracleum sphondylium). 

eval, s.f., \>\. gzveiljad, gefail, D., 'smithy'. 

eval, s.f., pi. gmeiljad, gefail, D., ' tongs ', also eval dam, for the 
sake of distinction ; eval bsdola (bsdolt J.J.), ' pincers ' ; eval gnay, 
' nut-crackers ' ; eval/ugur, sugar-tongs ' ; eval gu:n, ' dog-tongs ' 
(used in Llanfairfechan church in the time of the grandfather of the 
present sexton, O.H.) ; ksmala r eval, ' the joints of the tongs ' 
(O.K.) ; ko.ys r eval, ' leg of the tongs '. 

eval, s.m.f. pi. gro'&ljad, gefell, D., Non Gefaill vt aliis placet. 
Est enim pi. Gefelltaid. ' twin ' : day (du:y) eval adynu, ' they are 
twins ' ; day o:yn eval, ' twin lambs '. 

eveyil, s.f., efengyl, D., ' gospel ' : Kin wirad a r eveyyl. 

evlyn, s. : dim evlyn o wynt, ' not a breath of air ' (O.H. fre- 
quently). 

evra, s.pl., efrau, D., s.v. ' zizania ' ; O.F. evraie, ' couch-grass ' 
(Triticum). 

ewa, ewa, O.P., a polite term used in addressing old men. Cf. 
boba. Practically obsolete. 

ewax, s., ewach, O.P., ' a small wizened person ' : he:n ewax sa:l, 
he:n ewax o he:n 8y:n. 

ewas, fern, of ewa (O.H.). 

ewin, s.f., pi. wtna(d), gwtna($), ewin, D., c nail ' (of the hand or 



ewyn ey/os 



127 



foot) ; ' claw ' (e. g. of a cat) ; ' hoof ' (of a cow) : nerB ewin ag 
esgyrn, ' tooth and nail ' ; nerd 9 de:y ewin, ' hard work ' ; e.g. be sy 
gmo vo at vyu ? dim ond nerd P de:y ewin ; x*-'s * Mm Kimmint a 
tru:x v ewin gmo vo, xw * Mm Kimmint a sy dan v ewin, ' I could 
get nothing out of him ' ; heb bim dan i ewin, ' without a penny ' ; 
rhaid tmny r gwinab o r ble:u, ' one must set to in earnest ' ; gwina 
r ga:B, ' the crooked yellow stonecrop ' (Sedum reflexum) ; &ewin 
moxyn, a kind of shell said to be fairly common in the district, but 
the specimen shown appeared to be a foreign species (Crepidula 
unguiformis) ; gwina garlag, ' cloves of garlic '. Cf. /ewin. 

ewyn, s., ewyn, D., ' foam ', seldom used =./ro6. 
ewyrB, s.m., pi. ewrirod, ewythr, D., ' uncle '. 

eylod, s.f., pi. loda, aelod, D., * limb, member ' : du i wedi ka:yl 
annuyd tru: 9 loda i gi:d, ' I have got cold in all my limbs ' ; mynd 
ar i bedar eylod, ' to go on all fours '. In the sense of ' a 
member of a community ', eylod may be either gender. 

eyluyd, s.f., pi. Pyluydyb, aelwyd, D., ' hearth ' : may hi ar ?r 
eyluyd ar hy:d 9 dy:8, ' she (the cat) is on the hearth all day ' ; haub 
kmna ta:n ar he:n eyluyd (prov.), ' it is easy to light a fire on an old 
hearth ', i. e. ' an old friendship easily returns '. 

eyog, adj., euog, D., l guilty' : followed by the prep. o. 

eyrax, s.m., pi. rjaxod, eurych, D. (i) * tinker ' : amlab vel rjaxod, 
vel day eyrax> ' to fight like tinkers ' ; fry:o vel rja\od lanar\rnu& 
(O.H), ' to quarrel like the tinkers of Llanerchymedd ' ; as term of 
reproach : he:n eyrax (O.H.). (2) 'emasculator ' = kweirjur. 

eyras, s.f., pi. eyresa, acres, C.C.M. 170. 7 ; 214. 6; ' heiress'. 

eyron, s.pl., in bgaid r eyron, ' cranberries ' (Vaccinium 
Oxycoccos) ; cf. llygad eirian, D., and aeron, ' fruit '. 

eyru, s.m., pi. ruyon, aerwy, R. (i) ' a kind of chain attached to 
a piece of wood for fastening up cattle '. (2) ' a cord for fastening 
panniers to a pack-saddle : baxy ? Kewyl ar gyrn t strodyr hevo 
eyru (J.J.). 

eyfos [esys]. 



fa:, s.pl., sing, fey an, f. ffa, D., ' beans ' : rhe:s o fa:, ' a row of 
beans ' ; dy:o fa:, ' to shell beans ' ; fa: korsyb, ' marsh trefoil ' 
(Menyanthes trifoliata), called ' bog-bean ' in parts of England. 

fadin, adj., ? Eng. fading (originally name of a dance, see N.E.D.) : 
tro: fadin, ' a mean turn, a shabby trick ' ; wedi gneyd 3 tro: muya 
fadin welsoxi ri'o:d (O.H.) ; y:n go fadin zdi o, 'he is a poor sort 
of creature '. 

faga (J.J., O.H.), s.pl., sing, fagan (O.H.), 'old worn-out 
boots ' : riu hem faga o sgidja ; esgid wedi mynd an fagan ; mi 
drawis i r he:n fagan am 9 nrho.yd all O.H. Cf.fagoda,faxla, 
flaxod. 

fagal, s.m., \>\. fagla, ffagl, D., * faggot ' of straw, gorse, bracken, 
heather, etc., but not wood (O.H.) : he:n fagal gwy:U ddi o, ' he is 
a very hasty, short-tempered man '. 

fagjo, v. (i) ' to be tired, " fagged " ' : wedifagjo n la:n (O.H.). 
(2) ' to trample down', e.g. young shoots in a field or garden : 
fagjo o dan dra:yd (J.J., O.H.). (3) ' to walk in a slovenly manner, 
treading down the heels ' (J.J.). 

fagly, v., ffaglu, D., 'to flare up ' : ma: r glo: n fagly n aru ; 
n'e'i'6 glo: sa:l ^tm fagly, a r lal in fagly gormod (O.H.). 

fagoda, s.pl., ' old worn-out boots ' (I.W.). 

fagud, s., term of reproach : r he:nfagud applied especially to 
children (O.H.). 

fair, s.f., pl.feirja, fair, W.S. (i) 'fair': fair vaygor hannar 
ha: ; fair lambad, i.e. Llanbedr y Cennin ; fair pen tsmmor, ' fair at 
the end of the season when farm-servants are hired* (Nov. 13); 
fair gwlot, ' hiring fair ' ; fair ve:l, ' honey fair ' a fair at Conway 
so called ; fair okfun, ' auction ' ; may hi wedi bo:d an fair hevo vi 
h'e'ibju, 'I have been very busy to-day'. (2) 'exchange': fair 
bemban, ' a perfect exchange '. (3) ' negotiation as to terms, 
bargaining ' : guBjo 9 fair m i bla:yn rhuy 3 day. 

fai&, s.f., pLfertja, ffaith, O.P., 'fact'. 

faktri, s.f., \A.fakfris, ' factory' : faktris i n'e'yd dava, 'woollen 
yarn factories '. 

faxla, s.pl., ' old worn-out boots ' (E.J., J. J.). 



falsfaf'un J2 g 

fats, adj., pi. fetlfon, ffals, S.G. 18. 19; D. (i) < given to 
flattery ' : dy:nfals, * flatterer, toady '. (2) ' treacherous ' : fals vet 
9 ga:B. 

falstar, s.m., falster, W.S. [Falsenesse] ; ffalsder, B.C. 28. 7; 
' treachery ; flattery '. 

fahtra, s.m. fahtar^ ' treachery ; flattery '. 

falf'o, v., to flatter ' ; "to suck up ". 

falfur, s.m., ffalswr, D.G. ccxxvi. 31, ' flatterer, toady'. 

fansi, s.m., ffansi, M.LI. ii. 24. 3 ; P.G.G. 265. 23 ; phansi, 
B.C. 6. 9 ; ' fancy ' : peOa fansi, ' fancy articles ' ; swOjo meun 
fansi, ' to fall in love '. 

fan-si:o> v., phansio, Ecclus. xxxiv. 5, ' to fancy '. 

fardjal, s., pl/ard/a/s, fardial, W.S. [A fardell] : r he:n fardjal t ', 
term of reproach applied to an old man; peidju\ fardjal farad, 
* do not talk nonsense ' ; riu he:n fardjal o &erbad, ' a slouching 
gait ' O.H. 

fargod, s.m., ffargod, T.N. 405. 6 ; O.P. [a big paunch] : he:n 
fargod o he:n dy:n, r ym hy:d a r y:n le:d (O.H.). 

farjar, s.m., Eng. farrier, ' veterinary surgeon '. 

farm, s.f., pi. /erniyd, ferm, W.S. [A ferme], ' farm ' : ty:farm, 
' farmhouse '. 

farmjo, v., ' to farm '. 

farmur, s.m., pl.farmurs, fermwr, W.S. [A fermour] ; flarmwr, 
T.N. 12. n, 'farmer'. 

faro, s.m., Pharaoh : he:nfaro o 8y:n, ' a cruel man ' (W.H.). 

farwel, farwel, s., ffarwel, M.LI. i. 3. 11, 'farewell, good-bye': 
na i deyd farwel i \i ru:an (O.K.), ' I will say good-bye to you 
now ' ; wedi kany farwel i r by:d (W.H.), ' having bid farewell to 
the world ' ; kany farwel (O.H.) ; farwel ha:, ' Michaelmas daisy '. 

farweljo, v., ' to say good-bye ' : nosonfarweljo (O.H.), ' a " send- 
off"', 'an evening entertainment to celebrate some one's de- 
parture '. 

fasno, v., ' to fasten '. 

fast, adj., ffast, C.C. 68. 26, 'fast, quick': berwi nfastz\so 
used of the wind, clocks, etc. 

fafun, s.m., pi. fafma, ffasiwn, C.L.C. ii. 35. 17; ffassiwn, 
C.C.M. 105. 23. (i) 'fashion': gra:t he :n fafun, 'an old- 
fashioned grate '. (2) = pa fTasiwn?, ' what kind ? ' : fafun sta:t 
o.y8 arno vo ?, ' in what kind of state was he ? ' ; fafun y:n idi o ?, 
' what kind of one is it ? ' ; faf'un liu ?, ' what colour ? ' (3) 
= 3 va:Q, ' such ' : o:yb fafun gre:d gano vo m t da:d, ' he had 

1432 K 



1 30 fafmol feirjo 

such trust in his father'; welts i rotfun (erioed ffasiwn) be:6, 
' I never saw such a thing '. 

fafmol, adj., ' fashionable '. 

fat, s.f., flfat, D., ' slap '. 

fatjad, s., ' a slap ' : mi rois ifatjad hevo r la:u agorad. 

fatjan, v., cf. ffattio, C.C.M. 94. 30 ; ' to strike softly ' : fatjan 
darny = dim zn darny njaun. 

fat/, s., ' an unfair advantage ' : tendjux t'8o vo gadfatf-arnoxi, 
1 take care he does not get an opportunity for revenge ', equivalent 
to ' he is only biding his time '. 

fattan, s.f., dim. rtfat, ' a light^slap ' : rois i riufatian 180 vo. 

favar, s.f., pi. favra, favwr, L.G.C. p. 24. 14; fafyr, W.S. ; 
ffafor, D.; ffafr, M.LI. i. 99. 19; B.C. 15. 17; D.P.O. 59. 8; 
flfafer, B.C. 85. 14; 'favour': mynd i favar ru:in, 'to get into 
some one's favour '. 

favrjaQ, s., ffafriaeth, ' favouritism '. 

favrjo, v., fafrio, W.S. ; ffafrio, D., s.v. ' faueo ' ; ' to favour '. 
favrjol, adj., ffafriol, ' favourable '. 

fazvyd, s.pl., ffawydd, sing, ffawydden, P., ' fagus ' ; ' fir-trees ; 
deal ' : fawyb ko:x, gwyn, melyn. 

fedog, s.f., pi. fedoga, arffedog, D., ' apron '. (Rarely used = 
barklod) 

fedogad, s.f., arifedogaid, S.E., ' apronful '. Q.fedogad 2 geruras, 
in Bwlch y Ddeufaen, Llanfairfechan. 

feg, s., Eng. fog, feg, ' hay which has been left to wither as it 
stands ' ; also ' grass which grows out of cow-dung, which the 
cattle will not eat '. 

fet, interj., ffei, D.,fei honot/, ' fie upon you !, for shame ! ' 
fern, v., Eng. defy, infeia i o, ' I'll warrant '. 
fell, s.f., 'file'. 

fe'ind, adj., comp. feindjax, ffein, C.C. 483. 2 ; ffeindiach, T.N. 
1 1 8. 7. Eng. fine with epenthetic *d' ; cf. vend-=. fen (men) ; also 
perhaps influenced by Eng. ' kind '. (i) ' fine ', e. g. of the weather 
= bran). (2) ' kind ', dy:nfeind (u6) ; pngeOur feind, a euphemism 
for a bad preacher. 

feindruyb, s.m., ' kindness '. 

feinjo ; finjo (O.H.), v., ' to fine '. 

fe'inijo, v., fayntio, W.S. ; ffeintio, M.LI. i. 247. 15, ' to faint'. 

feirjo, v., ffeirio, W.LI., liii. 77, 'to exchange, barter' : mi feiris 
o hevo vo } ' I exchanged it with him ' ; -leikjaxi feirjo 9 du.y dorQ ma ?, 



131 

' would you like to exchange these two loaves ? ' ; feirjo hmdeiOas 
hevo pobol, ' to mix in society '. 



/el, adj., ffel, D., * sharp ' (of a child) = parodi appad, i farad ; 
witti, (O.H.). [' Fell ' has a similar sense in Scotland.] 

fenast, s.f., pl/nestri, ffenestr, D., ' window ' : may r fenast ty 
klepjan (klekjan), ' the window is rattling ' ; edrax tru: r fenast, * to 
look out of the window ';; r o:d hi m 9 fenast, ' she was at the 
window, looking out of the window ' ; fivl 9 fenast, ' window-sill '. 

fendjo, v., ffeindio, T.N. 122. 12. Cf. Eng. fende (i5th cent.), 
' to find ' : Imp. fendjun, sometimes used with preterite meaning. 

fe:r, s.f., pl.fera ; feri (O.H.), ffer, D., ' ankle-bone ' : meun du:r 
at v9/eri. 
ferins,feris, s.pl., Eng. fairings, ' sweets ' : in phrase du:ad aferis 

rfair, ' to bring back sweets from the fair '. 

fertyd, adj., fferllyd, D., s.v. ' algidus ' ; ' benumbed '. 

fery, v., iferru, D., ' to congeal, become cold ' : may i wa:yd o wedi 
fery ; dy:n wedi f cry i varwolaB, ( a man who has died from cold '. 

feryn, s.m., p\.ferma, offer, sing. ofFeryn, D., ' tool, implement ' ; 
' instrument ', e. g. organ, harmonium ; cf. arva (sing, ervyri), &:r, 
&e:r (sing. Keryri). 

fettys, adj., fetus W.S. [Fayctpuse] ; fFetys R. [subtil] ; Mid. Eng. 
featous ; fetis [pretty, well made] ; O.F. fetis, feitis, faictis, ' pert, 
ready with an answer ' : dymfettys = dy:n farp i appad (O.H.). 

fi:dt, adj., ffiaidd, D. (i) 'abominable': drewi n Ji:ad. (2) 
* contemptuous ' : fi:a o lartf, * contemptuously proud ' ; dr3\o& m 
Ji:ad arna i, ' he looked contemptuously at me '. 

f:d, s., Eng. ' feed ' : rhoi fi:d i r Kefyl = lt':0. 

fidil, s.f., fidyl, W.S. ; ffidil, B.C. 42. 18, 'fiddle ' : rhoifidilmto:, 
' to give up as a bad job, to throw up the sponge ' : wa:yQ i x* roi 
fidil m to: r y:n tippin, ' you might just as well give it up '. 

fidjo, v., ' to feed, supply ' : r 0:8 o nfidjo lanvar ag abar hevoglo:, 

1 he used to supply Llanfairfechan and Aber with coal '. 

fidlar, s.m., ffidler, B.C. 42. 16, 'fiddler'. 

fidljo, v., ' to play the fiddle '. 

fi'eityo, v., ffieiddio, D., 'to be disgusted with ' : fi'eibjo v* hynan. 

filot, s., filet W.S. [A fyllet], ffiled, W.LI. Ixiv. 64, in filot fair 
( = ? Fair), ' variegated grass '. 

'filfi'falfax ( W.H.) ; filfiwfalfo (O.K.), s.m., ' a toady '. 

filt,fild, in/0:////, ' Paisley shawl ' (I.W.). 

fil'fal, adj., ' finicking ' : Kerad m 'fil'fal, ' to walk with mincing 
steps, to walk in a finicking way ' (W.H.). 

K 2 



132 filjan flat 

filjan, v., ' to bustle about ' (I. W.) : an filjan rhedag, an filjan ar 
hy:dafor. CLfy:lt. 

finihadan, finjadyn, s., Eng. finnan-haddie, 'haddock'. 
finjo [feinjo]. 
fiygl, s.f., 'unfair dealing* (I.W.) : he:n fiygl wirjon (J.J.). 

fiyglo, fiygljo, v., ' to deal unfairly ' (J J.) ; ' to shilly-shally ' : 
fiyglo hevo da waiQ ; be u:ti n fiygljo vel naP (O.H.) 

fistjo, v., ffustyaw, L.A. 39. 22; fustio, W.S. [Thresshe] ; 
ffusto, D., ' to strike, thrash ' : mi fistja i di mi darna i di. 

fistjon, s., fustion, W.S., ' fustian '. 

//, adj., comp.Jitjax, ffitt, C.L.C. ii. 38. 22, ' fit ' : os by: a derwyb m 
fit, ' if the weather is fit ' ; / adi hi dim an fit i \i vynd, ' it is not fit 
for you to go '. 

fit, s.f., \>\.fitja, 'fit ' : mige'i'6 o fit, ' he will have a fit '. 

fitjo, v., < to fit '. 

flag, s.f., ^\.flagja, 'flag' (banner). 

flakjo, v., ' to flag ' : fldkjo r laur. 

flaks, s.pl., sing. flaksan, f., 'flag-stones'. 

flaks, s.pl., sing, flaksan, f., Eng. (Dial.) flag, a form of flake 
[Sc., Nhb., Yks.], 'soot'. 

flaxjad, s.m., pi. flaxjada, fBachiad, S.E., s.v. ' flash ' ; ' flash ' : 
flaxjad o veltan, ' a flash of lightning ' ; mynd ar flaxjad, ' to go 
like a flash \ 

flaxjo, v., fflachio, S.E., s.v. ' flash ' ; ' to flash ' : me:lt anflaxjo ; 
flaxjo mynd, ' to go like a flash '. 

flaxod, s.pl., cf. ffollach, D., 'cothurnus, calceamentum, pero', 
ffallach, s.v. 'sandalium', ffellych, s.v. 'baxeae'; 'old worn-out boots'. 

flam, s.f., pi. flamja, fflam, W.B., col. 168. 36; D., 'flame': 
wedi mynd vel flam {flamjd), ' gone like a flash '. 

flamgox, adj., fflamgoch, W.B., col. 475. 36, 'fiery red'. 

flamjo, v., fflamio, D., ' to flame ' ; flamjo mynd, ' to go like a 
flash ' ; sojflamjo n i bleyna ; r o.y8 hgod maur an flamjo o gumpas ; 
r o.yd a ga:B wedi mynd ay ganbeirjog, ag an flamjo tru: r ty:. 

flam]yd, adj., fflamllyd, Psalm civ. 4, 'flaming, apt to burn 
quickly ' : glo: flamjyd', also of persons ' apt to fly into a passion '. 

flat, s.m., T$\.flatja, ' an iron ' (kitchen utensil). 

flat, adj. (i) 'flat'; as subst. : rhoid rubad ar (m} i flat, 'to 
lay something flat ' = ar i vol. (2)' dull, sultry, close, relaxing ' : 
le: flat, 'a dull place'; t0wy flat, 'close, sultry weather'. (3) 
'low-spirited' : teimlo n flat jaun. 



flatfofo:l 133 

flatfo, v., cf. Eng. (Dial.) flosh [to splash, dabble, plunge about 
in bathing, to agitate or splash water] and flash [a pool, sheet of 
water, etc.], O.F. flache, ' to splash ' : paid a flatfo d* dray dm 3 du:r, 
flatfo uB gerdad, flatfo Kerbad. 

flat/ur, s.m., ' splasher ' : flatfur o gertur. 

flegan, s.f., pi. flegennod, iar flegain, S.E., s.v. * brood ', a dis- 
paraging term applied especially to fowls : he:n flegan o hem ja:r, 
* a dilapidated-looking hen, with its feathers turned the wrong way ' ; 
also applied to cows (O.H.). said of an untidy woman: he:n 
flegan = dmas vle:r m i gwi:sg a i gwaiQ. 

fleio,fli:o, v., 'to fly'. 

flemp, adj., in exp. tro: flemp, 'a shabby trick, a mean turn', e.g. 
a broken promise: mina:Q hun a hun dro: flemp hevo mi. A stronger 
term than tro: gwayl, tro: sa:l (W.H. ; O.H.). 

flempan, s., in exp. mi rois i flempan rto vo (i.e. hevo nhavod), 
1 1 made him hold his tongue ' (O.H.). 

fliy, s., rhoidfliy ido vo, ' to fling it '. 

flippan, s.f. (i) 'a piece cut off': flippan o garag = sgolpyn. 
(2) ' anything worthless ' : flippan o bavad, o dmas (O.H.). 

flippan, adj., Eng. flippant : mynd yn flippan = deyd gair dru:g 
heb if'o (O.H.). 

flodjat^ flodjart) s., ' flood-gate '. 
flog/o, flokjo, v., ' to flock, crowd up '. 

flonf, adj., ' cheerful, spirited ' (of a sick person) : may o n edrax 
m o flonf ; may o n reit flonf ru: an. 

flonfo, v., ' to become cheerful and spirited ' (of a sick person). 
flu:ar, s., pi. flu:ars, ' flower ' = blodyn : potflu:ars, ' flower-pot '. 

fluf, ?adj.; as subst. : troy 3n i fluf, 'to grow close together' 
(O.K.). 

fly:t, s., ' fleet ' : fly:t o loya. 

flyux, s. ? rBuwch, D., ' coma, suggestus comae ' : myndvel flyu\, 
1 to go like a flash '. 

fodrum,fotrum, s.f. Eng. (Dial.) fodderum, Yks., Lan., Der., Lin., 
' an open passage along the heads of stalls from where the cattle are 
supplied with fodder '. 

foglyd, adj., ffoglud, T.N. 67. 14, 'bloated': going foglyd arno vo. 

foi, v., ffbi, Gen. xvi. 8. Fut. S. 3. fy:,foiQ. Fret. S. 3. /o:0. 
Imperative fo:, ' to flee ' : foi am i hoydal, l to flee for his life ' ; 
gwiltjo ru:in ag wedynfoi i furb, ' to anger some one and then run 
away ' ; po:b po:yn wedi/oi, ' all pain having disappeared '. 

:/, adj., foi, W.B., col. 125. 2; flol, D., 'foolish'. 



134 folad fordjo 

folad, s., ffoledd, D., ' folly '. 
folt, v., ffoli, O.P., ' to befool ' : foli mermaid, 
foh'nab, s., ffolineb, D., s.v. ' stultitia ' ; ' foolishness '. 
folog, s.f., ffblog, Prov. xiv. i, 'a foolish woman*. 

folax t s., ? ffollach, D. (see jftaxod), 'an insignificant person'. 
Cf. standi(n}folax, which is a stronger term : rhe:nfolax kaxy (O.H.). 

fon, s.f., T?\.fyn, ffon, D. (i) ' stick, walking-stick': fon bigal, 
' shepherd's crook ' ; fon davl, ( sling, catapult ' ; bagalfon, ' handle 
of a stick ' ; buru he:n wragad afyn, ' to rain cats and dogs ' ; see 
also duyfon. (2) ' bar ' (of a grate). (3) ' rung ' (of a ladder). 

fond, adj., comp.fondjax, ' fond ' (followed by o). 

fonjad, s.f., ' a blow with a stick ' : mi rois i riu fonjad vexan 
ido vo. 

fonnog \kumfonnog\ 

ford, s.f., p\.jfyrd, ffordd, D. (i) 'way, road': fork (== lo:n) 
bo:st,ford vaur, ' high road ' ; dy:n 9 ford vaur, ' high road inspector ' ; 
ford gar jo maun, ' a road for carrying peat ' ; ford 9sgavn, drum 
(drom), ' easy, heavy road ' ; 9 ford gmta, V9ra, ' the shortest way ' ; 
for aunigmta i .../,' which is the shortest way to ...?'; vedar hi 
9 ford 9mma ?, ' does she know the way here ? ' ; ar 9 for i vynd i r 
pentra, l on the way to the village '; drost 9 ford i r ty:, ' opposite 
the house ' ; forbad 9 du.yford, ' to walk both ways ' ; le: may rford 
dmma n mynd, l where does this road go to ? ' ; for ma, or (generally 
more emphatic) for 'hyn, ' this way '. (2) ' way, direction ' : ?y 
gweld bo:bfor, ' looking every way ' ; ty: a r for na du iy kredy ma.y 
hi, ' I think it is somewhere over there '. (3) ' way, manner ' : for 
ma, 'this way, like this ' ; ma: nu n rhy: yxal ifor, ' they are too 
high and mighty ' ; for bigri, rmab, ' an odd way ' (about him) ; 
meunford o farad, ' so to speak ' ; / qybaxi dim m ig^mmyd o n 9 for 
jaun, 'you did not take it in the right way', i.e. 'you did not 
understand it rightly'; du:y for8 i neyd poib pe:B, y:n o be:,y:n o 
XwiQig, ' two ways of doing everything, one right, one wrong ' ; ford 
ar i hagor nu, ' a way to open them '. 

fordjo, v., fforddio, D., ' in via aliquem dirigere ' : (fig.) dznjon m 
fordfo plant ar 3 ford jaun, a r leil 9n i fordjo nu ar ford drzgjonys ; 
m fordjo nu i drdgjoni. 

fordjo, v., fforddio, T.N 4. 2 7 ; Eng. afford, influenced by fforddio 
(above), (i) 'to afford ' : dim 9n fordjo su.ll at rubad, ' not being 
able to afford a shilling for something ' ; mi deydod hi vedra hi dim 
fordjo, ' she said she could not afford '. Impersonally : gneyd mu:y 
o wledast nag ddi hi n forty o ydynu (O.H.). (2) 'to permit, allow ' 
(in speaking of the law). Cf. the popular rime : by:m ay kary du:y 
r y:n enu, \ dg:en verx ivayk a dg:en wraig wedu ; \ gwyn vy:d na 
ford/a r gruraQ \ i mi brjodi r du.y arynwaB, 



forty ol fotrum 135 

forbjol, adj., ' managing well, economical ' : may y:n m medry 
gneyd Kimmint hevo psmBag su:j!/ a n'iid y:n ara^ hevo pynt, may o 
nwr forbjol, 'one is able to do as much with fifteen shillings as 
another can do with a pound, he manages so well '. 

forbol, s.m., p\.for8o/jon, fforddolion (pi.), Psalm Ixxxix. 41, etc. 
(i) 'road-mender ' (in general). (2) (in slate quarries) ' platelayer, 
whose duty it is to keep the lines clear, to make repairs or new 

lines '. 

for/ad, s., fforffed, D., s.v. ' publicatio ', 'sectio'; D.G. xxxvii. i, 
Eng. forfeit, 'damage': eliB neyd forfadmo, 'perhaps he will do 
some damage there ', e. g. by going into a dark room without a 
light (W.H) ; wedi mynd m for/ad (hevo), ' to be utterly abandoned 
(to), to give oneself up entirely (to) ' ; wedi mynd m for/ad hevo r 
merxaid ; wedi mynd anforfad hevo r rhs^vr^duyr, ' to be an out 
and out radical ' ; wedi mynd mforfad vedu, ' strongly addicted to 
drink ' ; wedi mynd mforfadylu, " gone to the dogs ", " gone to 
pot ".(O.K.) 

fork, s.f., v\.fyrks t ' fork ' (for the table). 



/orx, s.f., pl.jfyrx, fforch, D. (i) 'fork with four prongs for 
digging potatoes, etc. ' : tro:yd /orx, ' handle of a fork '. Cf. 
pikwarx- (2) a sheep's ear-mark so-called [no:d]. (3) * fork of 
a tree ', etc. 

forxt't v -> fforchi, O.P. (i) 'to fork', e.g. of a road, branch, etc. 
(2) 'to use a fork ' : djaul a d3for\o di! (3) ' to make &for\ on 
a sheep's ear '. 

forxjad, s.f., \>\.for\e'idja, fforchaid, O.P., ' as much as is lifted with 
a fork, either &/orx or pikwarx'. 

forxog, adj., fforchog, D., ' forked ' : may kolyn neidar mforxog ; 
o:/orxog, ' astride '. 

/ors, s.f., ' force, might, pressure, impetus ' : / o:ys dim digon o 
fors m 9 tapja, ' there is not enough pressure in the taps ' ; sirBjo ar 

i ben m ifors (O.K.), ' to fall on his head with full force ' ; rhoid 
fors ym' hi, ' to put force into it ', e. g. in striking ; y troyd m o:l 

i neydfors, ' the foot behind to gain an impetus* (= i ga:l pu:ar\ 

fortjun, s.f., cf. fortun, W.S.; rTorten, C.C. 33. 20, 'fortune '. 
fortynys, adj., fortunus, W.S., ' fortunate '. Seldom used = lukkys. 

/o:s,/o.ys, s.f., pl.fosyd, rTos, D., 'small stream, ditch': fo:s a 

foykan, * a stream and the corresponding rise ' ; be eiB m vu:y ar o:l 

tori ben /, fo:ys, ' what becomes bigger when its end is cut off ? A 

ditch ' ; agorfoys, ' to clear the mud, etc., out of a ditch '. Also 

' groove '. 

fotrum \_fodruni\. 



136 f0ukyn frukslyd 

f0ukyn, dim. of Ffowc : ail ddi hyukyn ifeukyn, ' six of one and 
half a dozen of the other '. 

fra:m, s.f., pl.framfa, ffram, B.C. 14. 10, 'frame ' : fra:m dru:s, 
pikijur, trol, etc. 

fray, s.f., ffrae, W.S. [Affraye], W.LI. xlv. 49; B.C. 20. 2, 
' quarrel ' : arfray, ' quarrelling ' ; a:6 9n fray rtoy&a vi: a vo: ar 
g0unt . . ., ' we got into a quarrel about . . .'. 

fray 6, adj., ffraeth, D., ' talkative, glib' : znfrayQ t davod. 

freinig, adj., Ffrengig, D., ' Gallicus ' ; knayfreinig, ' walnuts ' ; 
berufreinig, ' cress ' ; Igodanfreinig, ' rat '. 

fres, adj., ffres, C.C.M. 157. i ; C.C. 73. 13, ' fresh ' : penwaig 
fres, menynfres ; barafres, ' new bread '. 

freyo,fry:0) v., fFraeo, W.S. [Make an affray], ' to quarrel ' : ma: 
nu nfreyo hevo i giliS o hy:d ;fry:o m bemban, 'to be at logger- 
heads ' ; freyo vel ku:n a mo:x- 

fri:, adj., ffri, C.C.M. 46. 33; C.L.C. v. vi, 68. 26; T.N. 73. i. 
(i) 'free, gratis'. (2) 'free with one's money, liberal' : r oyun 
i nfri: pen v?8a gin i bre:s 9n d mhokkad. 

fri: (Bangor, Tregarth, Pentir) ; fri:B (Aber, Llanfairfechan), 
s.f., p\./ri8od,/ri'6o8, ffrith and ffridd, D., ' enclosed rough mountain 
pasture '. 

frigud, s.m., ffrwgwd, B.C. 43. 21 ; fifrygwyd, C.L.C. iv. 19. 23, 
' squabble ' : dim ond riufrigud gwirjon, riu but ofray. 

/rind, s.m., pl.frmdja, ffrind, W.S., ' friend ' : ma: nu n frindja 
(garu) hevo t gilib. 

fri.'o, v., ffrio, D., 'to fry': padalfri:o, 'frying-pan'; may r 
gwynt dnfri:o r gannuyl, ' the wind is making the tallow run down 
the candle '. 

fritjan, v., ' to play in the rain ' : fritjan m 9 gla:u. 

frog, s.f., pi. frogja, frock, W.S. [Frocke], Mid. Eng. frog, 
' frock '. 

from{yd y adj., ffromllyd, ' testy ', ' quick-tempered '. 

frostjo, v., ffrostio, R., ' to boast '. 

froQ, s., ' foam, froth ' : froO (?) mo:r, ' meerschaum '. 

froyn, s.f., pi. froyna, ffroen, D., ' nostril ; power of smell ' : 
mayfroynjaun gdno vo at bo:b pe:Q (speaking of a dog). 

fru:d, s.f., pl./ra^or, ffrwd, D., ' brook, stream '. 

fruks, s., ' flurry ' : / 0:d o dim am fruks, ' he was not to be 
flurried'. 

fruksfyd, adj., ' flurried '. 



frukfo fulbart 137 

frukfo, v., ' to be flurried, to act hastily ' : peidjux frukf'o hevo vo t 
may ifo hmmyd muy o amsar. 

/ru:st, s.m., ffrwst, D., s.v. ' acceleratio ' ; ' hurry ' : may o wedi 
mynd arfru:st (gwy:[t\ 

/rut, s.m., ffrwt, T.N. 172. 17. (i) 'vigour': / o:s dimfrut mo 
vo. (2) " a quick impulse " (O.P.) : riu frut o fray, * a bit of a 
squabble ' (O.H.) ; do:s ar /rut i nod piserad o du:r i mi (O.H.). 
Also adjectively : du:ad mfrut (O.K.). 

/rut/rut, s., ' sound of porridge boiling '. 

frutjan, v. (i) expressing the sound of porridge boiling : may 
r yud m frutjan berwi. (2) ' pedo ', d&Q frutjan re\an. (3) 'to 
walk quickly ' : "uuelisti hun a hun f> do:, n frutjan mynd reit br^syr ; 
u:ti n frutjan vel gwybal. (All O.H.) 

fruydro, v., ' to explode '. 

fruyn, s.f., pi. fruyna, D., 'bridle': fruyn duyl (i.e. dywyll), 
' blinker ' ; also, ' the piece of iron extending from the corner of the 
blade of a scythe to the handle ' = gjalam heyarn. 

fruyno, v., ffrwyno, D., ' to bridle ' ; also, fig. fruyno i davod, 
i nuyda, etc., ' to bridle one's tongue, one's passions '. 

fruyB, s.m., pi. fruyQyb, ffrwyth, D. (i) 'fruit'. (2) 'that 
which is distilled by boiling, etc. ' : bru:as = fruyQ Ki:g bra:s 
berwedig ; sikkan =fru:y6 9 gKrxpn (O.H.). (3) ' vigour, power' : 
koUfruyB i loda, ' to lose the use of his limbs '. 

fruyBlon, adj., ffrwythlawn, D. (i) 'fruitful': ha: fruyBlon. 
(2) ' full of sap, juice, nutriment, etc '. 

fndjo, v., ifrydio, D., s.v. ' defluo ' ; 'to gush (out) ' : gwayd m 
fr9djo ; du:r mfradjo a Ian o r Seyar ne graig. 

frzmmy, v., offrymmu, D., ' to make an offering at a funeral '. 
[o/rum.] 
frmt, s.m., 'front' : dru:s 9 frmt, 'front door*. 

fnntjo, v., 'to face' (of a house, etc.): frmtjo r /or 8, 'to face 
the road '. 

fudan, s., ffwdan, D., s.v. ' festinatio ' ; 'haste': mis i dori o meun 
fudan (O.H.) ; also ' fussiness '. 

fudantyd, adj., ffwdanllyd, O.P., ' fussy, bustling ' : may hunna 
V grjadyr fudanlyd dim ?y hmmyd amsar i neyd dim by:d. 

fudanys, adj., ffwdanus, D., ' fussy' : y.nfudanysjaun ?di o. 

/u:l, s.m., p\./9/ja(d), fwl, W.S. ; ffwl, B.C. 38. 19 ; D.G. app. 
vii. 40, ' fool '. 

fulbart, s.m., ffwlbart, L.G.C. p. 470. 4 ; D. ; Eng. foulmart, 
'polecat': drewi ml fulbart ; as opprobrious epithet (E.J., J.J.), 
ke:n fulbart bydyr. 



138 fulbri fynyd 

fulbri, s. (i) ' foolishness ' : na btgon o fulbri, ' that's enough of 
this foolishness '. (2) ' a foolish, talkative fellow ' : r hem fulbri 
gwirjon (J.J.). 

ful but, adv., Eng. full butt : mynd anful but, ' to go full pelt '. 

fulkyn, s.m., 'fool' : r he:n fulkyn medu, 'the old drunken fool' 
(W.H.). 

fulpyn, s.m., ' fool '. 

fultan, s.f., ' fool ' : fultan o bmas (a mild way of expressing it, 
O.K.). 

fundro, f0undro, v., ffwndro, T.N. 68. 15; Eng. founder, 'to 
lose one's bearings ', ' to be in perplexity ' : dy:n wedi fundro = dy:n 
wedi koltforb ; mifundris m la:n: mi eifi r ty: nesa an U: du:ad 
i hun, ' I lost my bearings entirely : 1 went to the next house 
instead of coming to this one ' ; Kaptan loy mfundro an 9 no:s ag m 
mynd a i loy ar 9 graig m 3 niul (O.H.f, a ship-captain losing his 
bearings in the night and running his ship on to a rock in the mist ' ; 
also trans. ' to perplex, muddle '. 

fundrys, adj., ' confused, perplexed ', " mithered ". 

fundur, s., ffwndwr, T.N. 15. 14. (i) 'agitation, commotion ': 
be di rfundur ? be ma pobol 9n rhedag ? (O.H.) = helynt. (2) ' per- 
plexity ' : r o:n i meun fundur lawar gwaiQ am lagodan, i. e. as to 
whether it was a mouse or not (O.H.). 

furb (in full, i fur\ adv., ffwrdd, C.C.M. 421. 16, 'away': 
le: may 9 lo:n ? m 9 dru:s fur, ' where is the road ? Away outside 
the door ' ; if'o i dznny vo i furb i Inay o, u:x sy arno vo, l it 
must be taken away to be cleaned : there is dust on it ' ; pren wedi 
dortfurS, 'a piece of wood cut away'; gn'e'yd i fur a rubaQ, 'to 
do away with something ' ; a: i a rhei n ifur ?, ' shall I take these 
things away?'; mynd fur 8, 'to go away'; i furft a vo, 'off he 
goes ' ; fur ti!,fur a /i7, ' away with you ! ' ; hel da garkas (hel da 
brenja, hel da dra:yd, hel da bak, gna: da baft) ajur a ti! (O.H.). 

furn, s.f., ffwrn, D., ' furnace '. 

furnas, s.f., ^\. furneif'a, fwrneis, W.S.; ffwrnas, C.C. 359. 26; 
ffwrnes, B.C. 91. 23, 'furnace' : furnas o da:n, 'a raging fire' = 
gobaB o da:n, wemflam. 

fy:, s.f., ffydd, D., ' faith ' : r o:y gin ar he:n bobolfy: ovnaduy 
meun rhoi prokkar an a ta:n er mu:yn ido vo ganna. 

fy:lt, s., ffull, D., ' acceleratio, festinatio ' ; ' trot ' : ar riu di:B ne 



fyltyQ, s., ' trot ' : ar afyltyB (O.K.). 

fynyd, s., ffunud, D., ' form, manner, appearance ' : may o r y:n 
fynyd a i vam, ' he is the very image of his mother ' (of face or 
character). 



fyrad ftrnoxi 1 39 

fyrad, s.m., pljyrada, firet, W.S, [A feret]; ffured, W.LI. Ixiv. 
65 ; O.F. furet, ' ferret '. 

fyrkan, s., Eng. firkin, 'a wooden vessel generally made of 
oak and containing the eighth part of a barrel' : darjau ond 
fyrkan o guru ; as term of reproach, /a:u g ht:n fyrkan fawyb 
(O.H.). 

fyrv ; ftrv (sometimes J.J.), adj., fern, ferv, eq. firvad (frrvad, 
O.H.); pL/yrv/on, ffyrf, D., 'stout, substantial, bulky': kortyn 
fyrv, ' a stout cord ' ; penfirva ifon, ' the thicker end of a stick '. 

fyrv, s., fifurf, D., ' form '. 

fyrvjo, v., ffurfio, D., s.v. ' formo ' ; ' to form '. 

fy:st, s.f., v\.fistja, ffust, D., ' flail': troyd *fy:st, 'handle of the 
flail'. Cf. also sty:al, peygiux, kara (te:p). 

frtlon, adj., ffyddlon, D., s.v. 'fidelis'; 'constant in religious 
observance '. 

ftilondab, s.m., ffyddlondeb, D., s.v. ' fidelitas ' ; ' regular attend- 
ance at religious observances '. 

fznnon, s.f., p\.finonna,fmonny&, ffynnon, D., 'spring, fountain ' : 
bgadfmnon, ' spring-head ', ' fountain head .' 

fordur, s.m., ffyrfder, D., s.v. ' soliditas ' ; ' thickness ' (= tru:x), 
e. g. of a stick. 

forlty, s.f., p\.ftrtiyod t ffyrling, D., * farthing '. 

fzrm'g, adj., comp. fzrm'kkax, ffyrnig, D. (i) 'fierce, ferocious, 
implacable, fiery-tempered, raging, truculent ' : may golug firnig 
arno vo, 'he has a truculent aspect '; mayowedimyndmfzrniguQa 
/, ' he has become enraged with me ' ; gelynfarnig, 'a deadly enemy '. 
(2) of things, ' fierce, deadly ' : may r ta:n sn losgi n prnikkax ar 
derwyb o.yr, ' fire burns more fiercely in cold weather ' ; may n 
rhewi n rhy: firnig i bar a, 'it is freezing too hard to last' ; may 
gin 3 dra:yn i:og biga firnig m zr esgil, l the bass has formidable 
spikes in the fins ' (O.H.). (3) used of a material which is hard to 
work: karagfirnig. 

firm'go,fr3m'go, v., ffyrnigo, D., ' to become fierce, to get into 
a rage '. 

firnigruyb, s.m., ffyrnigrwydd, D., s.v. ' crudelitas ' ; ' fierceness, 
violent temper, rage '. 

t, v., ' to be angry, to snort with rage ' (W.H.). 



g 

gadal, v., gadael, D. Fut. S. i. (ga}dewa, 3. (ga)dewt'0. PI. i. 
(ga) f daun. Imp. S. i. (ga)'daun, 3. (ga)'dawa. Pret. S. i. (go)- 
dewis, (ga)dawis, 2. (ga)dewist, 3. (ga)dawod, gado8. PI. 3. (g'tf)- 
d0uson. Plup. (gd]d0usun. Imperative : ga:d ; gadux, (ga)'deux. 
Pret. Pass.ga'daud. (i) 'to leave ' : ^a^z/ rubaO an 9 loft, ' to leave 
something upstairs ' ; gadal ax arjan ar ax o:l, ' to leave your money 
behind you ' ; gadal riu air ar o:l, ' to leave some word out ' ; mi 
(a)dauni on* van ma, ' we will leave it there ' (e. g. an argument) ; 
with lonyb, l to leave alone ' : dawa m ono vo n lonyd, ' he would not 
leave him alone ' ; with i, ' to leave alone ' : ga:d 180 vo, ' leave 
him alone ' ; mi daun i 280 vo taun i xi-', ' I should leave him alone 
if I were you ' ; so with lonyd : pam dayi y gadal lonyd i hunma ? t 
' why do you leave that man alone ? ' (2) 'to let, allow ' : peidjux 
a gadal ibi hi sarBjo, ' don't let her fall ' ; ga'deux io vynd i grogi, 
1 let him go and be hanged '. 

gadOj v., gaddaw & gaddewid, corrupte pro addewid, D. Fut. 
S. i . dawa, 3. bawid. Pret. bawis. Imperative ga8o, ' to promise ' : 
8ary nu ado i gary hi, ' they promised to send it' ; ne'iO dim y:n o 
'honynu dim ond gado, ' none of them will do anything but promise '. 

gair, s.m., pi. geirja, gair, D. (i) ' word ' : getrja maur, ' long 
words ' ; geirja hajjon, ' bad language ' ; tori getrja, ' to articulate 
clearly ' tri:o tori geirja ag dn meQy (e. g. of small children) ; dim 
gair da: am ne:b, * not a good word for any one ' ; wa:yQ y:n gair 
(mu:y) na \ant, ' one word is as good as a hundred ', i. e. ' I'll tell 
you once for all ' ; hannar gair i gal (prov.), ' half a word to the 
wise ', ' le sage entend a demi-mot '. (2) ' report ' : mi 80:6 2 gair 
ar le:d, ' the report got abroad '. (3) ' reputation ' : gair gwa:yl 
syd ibi hi. 

galar, s., galar, D., ' mourning ' : ma na alar an 3 ty:. 

galary, v., galaru, D., ' to mourn '. 

galarys, adj., galarus, D., ' mournful ' : ma: r teyly n alarysjaun 
ar o:l 9 babi ba:x su:n galarys, ' a mournful sound '. 

galu, v., galw, D. Fut. S. i. galwa, 3. galwiO. PI. i. galun, 
2. galux, 3. galwan. Pret. S. 3. galwob. PI. 3. galson. Imperative 
galu ; galux- (i) 'to call, shout' (= gweiSi) : os by:b if'o rubaB 



galuyn ga{y 141 

ghaid i \i alu, ' if you want anything you must call '. (2) also with 
0r, ' to call ' (by name) : galu (ar) ru:in, ' to call some one ' ; also, 
' to call, to wake ' : neu\i alu arna i (yalu i) mi bora, ' will you call 
me in the morning'. (3) ' to call, name ': be da\i 'y galu hun /, 
' what do you call this ? (4) ' to call (together) ' : os na vy:& dim 
a\os 9-y kodi i alu 9 hyor yy gynt, 'if no cause arises to call the 
council sooner '. (5) with am, ' to call ' (alluding Jo some need) : 
/ o.ys dim by:d yy galu am 'danoxi, ' there is nothing you have to do '. 
(6) with hevo, ' to call upon, visit '. 

galuyn, s.m., pi. galuini, galwyn, G.R. 43. 14; D., 'gallon': 
govyn am aluyn o guru. 

galwad, s.f., galwad, D., ' call, invitation ' : ar ialwado eifimo, ' it 
was at his invitation that I went there ' ; also the ' call ' of a minister. 

galwedigaO, s.f., galwedigaeth, D., ' calling ' : dilin i alwedigaB, 
' to follow one's calling '. 

ga:ll, a:lt, s.f., pi. ^etiyb, el/yd. [In place-names always g<7:lt, e.g. 
ga:lt 9 bleyna, 9 gwyndy, t9&yn rhonwyn, ty: hem, bryn gola, 
9 rhiuja all in Llanfairfechan.] allt and gallt, D. (i) 'hill', i.e. 
1 cliff, steep slope, side of a valley ' : tori koyd ar 9 gel/yd, ' to cut 
down trees en the steep slopes ; ga:jt 9 mo:r, ' cliff ' ; hiybyr 9n 
mynd u6 ben ga:U 9 mo:r. (2) ' hill ', i. e. 'a steep piece of road, 
etc. ' (Fr. ' cote ') : i V9ny^ i laur 9r a:U, ' up, down the hill ' ; ma: r 
alt ma n drom jaun, ' this hill is very steep ' ; ga:U r0ular (in 
quarries), ' roller incline '. 

ga].y, v., gallu, D. Fut. S. i. gala, 2. geli, 3. geliB, gal, geil. 
PI. i.galun, 2. gelux, galu\, 3. galan. Imp^ S. i. galun, gdun, 

2. galat, gelat, 3. gala, gela.^ PI. I. gofatt, gelan, 2. galax, gelax, 

3. galan, gelan. Pret. S. i. getis, 2.gelist, 3. galo8. PI. i. gahon, 
2. galsox, 3. galson. Plup. S. i. galsun, (mi) lasun, 2. galsai, (mi) 
lasat, 3. galsa, (mz) lasa. PI. i. galsan, (mi} lasan, 2. galsax, (mi) 
lasax, 3. galsan, (mi) lasan. Pres. Sub. S. 3. galo. PI. \.galon, 
2. galox, 3. galon. Fut. Pass, gelir ; Imp. Pass, gelid] Plup. Pass. 
hsid, ' to be able ' : galsun i neyd o n ei'Ba pe kerusun i, ' I could do 
it well enough if I might ' ; mi lasun i vnavyd o n ovnaduy, f I might 
have hurt him very badly ' ; pe galsa mi luga vi, ' he would starve 
me if he could ' ; 9 pe:6 lasa vo S'e'yd, ' what he might have said ' ; 
du i dim m amma na lasa vo, ' I do not doubt he could ' ; gora gal, 
' as well as he can ' = gora galo vo ; gora 'galoni, 'galpxi, * as well 
as we can, you can ' ; gala r dy:n gora vod m 9 le: sala, ' the best 
man might be in the worst place '. (g)ehQ (vo:d) and (g)ela (vo:d) 
are used to express ' perhaps ' : un i dim, eh6 vo:d, ' I don't know, 
perhaps so ' ; ela na 8a:u o dim, ' perhaps he won't come ' ; ela mai 
if'o du:r sy arno vo, ' perhaps it wants water ' ; ela da:u o hevo r 

y:n tre:n 9 dois i:, * perhaps he will come by the same train as I did '. 
Ans. ela, ' perhaps so '. 



142 gaty gartra 

gajy, s.m., pi. gaj[y:o8, gallu, D. (i) 'power': po:b pe:6 m z\ 
ga]y xi, ' everything in your power ' ; gweiQjo mu:y na i ay, ' to 
overwork '. (2) ' natural mental power or capacity ' (as distinguished 
from acquired capacity). Cf. medar. (3) ' sense ' : 9 pym gafy, 
4 the five senses '. 

gafy:og, adj., galluog, D., ' able ' : may r medrys m iuf'o 9 peBa 
3 may r gay:og, wedifendjo. 

ga:m, s., ' game ' : ma: nu i vmy afo:b ga:m = riks. 

gambl, s., ' sport, amusement, fun ' ; ' gambling ' (playing for 
money). 

gamblar, gemblar, s.m., Eng. gambler, (i) 'a skilful person, 
a master-hand ' : may hi y gemblar ar i gwaiB ( = m mstar ar i 
gwatB). (2) ' a smart fellow ' : ma nu y gemblars garu. 

gambljo, v., gamble, T.N. 4. 31, 'to sport, make game; make 
game of ; gamble (play for money) '. 

gamj'o, v., ' to sport ; make game of : paid ti a yamjo vt. 
gamfyd, adj., 'inclined to jeer, mock, make game of. 

gamstar, s.m., Eng. gamester, ' a skilful person, a master-hand ' : 
may o y gamstar ar hmny. Cf. C.F. 1890, 332. 30. 

gan, conj., gan, D., ' inasmuch as, because ' : gan bo x? 'am 'vynd, 
' inasmuch as you are going ' ; gan mod i mor hy: a govyn, ' if I may 
make so bold as to ask '. 

gar, s.m., pi. gara, garr, D., ' poples ' ; ' the ham or hind part of 
the knee ' : a i glos am ben i ara, ' his trousers down to his knees ' : 
gar a Keimjon, ' bandy legs ' ; kamma gar [kammab]. 

gard, s.f., pi. gards, gard, W.S. [A garde], ' watch-chain '. 

gardas, s.f., pi. gardwa, gartys, W.S. [A garter] ; gardes, D.F. 
[xvii] 27 ; gardas and gardys, D., ' garter' : du:y ardas. 

gardjo, v., gardio, W.S., s.v. 'kribo' [Garde]; R. ; T.N. 408. 5. 
Cf. gardiau, D., s.v. ' strideo' ; ' to card ' (wool) : ^ hdral ?y gardjo 
n zfaktri (O.H.). Also kardjo, q.v. 

gardnar, s.m., ' gardener '. 

garb, gar, s.f., pi. erdt, gardd, D., ' garden ' : tri:n gard, ' to 
garden '. 

gardjo, v., ' to garden '. 

gardun, s.m., pi. garforna, arddwrn, D., ' wrist ' : ne:s pnelin na 
garbun (prov.), ' the elbow is nearer than the wrist ', i. e. ' blood is 
thicker than water '. 

gar lag, s., garlleg, D., ' garlic ' : gwina gar lag, ' cloves of garlic '. 

gartra, adv., gartref, ' at home ' (domi) ; ' home ' (domum) : ddi 

o gartra ? t ' is he at home ? ' (more rarely adra) ; gneu\ vel 'tasa\i 



gar 6 gaval 143 

gartra, ' make yourself at home ' ; may o wedi mynd gartga, ' he has 
gone home ' (more commonly adra). 

garB, s.f., garth, D., ' a jutting piece of hill ' = tguyn mmyto. 
Very common in place-names and not quite obsolete in current 
speech. I have heard O.H. use the word twice, i.e. S9r6jo drosgarB, 
and o r nai^garQ i r ja[, the latter alluding to the jutting hill on each 
side of the entrance to the Aber valley. With the article in place- 
names always 9 garB. 

garu, adj., pi. &ftru, comp. garwax, garw, D. (i) 'rough, 
severe': t0wy% garu, 'rough weather'. (2) 'rough, hardy* (opp. 
lo fhfujog) \ used substantively : tori r garu (fig.), 'to break the 
ice '. (3) (with &in) ' sorry ' : may n aru in i, ' I am sorry '. 
(4) used with various meanings of an intensive nature : y:n garu 
9$ o, (in good sense) ' he is a splendid fellow ' ; (in bad sense) 
' he is a shrewd, grasping fellow ; a terrible fellow ' ; in fern. y:n 
garu 9di hi ; -y:n garu da\i '/, ' what a fellow you are ! ' (in either 
sense) ; followed by am, ' fond, (a) terrible (fellow for) ' : garu am 
dani 9di o /, ' he is a terrible fellow for business ' ; may hi n aru am 
vala, ' she is fond of apples ' ; may hi n y:n aru am 9m'droi i laur 
9no, 'she is a dreadful one for loitering down there'; dy:n garu 
am 9 by:d ma, ' a grasping man ' ; may o n aru 9m mho:b pe:6, 
' he takes an energetic part in everything ' ; r 9da\t n y:n garu 
i wisgo x sgidja, ' you are very bad at wearing out your boots ' ; 
pe:B garu adi darlan am godi if'o kzsgy, ' reading is a dreadful thing 
for making one sleepy ' ; may by:d garu hevo vo, * he gives a great 
deal of trouble ' ; he:n vaujax garu 9di o y 'he is a worthless old 
creature ' ; may amsar garu, ' there is plenty of time ' ; may in 
i bo:yn garu an 9 mhen, ' I have a terrible pain in my head ' ; 
pitti garu /, ' what a pity ! ' (5) adverbially, ' much ', ' very ', 
" awfully ", etc. (often = ovnaduy) : du i n disgul 3n aru, ' I quite 
expect ' ; daxi wedi mendjo n aru \adal 'oydaxi So:y, ' you are much 
better than you were yesterday ' ; may n debig aru i la:u y ' it is very 
like rain ' ; mi vy:ft na bobol 9n aru 9 durnod hunnu, ' there will be 
a great many people that day ' ; edrax 9n aru arm hi, ' to look intently 
at her ' ; may hi wedi kodi n wynt garu j'aun, ' it has become very 
windy '. 

gas, s.f., ' gas ' : r oybun i n dal sylu bod 9 gas wedi ka:yl i 6roi, 
' I noticed the gas was turned on '. 

ga:sl, s.f., pi. &eist t gast, D., ' bitch ' : 'ga:staxun, ' bitch and 
puppies '. 

ga:t, s.f., pi. galja, <x gate ' : du:y ga:t, ' two gates ' ; po:st 9 ga:t, 
' gate-post ' (of wood or a single stone ) ; pilar 3 ga:t, ' gate-post ' 
(built of stone or brick). 

gaval, v., gafaelu, D. Fut. S. i. g(a)veyla, 2. g(a)veili, 3. 
g(a)veiliO t veli6. PI. i.g(a)veylun,2.g(a}veylux : '$.g(a)v.eylan. Imp. 



144 gaval gavr 

g(a)veylun, gavun. Pret. S. i. g(a)veilis, gavis, 2. g(a)ve'ilist, 
gavist, 3. g(a)veylo, gavod, veloft. PI. 3. gavson. Plup. gavsun. 
Imperative, gaval, gava ; g(a)veylux, gavux, ' to lay hold (of) ', ' to 
catch (of fire) ', ' to take root ' : gaval m 9 re:ns, gaval y:n bo:b la:u, 
' take hold of the reins, take one in each hand ' ; paid a gaval ma i, 
' don't take hold of me ' ; rieif o dim gaval mi, ' he won't buckle 
to ' ; may hi y gaval m 9 gla:u, ' the rain is setting to in earnest ' ; 
gaval am ? meiygevn, ' to catch round the small of the back ' ; may 
r gwynt ay gaval '9no\i, ' the wind is piercing ' ; may hi wedi gaval 
a i dannab 9no vo, ' it bit him ' ; os by:b hi wedi gaval m jaun, ' if 
it has taken root properly '. Cf. kadjad. 

gaval, s.f., gafael, D., ' hold, grasp ' : dal, ka:yl gaval (m), ' to 
catch hold (of), to keep hold (of) ' ; koli, guluy gaval, ' to lose hold 
(of) ' ; dal d aval mo vo rhag ibo sarBjo, ' catch hold of him to keep 
him from falling ' ; dary mi ga:l gaval 9no vo, ( I caught hold of him ' ; 
fig. may r diwigjad wedi ka:yl gaval 3n drum mo vo, ' the revival 
has caught hold of him strongly ' ; ma: gin baub aval meun byu, 
' every one clings to life ' ; koli r aval, said of a dying man ; rhedag, 
gwei&jo nerd i aval, ' to run, work to the utmost of one's power ' ; 
mynd i aval 3 gmraB, ' to get within the arm of the law ' ; koli 
r avalan iwaiB, ' to be turned off ' ; bo:b gaval, ' every time ' : me&y, 
gwela bo:b gaval. 

gaval, adj., pi. gaveiljon, in the exp. karag aval, pi. Kerig gaval, 
Kerig gaveiljon, l a stone fixed fast in the ground ' (J.J.). 

gaveylgar, veylgar, velgar, adj., gafaelgar, D. (i) 'tenacious' : 
pry: gaveylgar jaun, l a very tenacious insect ', i.e. one which keeps 
a tight hold, e.g. on the hair of cattle (JJ.) ; dy:n gaveylgar = dy:n 
dy gaval m i wai6 (O.H.) opp. to -diraval. (2) ' arresting the 
attention ' : pregaB av'e'ylgar. 

gavl, s.f., pi. gavla, gafl, D. (i) 'fork' (of human beings or 
animals) : Ki: a i gum/on 9n i avl, ' a dog with his tail between his 
legs ' (= Ki: swat). The expression a i gumfon m i avl is also used 
of human beings = ' cowed ', 'crestfallen'. (2) Megs': dy:n a 
gavl hi:r, gavla hirjon, ' a long-legged man ' (O.H.) ; ledy i avla, 
' to stand with one's legs wide apart ' (O.H.). (3) ' lap ' : plentyn 
dn i gavl tru: r dy:, 'a child in her lap all day ' (O.K.). 

gavljo, v., 'to place the legs wide apart ' : dy:n dy gavljo o vla.yn 
9 ta:n, ' a man sitting with his legs wide apart before the fire '. 

gavlog, s.m., gaflog, S.E., s.v. ' forked ' ; ' a long-legged man ' 
(JJ, O.H.). 

gavr, s.f., pl.geivr, gafr, D. (i) 'goat, she-goat ' : bu:xgavr, 
' he-goat ' ; vel gavr ar drana, ' like a goat in a thunderstorm ', 
said of some one in a state of great excitement ; geivr fi:r gnarvon, 
epithet of the people of Carnarvonshire ; r he:n avr avlan /, term 
of reproach for a woman (O.H.); m?y gavr/, expletive. (2) 'a 



gavrjogeni M5 

small bundle of corn, etc., such as can be easily grasped by the 
hand, and tied loosely together'. [The word in this sense is 
perhaps the same as the Eng. (Dial.) ' gavel ', ' a sheaf or quantity 
of corn ; a bundle or sheaf of rush used in thatching ' Nrf. J 

gavrjo, v., gafriaw, O.P., ' to tie corn, marram-grass (morat/f), 
etc., in small loose bundles and place them to stand leaning against 
one another in threes to dry' (O.H.). 

geirwir, adj., geirwir, D., s.v. * verax ', ' verus ' ; ' truthful ' : 
gonast a geirwir. 

gelax, s.m., gelach, O.P., ' a small, wiry individual ' (I.W.) as 
term of reproach = hogyn dru:g ag m dixetdrug cbxrznlyd (O.H.) : 
le: 'by:osli, r he:n ela\ kaxy ? (O.H.). 

gelan, s.f., pi. gelod, g61, D., ' leech ' ; also felon bendu^ (I.W.) ; 
gelan Seyban, gelan ridul (O.H.) : u6i hi vel gelan, ' at it like a 
nigger '. 

gelyn, s.m., pi. gehnjon, gelyn, D., < enemy ' : gelyn ftrnig, gelyn 
gla:s y ' a deadly enemy ' ; 9 gelyn gla:s is also an epithet of death. 

gebnjaO, s.m., gelyniaeth, D., ' enmity '. 

gelig (O.K.); && (E.J., J.J.), s.pl.; sing, geligan (O.K.), 
gerbgan (W.H., E.J., J ; J.) ; fprfoan, garlag, garbgan(}.}^ gellyg, 
D., ' pears ' : koydan gelig, elig (O.K.), koydan gerlig, erlig (J.J.), 
* pear-tree ' ; gelig Ke&in, ' a worthless kind of pear ' (O.H.). 

e:n, s.f., gen, D., 'jaw' : klikjad ge:n, 'jaw-bone' ; 9r e:n isa, 
yxa, ' the lower, upper jaw ' ; weyBa 3n i e:n, * in spite of him ' 
(O.H.). Also ' chin ' : may r levriO wedi rhedag ar 9\ ge:n. 

gena, s.m., pi. geneya, genau, D., 'mouth' (= fag) ; gena tul, 
1 the mouth of a hole ' ; 9y yena r avon, ' at the mouth of the river ' ; 
dan 9 ena often = ' chin ' ; ty yena r sa:x may knilo (prov.), 
' economy should begin at the mouth of the sack ' i.e. when a new 
supply is begun, not when it is all but finished ; gena gla:n i ogany 
(prov.), c one who finds fault should be without fault himself ; gena 
go:g (go:yg\ genau goeg, D., * lizard '. 

genaS, s.f., pi. (g)neOod, geneth, D., ' girl '. The more usual word 
is hogan. 

genedigaQ, s., genedigaeth, D., ' birth '. 

genedigol, adj., genedigol, D., s.v. ' nativus ' ; ' native ' : r o:d o n 
enedigol o bulheli, ' he was a native of Pwllheli ' ; le: genedtgol, bro: 
enedigol, ' native place '. 

gent, v., geni, D. Pret. ganuyd [no other inflected forms are 
used], ' to be born': zmma ganuyd a maguyt t\ ' it was here that 
she was born and brought up ' ; 9 durnod 9 ganuyd vz, ' the day I 
was born ' ; 9 durnod gesti d9 em, ' the day you were born ' ; 'wyho\i 
mo x geni * r by:d, ' you do not know what trouble is ' ; man gent, 
'birth-mark'. 



146 genii go :x 



U go:x, s.f., cenlli goch, D., s.v. 'cenchris'; the generic term 
for 'hawk', properly speaking * kestrel', Forrest, (Falco tinnun- 
culus.) Cf.W%. 

genwar, s.f., pi. genwet'rja, genwair, D., 'fishing-rod' (O.H. 
frequently) = gjalam fosgotta, gjalam voirjo; trwar, genwar a gun 
rieiQ u:r bonebig zn him (prov.) ; pry: genwar, ' earth-worm '. 

ge:r, ge:rs, s.pl., sing. Keryn, q ; v., cer, D., s.v. ' gerrae ' ; ' gear, 
stuff ' : ge:r(s] kafila, ' harness ' ; ge:r bo:n is used to distinguish from 
ge:r redig, 'ploughing gear' ; he:n ge:r, ' old stuff' (O.H. speaking 
of antiquities dug up) ; also tools, instruments. Cf. ervyn,feryn. 

gerjan, v., geran and gerain, D., ' to whine ' (of children), generally 
gerjan kri:o. Also, ' to quarrel, bicker ' : gerjan ar i gi'h'8. 

g-erlan, s.f., only in gerlan go:x (W.H.) = genii go:\ (?), ' hawk ' 
not known to O.H. (This word occurs in an article on the 
birds of Anglesey in the ' Clorianydd ' for Feb. 22, 1012.) 

gernjal,gernjo, v., ymgernial, O.P. ; S.E., s.v. ' wrangle ' ; 'to talk 
loudly, wrangle '. 

geruyn, s.f., cerwyn, D., ' brewing-tub ' made of brass or copper 
(O.H.). 

ges, s.f. (i) 'guess': 9 ges, riu ges ve\an. In slate-quarries, in 
taking a bargain, ' the estimate as to how much will be worked in a 
month ' (J.J.). (2) ' idea ' : / 0:8 gmo vo bim ges i nady, ' he had no 
idea how to trim ' (sc. slates). 

ge/'o, v., ' to guess ' = dweif'o, kafjo. 

gewin, s.m., pi. gewina, gewma, gewin, D. (i) ' sinew, muscle ' : 
r 0:8 3 gewin wedi kutjo, ' the sinew had shrunk'. (2) a by-form of 
ewin, ' nail ' : may gewin o dy:n m werQ mznyd o mas ; gwel gewin 
o va:b na mmyS o verx (prov.). In these proverbs ewin is often 
heard instead ofgewm. Cf. Exod. x. 26. 

geya, s.m., gayaf, L.A. 54. 9 ; gaeaf, G.R. [94]. 8 ; gauaf, D., 
' winter ', i. e. November, December, and January : ma: r gey a dy: 
m 9mmyl, ' gloomy winter is approaching ' ; klaygeya = calan gauaf, 
' the winter calends ', i.e. Nov. 13. 

geyavab, adj., gauafaidd, D., s.v. ' hyemalis ' ; ' wintry ' : r o:d hi 
n eyavabjaun heibju. 

g'e'yavol, adj., gayafawl, M.A. i. 42 b. 7, 'of or belonging to the 
winter ' : dy:8 geyavol, ' a winter's day '. 

gid, always in conjunction with a, prep, gyda, gyd ag, D., s.v. 
'cum'; gida, G.R. 2. 15 ; D.F. [25]. 27. (i) 'with', only used 
in certain locutions otherwise hevo. Sometimes the two expressions 
are interchangeable, mi ei& gid a mmab, ' it will go (e. g. into the 
box) with patience ' ; gid a govol, ' with care ' ; gid a x tfennad, ' by 
your leave ' ; gida la:u, ' by the bye ' ; &id a hmny, ' in addition to 



147 

this ' ; hu:i /id a r Hi: a hu:i/id a r ga:6, ' to run with the hare and 
hunt with the hounds ' ; /id a hyn, ' presently ' : na: i de\ra /id a 
fyn, ' I shall begin presently ' ; /id a r no:s, ' in the evening '. This 
expression is also used substantively : ty: a /id a r no:s, ' towards 
evening ' ; t%u:y /id a r no:s, ' all the evening '. (2) ' along ' : [uybyr 
m t%oi i laur /id a r avon, ' a path turning down along the river ' ; 
ku:x m mynd /id a r avon, ' a boat floating down the stream ' ; riu 
vt'l/ir /id a r avon i laur, ' a mile or so down the river ' ; /id a r tat, 
1 along the houses '. (3) used as a conjunction, ' as soon as ' : /id 
a do:nu, ' as soon as they come ' ; /id a -fadanu wedi pafo, ' as soon 
as they have passed ' ; /id a klu:od o hznny, ' as soon as he heard 
that ' ; ped kmia /id a 'kodanu dy sy:l, ' as soon as they are up on 
Sunday '. Cf. y gyt ac y doethant rac bron Kynan, R.B. ii. 1 13. 22 
(S. 206); gyt ac y bu nos, W.B., col. 71. 12 ; gyt ac y kyuodes 
ef, W.B., col. 52. 20. 

/i:d, only in i /i:d, i gyd, D., s.v. ' insimul ' ; ' all, altogether ' : 
daxi wedi du:ad i /i:d ru:an, ' you have all come now ' ; T zdani n 
ail rieyd 9 ty: i /i:d, ' we are reconstructing the whole house ' ; r\i: 
ga:B 9 bQtra i/i:d heidju, ' you got all the letters to-day ' ; r o:d hi y 
/e:g i gi:d, ' she was a great chatterbox ', lit. ' she was all mouth ' ; 
9 y go-'X i/i-'d drosto, ' red all over ' ; r o:d 9 ia:n wedi mynd i laur i/i:d, 
( the fire had gone quite low ' ; dim mo i gi:d, ' not all there, crazy '. 

/ild/o, v., gildio, W.LI. xxi. 88. (i) 'to yield, give way'. (2) of 
corn ' to yield well, to produce good grain ' (J.J.). (3) of corn 
' yielding the grain easily when threshed ' (J.J.). 

/ild/o, v., Eng. geld ; (Dial.) gild, w.Som., ( to clean (herrings) 
before salting, etc., by removing the entrails ' : gildjo penwaig 
(O.H.). 

/Hid, gilydd, D., s.v. 'mutuus' ; gilid, W.B., col. 9. 3; 12. 13; 
gilidd, G.R. 28. 20; D.F. [6] 28, [24] 5, [38] 23 : always pre- 
ceded by a pronominal adjective, ' each other, one another ' ; ma: r 
p^sgod 9y gwey tru i /Hid, ' the fish are threading in and out between 
one another ' ; ma: nu nfreyo hevo i /Hid o hy:d, ' they are always 
quarrelling with one another ' ; / zdi r bexgin dim mor do.yO a i/ilid, 
' the young fellows are not all equally wise ' ; mi do:ni i 8a:lt yy 
gilid vesyl tippin, ' we shall get to understand one another little by 
little ' ; pym ty: m serund u6 i /Hid, ' five houses in a row ' ; kayl 
p day pen linin at i gilid, ' to make two ends meet ' ; la:yB wedi hel 
at i gilid, ' curdled milk ' ; mynd i gilid, ' to shrivel, to shrink ' ; ma: 
rhei pobol m medul bod nu n dal y by:d u6 i gilid, ' some people think 
they hold the world together '; du:y noson ar o:l i gilid, ' two nights 
running ' ; yy knokjo uB 3 dru:s vel 'tasanu am godi r by:d y mhen 
i gilid, ' knocking at the door as if they were going to set the who!e 
world topsy-turvy ' ; mi a:nu at i gilid etto, ' they will come together 
again ', i.e. ' they will make it up ' ; hel nu y griu at i gilid, 'to 
drive them together into a mass ' ; syt 3 may y\ plant \i i hmmyd 

L 2 



148 gin &iyrom 

nu at i gilfe?, 'how are your children taking them all together ? ' ; 
uB roi po:b durnod at i gilib, ' on the average ' ; may rhei n medry 
3 du.y la:u vel i gih'8, ' some people can use both hands equally 
well ' ; dim mor anod i baub a i ili, ' not equally difficult to all ', 
' not so difficult to some as it is to others '. 

gin, gen, Kin, prep., gan, D. ; gen, G.R. 22. 2 ; 35. 17. With 
pronouns S. i . gin i, gen i\ 2 . gin fi, gen ti; 3 . gmo vo, geno DO, gino 
vo ; gmi hi, gini hi. PI. i. 'gznoni, 'ginoni, -genoni] 2. 'gmoxi, 'gmzx*', 
'gmoxi, 'genoxi', 3. 'gmonu,'gznynu, 'genynu, 'ginonu. (i) with bo:d 
to denote possession : may lais main g9no vo, ' he has a shrill voice ' ; 
oy:s gin li vmiryn o vakko ?, ' have you a scrap of tobacco ? ' ; may 
gin i bedar jaiB, * I know four languages ' ; r o:y gmo vo v^ul 
maur o hono vo, ' he thought a great deal of it ' ; may gin i gy:r dn 
9 mhen, ( I have a headache ' ; may gin i gwilift farad o x bla:yn xi> 
' 1 am shy of talking before you ' ; ko: da: gin i!, ' what a memory 
I have ! ' (2) after various adjectives denoting their relation to a 
person : may n da: gin i, ' I am glad ' ; may n bru:g Kin i, ' I am 
sorry ' ; (also without ma:y : da: gin i, dru:g Kin z') ; 6a: Kin i m ono 
vo, ' I don't like him ' ; wel gin i, ' I would rather ' (cf. wel i mi, 
' I had better ') ; wa:yB gin i, dim ods gin i, ' it is all the same to 
me ', 'I don't care ' ; may n rhy: bo:y6 gin t, ' it is too hot for me ' ; 
pe6 hdla gin i ddi gweld . . ., ' there is nothing I hate more than 
seeing . . / ; debig Kin i, ' I suppose ' ; may n haus gin ivebul, ' I am 
rather inclined to think'; may n hu:yr gin i gwelt hi n mendjo, ' I 
am longing to see her get better ' ; 3 pe:6 gora 'gmoxi ga:l ar * 
deyar, ' the thing you like to get best in the world ' ; / ?di hi dim dn 
rhy: vy:an 'gmoxi yweld if, 'you don't think it too soon to see 
me ? ' also after a predicative noun with dn : may y gwestjun gin 
i 'vedruxi godi vory, ' I rather doubt whether you will be able to get 
up to-morrow '. (2) ' by ', expressing the agent after a passive 
verb : Sary o ga:yl i la:b (= mi labuyd o) gmo vo, ' he was killed by 
him'. (3) where English usage requires 'from' in cases like the 
following : ga: ivenQig su:lt 'gmoxi?, ' will you lend me a shilling ? ' ; 
xeuxi mo r gwi:r gmo vo, ' you can't get the truth out of him ' ; gin 
buy -prmnisti o ?, ' from whom did you buy it ? ' (4) after kayl, 
with a person from whom permission is obtained : os KeiQ o gin 
i da:d, l if his father will let him '. (5) ' with, because of ' : krmny 
gin annuyd, 'to shiver with cold'; meQy gweld d ko:yd gin brenja, 
' not to see the wood for the trees '. (6) rarely in phrases of the 
form : r he:n fu:l gano vo !, ' the old fool ! ' ; r he:n grjadyr gin 2 
nhaid, ' my old grandfather '. 

gini, s.m., pi. ginis, gini, T.N. 4. 30, 'guinea ' : day gini, 'two 
guineas ' ; pentur o ginis anvarB, ' an immense heap of guineas '. 

gmo, v. [egmo~\. 

.) s. \Kiygron\. 



gisgla:s 149 

gis, Eng. (Dial.) gis, giss, Sc. and N. Eng., a call to pigs (to 
make them come to the speaker). According to O.H. bik was 
formerly said to one, gis to a number, but now gis is used in both 
cases. 

gjalam (W.H. ; I.W. ; O.H.), gwialam (O.H.) ; gwalan (J.J.), 
s.f., pi. gjalams, gwia/ams, gwialyms. Cf. also gwi:al. With the 
article p wjalam^ gw'ialen, D., ' rod ' : gjalam vedu, ' birch rod ' ; 
gjalam (by)sgotta, vuirjo (voirjo), ( fishing-rod ' ; gjalam heyarn 
\fru:yn\ ; gjalam ayr, ' agrimony ' (Agrimonia Eupatoria) ; gjalam 
arjan, kind of plant (sp. ?) Also ' penis '. 

gjalxan, gal\an ; i:alx (I.W.), s.f., pi. gjal\od. With the article 
9 wjalxan, mwyalchen, D., * blackbird ' (Turdus merula). 

glan, s.f., pi. glennyb, glanna, glann, D. (i) ' shore, bank ' : glan 
9 mo:r, ' sea-shore ' (pi. glanna morod) ; glan 9r avon, ' the bank of 
the river ' : may r avon wedi tori dros i glennyb, ' the river has 
overflowed its banks ' ; ar Ian 9 be:b, ' on the brink of the grave '. 

(2) the place is a quarry where the slates are dressed, and in general 
the sides of the quarry as compared with the tul or deep workings. 

gla.fi, adj., glan, D. (i) 'clean': du:r gla:n, 'clean water'; 
kleri gla:n, ' clean collars '. (2) ' pure ' : hmro gla:n (gloyu), 'a 
pure Welshman '. (3) ' good-looking, beautiful ' : merx la:n 9stuy6 y 
' a fine sprightly girl '. (4) 'utterly, entirely ': mi 'ayhovis ?n la:n 
neiQjur, 1 1 clean forgot last night ' ; meBis in la:n (loyu), ' I failed 
utterly ' ; ovnaduy la:n, " awfully " ; kodi n la:n ar (imp.), ' to cease 
entirely ' : mi godod zn lam arna i i vynd 9 mla:yn hevo farad seisnag, 
( I entirely gave up speaking English ' : mi godoS sn la:n arno vo ar 
ganol i bregaB, ' he utterly broke down in the middle of his sermon '. 

glandag, adj., glandeg, D., s.v. ' mundus ' ; ' good-looking ' : dy:n 
glandag. 

glanwaQ, adj., glanwaith, D., s.v. ' mundus ' ; ' clean and neat ' : 
r 0:8 na rubaB dtgri mi hi ond r 0:8 hi n reit dut^ in reit lanwaB 
(O.H.), 'there was something funny about her, but she was quite 
tidy, quite clean and neat '; dgob lanwaB deidi meun mynyd (O.H.), 
' a clean, neat job, all in a minute ' \farm lanwaB. 

glanweiBdra, s., glanweithdra, D., s.v. ' munditia ' ; ' cleanliness 
and neatness'. 

gla:s, s.m., pi. glasys, * glass, tumbler ' ; ' looking-glass '. 

gla:s, adj., pi. gleif'on, glas, D. (i) 'blue': r awyr /a:s, 'the 
blue sky ' ; karag !a:s, pi. Kerig gleifon, * slate ' ; krogan la:s y 
pi. kregin gleif'on, * mussel '. (2) * green ' : ti:r gla:s, ' lawn, grass- 
plot 9 ; klut gla:s o vlayn 9 /y:, 'a green patch before the house'. 

( 3) implying youth : riu la:s hogan, ' a young girl ' ; cf. glaslangc, 
D., s.v. ' adolescens ', ' iuuenculus '. (4) ' grey ' : Kefyl gla:s, ' a grey 
horse ' ; byux la:s, ' a grey cow ' ; d.glasy (of the hair) ; bora gla:s, 



150 glasan gla:u 

' dawn ' ; cf. W.B., col. 73. 29. (5) epithet of death, 9gelyngla:s ; cf. 
C.C. 12. 13, also 9 gla:s, ' death ' ; gelyn gla:s = also 4 a deadly 
enemy ' ; cf. D.F. [75]. 3. (6) with intensive meaning or the 
like : ovnatsan la:s ! * extraordinary ! ' ; y:n gla:s ddi o, 'he is a 
tough customer ' ; gwalx gla:s 9di o, may o n wydyn vel kortyn \ 
r u:yti ny:n gla:s /, ' you're a fine fellow ! ' (ironically) ; may n hu:yr 
gla:s i mi vynd, ' it is high time for me to go ' ; ar i w'e'yBa gla:s, 
' in spite of him '. 

glasan, s.f., pi. glasennod, glasen, 'young girl '. 

glasrau, s., glasrew, D.G. 1. 21, 'rain fallen and congealed' 
(Fr. ' verglas '). 

gla:srewi, v., glasrewi, may hi wedi -gla:s'rewi, 'the ground is 
covered with a coating of ice ' ; ' the rain, has frozen as it fell '. 

glastur, s.m., glasdwr, Sion Tudur in G.R. [370]. 13 ; cf. 
glastwfyr, W.B., col. 203. 10, 'cold water and buttermilk ' ; fig. of 
something flimsy, of a milk-and-water character : syt ma: nu m 
neiB d day dim glastur. 



glastura, v., ' to work in a lazy, dawdling fashion ' : paid a glastur a 
hevo d9 waiB (O.H.). 

glastur -ad, adj., ' flimsy, milk-and-water ' : pregaB lasturab. (W.H.). 

glaswyn, adj., glaswyn, W.LI. Ixv. 5, 'greyish white': byux 
laswan. 

glasy, v., glasu, D. (i) ' to turn green ' : may po:b man dy glasy, 
' everything is turning green ' (in spring) ; may r gwair d-y glasy m 
9 da:s, 'the hay turns green in the stack'. (2) 'to turn grey' (of 
the hair) : gwa:lt dy glasy. 

glaf'ad, s.m., pi. glafeidja, ' a glassful ' : glafad o guru, ' a glass 
of beer '. 

glafad, s.m., glasiad, 2 Kings vii. 7, ' the peep of day '. Cf. 
bora gla:s. 

gla:u, s.m., pi. glawogyb, glaw, D., ' rain ' : luru gla:u, ' to rain ' ; 
may n debig aru i la:u, ' it looks very like rain ' ; may hi am la:u 
vory, ' it is going to rain to-morrow ' ; may n troi n la:u, ' it is 
turning to rain ' ; may hi n hel gla:u, ' rain is coming on, the clouds 
are gathering for rain ' ; may hi wedi kay am la:u, ' it has set in 
for rain ' ; gobeiBjo neiQ i dim gla:u, ' I hope it won't rain ' ; may hi 
wedi gneyd gla:u maur (gla:u garu), 'it has rained very heavily'; 
rhak ovn idz hi ga:yl gla:u idi hi, ' for fear of it getting wet ' (in the 
rain) ; may hi wedi dal zn hi:r heb dim gla:u, ' we have had no rain 
for a long time ' ; may na vo:r o la:u etto, ' there is any amount of 
rain to come yet ' ; dary mi moxal 3 gla:u m oxor 9 klaud, ' I 
sheltered from the rain behind the wall ' ; mynd dn o:l ag 9 mla:yn 
i r gla:u, ' to go in and out into the rain ' ; may xufy'ad (xwifjad) 



glaujo gttyo 151 

gla:u tni hi heno, ' the wind promises rain ' ; smukkan o !a:u, gla:u 
ma:n, gla:u fox<*n, * drizzle ' ; may himpigogla:u, ' it is " spotting " 
rain ' ; gla:u irana, ' thunder rain ' ; gla:u gola, ' rain when the sky 
is bright towards the east ' looked upon as a bad sign (Llan- 
fairfechan) ; gla:u mi:s mat, * May rain ' (ma: nu y gadu vo tru r 
vluybyn, may o n da: %hag 9 gavod a (ay meun aniveiljaid, O.H.). 

glaujo, v., glawio, D., ' to rain ' (= burn gla.it, buru) : may hi y 
glaujo, ' it is raining'; bary hi laujo n drum {= n aru) neiBjur, ' it 
rained heavily last night ' ; mi lawiB os goslei6 9 gwynt, ' it will 
rain if the wind drops ' ; glaujo n bu:ys t ' to rain steadily ' ; may na 
i ovn na glaujo net'B i tru: r dy:b, ' I am afraid it will rain all day ' ; 
may hi n du:ad i laujo, ' it is coming on to rain '. 

glawog, adj., glawog, D., ' rainy ' : ar burnod glawog. 

gletnt, s.m., goleuni, D. ; goleini, C.C.M. 14. 7, Might': s ax* 
ifo gleint?, ' do you want a light ? ' 

gle'tfad, s., gleisiad, D., ' sewin ' (I.W.). 

glet/'o, v., gloesio, D., ' to vomit ' : pu:ys gleif'o, ' inclination to 
vomit '. 

glendid, s.m., glendid, D., ' beauty ' : dotjo at i glendid hi. 

gleny, glenyd, v. [glmy\ 

gle:u, adj., pi. gleujon, glew, D. (i) 'hearty, well': hyuyn reit 
le:u 8ary mi, ' I started heariily enough '. Very common in answer 
to inquiries about health in the form go le:u, 'pretty well ': sy da\i 
heibju ? n o le:u. go le:u is also used adjectively or adverbially in 
the sense of * fair, rather, pretty well ' in such cases as the following : 
r zda\i wedi hel tippin go h:u o ve:l i r ku:x, ' you have feathered 
your nest pretty well ' ; ma: honna n o le:u o harb, ' that is rather 
pretty ' ; da\i wedi kafjo n o !e:u, ond da\i dim ?n jaun, ' you have 
guessed pretty well, but you are not right'. (2) 'pertinacious, 
persistent, tenacious ' : r he:n deklyn gle:u ; esp. ' tenacious as 
regards money ' : pobol m medwz ag an mynd an leujon, i.e. one can 
get nothing out of them. (3) ' grasping ' : dy:n gle:u jaun ?di o. 
Cf. T.N. 308. 30, Mae gwyr o gyfraith yn bethe glewion, Hwy 
wnant am arian yn ddi feth Ar f einioes y peth a fynon. 

glewa, v., glewa, O.P., ' to be grasping '. 

gleyad; g&yod (].].), s.m., glaiad, D., 'dried cow-dung used as 
fuel '. 

gleyadan, s.f., glaiaden, D., ' a piece of dried cow-dung '. 

gleyo, gly:o, v., goleuo, D. Fut. gleya. Imperative gleya ; 
gleyu\. (Forms from this verb are used indiscriminately with those 
from gola.) (i) ' to light ' : gleyux * ta:n, ' light the fire '. (2) ' to 
lighten ' : may hi y gleyo me:/, ' it is lightning ' ; may hi y gleyo 
dreigja, ' it is sheet lightning '. (3) ' to glow, to shine ' : prrvaid 
ba:x sy y gleyo, i.e. glow-worms. (4) 'to become light': er pen 



152 glidjo gly:b 

may hi wedi gleyo, 'since is was light'; may y gleyo dippin, 'it is 
getting a bit lighter '. (5) ' to enlighten, explain '. (6) ' to go 
away suddenly, quickly', in the expression gleya hi n da vla:yn, 
' off with you ' = gloivi. 

glidjo, v., gludio, D., s.v. ' haereo ' ; 'to adhere, stick ' : ba:u zy 
glidjo ag 9y gleny ; ba:u dy glidjo m dx gwymmad xi d ku:yr wedi 
glidjo n i glistja. 

gli:n, s.m., pi. glinja, glin, D., ' knee ' : pen,gli:n, ' the top of the 
knee ; knee ' ; padal pen gli:n (O.K.), ' knee-cap ' = (pjpelan pen 
gli:n (J.J.) ; avjexid ar ben gli:n, ' an affection of the knee '. 

glivirin, glwinir, s., pi. glivirjad, gylfinhir, D., ' curlew ' 
(Numenius arquata). 

glo:, s.m., glo, D., ' coal ' : gwaiQ glo:, pul glo:, ' coal-mine ' ; 
kut glo:, ' coal-shed ' ; bukkad glo:, ' coal-scuttle ' ; klap o lo, ' lump 
of coal ' ; glo: ma:n (= sleks), ' slack ' (opp. glo: bra:s) ; glo: gwydt, 
' coal which burns away quickly ' = glo: flamed. 

gloivi, v., gloywi, D. (i) 'to polish' : gloivi sgidja, 'to polish 
boots'; gloivi ge:r, 'to polish harness'; gloivi fofyfa, 'to groom 
horses ' ; gloivi hi, ' to run away ' ; pe 'gwelati o n i gloivi hi!, ' you 
should have seen him take to his heels ! ' (2) ' to pour away 
a liquid and leave the sediment' (cf. gloyvon)} also used of 
potatoes : glb'yvux 2 du:r oi ar 9 tattus, ne mi 'vsbanu wedi muyglo, 
' pour away the water from off the potatoes or they will be all in 
a mush '. (3) ' to improve in appearance, to look smart and 
spruce ' : ma: hun a hun wedi gloivi n aru (= gwela i olug), e.g. 
after having had money left him, or having become sober (O.H.). 
(4) ' to become thin or clear ' (of liquids). 

gloyn, gloyun ; gloyvyn, gluyvyn (O.H.), s.m. and pi. only in 
glo:yn (etc.) byu, ' butterfly ', gloyn Duw, D. 

glb'yu, gleyu, adj., pi. gloyvon, gluyvon, gloyw, D. (i) ' clear, 
bright ' : glb'yu vel grif'al, ' clear as crystal ' ; Kin Ibywad a du:r, 
' as clear as water ' ; often used to intensify gla:n, e.g. h?nro gla:n 
glb'yu, ' a thorough Welshman ' ; drzsy n la:n loyu de:g, ' to be 
utterly confused '. (2) 'polished': sgidja gluyvon. (3) 'spruce, 
etc. ' (cf. gloivi, 3) : r o: o n edrax an loyu jaun ; 9 we:d viuya 
glb'yu m 9 preimin, ' the smartest team in the show '. (4) in the 
exp. tida gluyvon, ' dribbling from the mouth ' (O.H.) = gbveirjon. 

gloyvon, glbivjon, s.pl., gloewon, O.P., " the clear of a liquid " : 
glbivjon la:yd, 'whey' (O.H.); dvad 9 glbivjon a kadu r kaus 
(O.H.)- 

gluvar, s.m., glwfer, T.N. 17. 17, Eng. glover, 'tanner' = dy:n 
2y gneyd ledar ag an tri:n 9 kru:yn. 

gly.b, adj., fern. gle:b, pi. gbbjon, comp. gbppax, gwlyb, D., 
* wet ' : sn ly:b vel davrgi, ' like a drowned rat ' ; 3n ly:b d9veryd 



glybanjaB gntyd 153 

' dripping wet ' = m ly:b soppan dail domman ; ma: r dmvyb m ly:b, 
1 the weather is wet ' ; jo: gly:b, ' an unweaned calf ' ; (fig.) ' a raw 
youth ', ' a dull person ' ; pobol bbjon, * soakers '. Substantively : 
gly:b a gwely, ' hot water and milk, and lodging '. 

glybanjaB, s.m., gwlybaniaeth, D., ' wetness, dampness, moisture ' : 
hi:r lybanjaB, hi:r S9\tur (weather proverb). 

glybur, s.m., gwlybwr, D., ' wetness, dampness, moisture '. 

gly:d, s.m., glud, D., ' viscous matter in the ears, wax ' = ku:yr 
(O.H). 

glyn, s.m., pi. gbnnot, glyn, D., ' valley '. 
gly:n [9 'nly:n~\. 

gb\y, v., gwlychu, D., 'to wet ' ; ' to be wet ' : may ifo giant 
i b\y 9 Seyar dippin, * rain is wanted to wet the ground a little ' ; 
may o wedt gbyy n dweryd ; wedi gb^y n domman (= soppan dail 
domman) ; wedi gb%y n fibrin, ' he is dripping wet ', ' he is wet 
through ' ; dary x* byy ?, * did you get wet ? ' 

gbny(d); gleny(d) (E.J., J.J., O.H.), v., glynu, D., 'to stick': 
may o y kay glmy, ' it won't stick ' ; ma: r bara y gbny zn 9\ Ke:g 
Xt, ' (badly-baked) bread sticks to your mouth ' ; he:n snavad zy 
gbnyd m i gi'h'd, ' slimy matter sticking together ' (e. g. on 
a pond). 

glweirjo, v., glyfoeriaw, O.P., ' to slobber, slaver, dribble '. 

glzveirjon, s.pl., glafoerion, D., ' dribblings from the mouth, 
slaver ' : burn (guluri) gbveirjon, ' to slobber '. 

glwnjad, gbvinad ; glivinad (O.H.), s., gylfinaid, lit. 'beakful ' : 
glwnjad o levriQ, ' a mouthful of milk '. 

gneyd, v. Fut. S. i.gna:(v), 2.gnet, $.griei6,gngif. PI. i.gnaun, 
gna:n y 2. gneux, 3- gna:n. Imperf. S. i.gneyBun; gnaun, 2.gney6at; 
gna:yt, gnait, 3. gneyBa ; gna:y> gna:. PI. i. gneyBan ; gna:n, 2. 
gneyBax; gna:\, 3. gneyBan; gna:n, gna:yn. Pret. S. i. gne:s, 
grieis, 2. gnest, grieist, 3. gna:6. PI. i. gneyBon, gneyson, 2. gneyBox, 
' gneysox, 3. gneyBon, gneyson. 'Pres. Subj. S. 3. gnelo. Pl.i.gne/on, 
2. gnelox, 3. gnelon. Imperative gna: ; gneux- Fut. Pass, gneir. 
Pret. Pass, gnaud, gwneud, D.G. ccv. 14 (gwneuthur, D). (i) 'to 
make' (in various senses) : may nu wedi grieyd ka:n arno vo y 'they 
made a song about him ' ; gntyd ta:n, ' to make a fire ' ; nid po:b 
koyd neiB drol, ' not every wood will make a cart ' ; wedi neyd 
o go:yd, ' made of wood ' ; gneyd jexi i doi tai, ' to make slates for 
roofing houses ' ; gneyd gwely, ' to make a bed ' ; gneyd hu:yl am 
ben ru:m, ' to make fun of some one ' ; gneyd nada, ' to scream ' ; 
gneyd padar ( = stori) o hono vo, ' to make a long story of it ' ; 
gneyd pas arno vo, ' to take him in ' ; gneyd pre:s, ' to make money ' ; 
gneyd s/u:r, ' to make a noise ' ; gneyd stimja t ' to make grimaces ' ; 



154 gneyd 

gneyd sylu ( = dal sylu), ' to pay attention ', ' take notice '; gneyd ' tro:yd 
i davarn, ' to set foot in a public house ' ; gneyd (= kadu] turu, ' to 
make a noise ' ; gneyd zmdrax, ' to make an effort ' ; grieydm vaur o, 
1 to make much of, ' to make the most of : rhaid gneyd 3n vaur 

bo:b durnod bra:v ga:ni ru:an, ' we must make the best of every 
fine day we get now '. Cf. G.R. (2) 8. with noun as appositive 
complement : gneyd 9 gwair m vsdala dros 2 sy:l, ' to gather the 
hay in heaps over Sunday ' ; with adjective as appositive com- 
plement : r 9du i wedi neyd o y grwax hetiju, ' I have made it 
stronger to-day ' ; ma: r d#wy tamp ma 3y gneyd ru:in m flat, ' this 
damp weather makes one feel dull ' ; puintjo mo:x = gneyd nu 
n deujon ; gneyd linja o va:x i vaur, ' to enlarge photographs ' ; 
gneyd 9x hy:n m v^xan, 'to make yourself small', i.e. 'to crouch 
down ' ; similarly : gneyd i hy:n vel zr o.yd o, ' to make himself 
as he was ' ; followed by 2, ' to make ', i. e. ' to force, compel ' : 
yvo: na:B i mi x^erBtn t l he made me laugh ' ; of weather, cf. 
Fr. ' faire ' : may. hi y gneyd terwyd gly:b jaun, ' it is very wet 
weather ' ; hurax 9 gneif higavod, ' perhaps there will be a shower ' ; 
may hi wedi gneyd gla:u maur, ' there has been heavy rain '. 

(2) to do ' : be nesti hevo vo ?, ' what did you do with it ? ' ; 
zn meBy gubod be 'n'eyBuni, ' not knowing what to do ' ; gneu'xi:, na: 
i: 8im, 'you do it, / won't ' ; be naun i ond deyd 9 gwi:r a deyd na 
naun i m ono vo ?, ' what should I do but tell the truth and say 

1 wouldn't do it ? ' ; ru:an daxi wedi gn'e'yt z7, ' now you've done 
it ! ' ;* beQ bmnag "nelonu, ' whatever they do ' ; beB fonnag a ne'iB o, 
' whatever he does ' ; 'vedrani dim gneyd day waiB ar ynwaB, ' we 
can't do two things at once ' ; os o.yd riu dru:g wedi neyd, ' if some 
evil had been done ' ; daxi y gneyd gwerB ax bu:yd?, * does what 
you do make up for your keep ? ' ; ddi o wedi gneyd djoni 
(= le:s) ?, ' has it done any good ? ' ; gneyd i or a, ' to do one's 
best ' ; gneyd kam hevo, * to wrong ' ; gneyd 9 tro:, ' to do, to answer 
the purpose ' ; gneyd heb, ' to do without '. Other senses are : 
(a) ' to do (with), concern ' : rubaB nelo vo dim a vo, ' something 
which does not concern him ' ; be sy 'neloxi a ni: ?, ' what have you 
to do with us ? ' ; t o:s na 8im 'neloxi a m':, ' you have nothing to 
do with me '. (b) ' to do ', ' to be good, seemly ' : ne'iB hon ivytta />, 
Ms this good to eat?' (c) 'to cheat' (Eng. to "do"): gneyd 
ru:in. (d) * to cook': gneyd bu:yd ; gneyd d suppar, 'to cook, 
get ready the supper ' (Anglo- Welsh ' to make the supper ') ; na: 
i neyd x^anag 'arnynu, ' I will do (cook) them more ' ; na i neyd 
nu vory gad ni ka:l nu n o:yr r usnos nesa, ' 111 cook them to- 
morrow so as to have them cold next week '. 

(3) as auxiliary : (a) used with the infinitive instead of the 
synthetic forms of the verb : na i garjo vo ?, ' shall I carry it ? ' 
Ans. i:a ; na i weidi n saiB mu:y, ' I'll shout seven times louder ' ; 
/ 9du i dim sn amma na ne'iB i glirjo, ' I do not doubt it will clear 
up ' ; ma na i ovn na glaujo ne'iB i tru: r dy:b, ' I am afraid it will 



go: gobeiBjol 155 

rain all day ' ; vain/ o amsar nfiB o bara />, ' how long will it last ? ' ; 
ne'yBa hi dim myndfor araj^, ' it wouldn't go any other way ' ; ne:s 
i dim gbxy> 1 1 didn't get wet '. (b) as polite form of the imperative : 
neuxi aros ?mma f>, ' will you wait here ? ' Ans. gnaw, ' Yes ' ; 
na: na (i), ' No ' [with the verbs mynd and du:ad the answer is 
generally a.-v, do:(v)] ; neuxi roi %hei n 3 mhen oral 9 burt r, ' will 
you put these things at the other end of the table ? . (c) to avoid 
repetition of the same verb : \masun (= \2msuri) i lawar a x^fdad 
i gonuy heno a xmasa X*0a xwai&, na neyBax?, * I wouldn't walk to 
Conway for a great deal to-night and you wouldn't either, would 
you ? ' ; mi gadwiB 9 du:r 9in boy B ax m 9 teKa^ nag 9n 9 dgug, 9y 
gne'i'6 f>, * the water will keep hotter in the kettle than in the jug, 
won't it?'; neuxi gany pen do:nu, ?y gneux?, 'you will ring when 
they come, won't you ? ' ; mi deydod hi u6a i, " Kerux i no:/ glo: 
i mi", " na: na, wi:r", meda vi, 'she said to me, "go and fetch 
some coal for me ". " No, I won't ", said I ' ; di:o/x os neiB o, 
' I hope he will ' ; dary mi ovyn ido vo vynd and na:6 o dim, 
1 1 asked him to go, but he didn't do so ' (Anglo- Welsh ' he 
didn't do '). 

(4) verbal noun used as attributive genitive : byrym gneyd, 
' home-made barm '. 

go: (long only when emphatic), adv., go, D., (emphatic) ' very ' ; 
(not emphatic) ' rather, pretty, fairly ' : vedar ogynrra:ig ? go: x?d*g> 
' does he know Welsh ? Very little ' ; hm'ra:ig go wayl s gmo 
vo, * his Welsh is rather poor ' ; fy:8 go X 3 dig o amsar, l there won't 
be much time ' ; du i wedi bo:d am dro: go da:, ' I've been for 
a pretty good walk ' ; dsnas go vaur, ( a good-sized woman ' ; 
sy daxi heidju ? n o le:u, ' how are you to-day ? ' ' Pretty well '. 

go:, s.m., pi. govaint, gof, D., * smith ' : r o:d o n o:, * he was 
a smith '. 

gobaiB, s.m., pi. gobeiQjon, gobaith, D., ' hope ' : byu meun gobaiQ 
o hy:d, ' to live always in hope ' ; may gobaiB noswe'iBja go/a n 
vy:an ru:an, ' there is hope of light evenings soon now ' ; hevo 
gobaiB, ' I hope so ' ; o:ys 'gwoxi rei nad o:ys dim gobaiQ ytynu 
fosgy byB ?, ' have you some for whom there is no hope that they 
will ever learn ? ' ; gobaiB magy, ' in the family way ' ; ma gmi hi 
obaiB magy o hono vo, ' she is pregnant by him '. 

gobeiBjo, v., gobeithio, D., ' to hope ' : * I hope ' is often expressed 
simply by the infinitive : gobeiBjo na n'eifhi dim para n hi:r, ' I hope 
it won't last long ' ; gobeiBjo 9 pariB o dros dolig, * I hope it will last 
over Christmas ; gobeiBjo r ta:d ( r annul) /, I hope to goodness ! ' 

gobeiBjol, adj., gobeithiawl, O.P., 'hope-inspiring': zdi o n 
obeiBjol), 'is there hope of recovery?' (from the injury); dy:n 

gobeiBjol, * a promising man '. 



156 gobennyb gogor 

gobennyd, s.m., pi. goben^ja, gobennydd, D., ' bolster ' : ka:s 
gofiennyd, ' bolster case ' (= jydad). 

godakja, i.e. God ache : godakja **'/, ' drat you ! ' (more often 
dakja). 

godra, s.m., godre, D. (i) 'skirt, bottom part of a dress or any 
garment ' : kodux odra x trausys, ' turn up your trousers ' ; kodi 
godra (of a woman), ' to lift the skirts ', and fig. kodi i godra hi, ' to 
show her up, to expose her failings '. (2) ' skirt, bottom ' (e.g. of 
a mountain) : mzriyd a i odra gorlewinol 9n 9 mo:r, ' a mountain 
whose base is washed by the sea on the western side '. 

godrapja, ' drat ' (generally drafja) : godrapja \i ! 

godro, v., godro, D., ' to milk ' : sto:l odro, ' milking-stool ' ; 
gwar&ag godro, ' milch cattle ' ; pry:d vasa n or a i mi odro ?, ' when 
had I better do the milking ? ' 

go8a0, s., goddaith, D., in phrase goftati o da:n = furnas 
o da:n (J J.), ' a mass of flame, a blazing furnace ' (said of a great 
fire). Cf. kolkarB, wemflam. 

godav, v., goddef, D., ' to bear ' (with) : gobav t'do vo, ( to bear 
with him ' ; daxi y godav i mi beyd peBa rfovad. 

go:g, s.f., pi. koga, cog, D. (i) ( cuckoo ' : Kin lonad a r go:g, 
' as blithe as a lark ', ' as bright as a button ', ' as right as 
a trivet ' ; hetbju vel go:g, vory vel taru, ' to-day as bland as a dove, 
to-morrow raging like a bull ' (of people of changeable character) ; 
mi welis i go:g, ' I saw a cuckoo ' ; bu:yd 9 go:g, ' wood sorrel ' 
(Oxalis Acetosella). 

g g<y, v., goganu, D., ' to speak evil of : gogany dy:n 9n igevn ; 
gena gla:n i ogany (prov.). 

gogard, Gogarth, cf. D., s.v. < garth ' ; only in the place-name 
9 gg ar > l Great Orme's Head ' : pen 9 gogard is the extremity of 
that promontory. 

goglad, s.m., gogledd, D., ' north ' : gogla duyran, ' north-east '. 

goglas, s.m., goglais, D., ' itching ' : ma: nu n oglas i gi:d, * they 
are itching all over ' ; kodi gog las arno vo, ' to tickle him '. 

goglas, v., goglais, ' to tickle ' : paid a yoglas t, ' do not tickle 
me ' ; fig. goglas 3 teimlada, ' to tickle the feelings '. 

goglebol, adj., gogleddol, D., s.v. ' borealis ' ; ' northern ' : gleini 
gogkbol, ' northern lights '. 

goglttfol, adj., gogleisiawl, O.P., ' ticklish ' (J.J.). 

gogonjant, s.m., gogoniant, D., s.v. ' gloria ' ; ' glory '. Used as 
excl. of delight. 

gogor, s.m., pi. gogra, gogr, D., ' sieve ' : gogor rhaun (= gogor 
hidil), ' hair sieve ', ' strainer ' (for milk) ; may o vel gogor hidil, said 
of one who cannot keep a secret ; gogor pyro (O.H.), used for 



gogrogolxi 157 

corn ; gogor is also used for ' riddle ' for riddling cinders = %hidi[. 
[gogor is the generic term ; rhidi^ = ' riddle ' only.] 

gogro, v., gogro, ' to sieve '. 

gogrun, v., cf. gogrynu, D. (i) ' to sieve '. (2) 'to squander ' : 
may o y gogrun 9 kubul, ' he squanders everything'. (3) ' to sway 
from side to side .as one riddling ' : gogrun mynd. 

goxal, v., gochel, D., ' to beware, take heed ' : go\al rhag i be:6 
8u:ad; 9 ne:b sy m byu meun ty: gwydyr go\elad lixjo forig (prov.), 
' people who live in glass houses should not throw stones '. 

gala, s.m. (pi. goljada\ goleu, D., ' light ' : rhoigola ar 9 gannuyl, 
1 to light the candle ' ; dal gola iru:in, f to hold a light to some one ''; 
r 9dani rhuy day ola, ' it is twilight ', i. e. ' between daylight and 
artificial light ' ; gweiBjo n fogyn o ola r* ola, ' to work hard from 
dawn till nightfall ' ; may hi n lu:yd ola, ' it is dusk ' ; fig. kayl gola 
ar rubaQ, ' to get enlightenment on some question'; riu &ru:g 9n 
du:ad i r gola, ( some evil coming to light '. 

gola, adj., comp. gleya\, goleu, D. (i) ' light' : noswe'iQja gola, 
' light evenings ' ; may hi n ola am hannar aur wedi xwe-'X, ' it is 
light at half-past six ' ; r o:d 9 leyad m ola, ' the moon was shining '. 
(2) ' clear ', of the air (opp. to dul). (3) ' light ', of colours : pry:d 
gola, ' a light, fair complexion ' ; gwadtgola, ' fair hair '. (4) ' well 
versed ' : dy:n gola 9n i veibil, ' a man well versed in the Bible '. 

gola t v., goleu. Pret. gotis. Imperative, gola; golux (cf. 
gleyo), ' to light ' : gola matfan, Kettyn, kannuyl, ta:n, ' to light a 
match, pipe, candle, fire ' ; may r gas yy gola ru:an, ' the gas will 
light now ' ; du i dgest a gola if'o di:od, ' I am almost on fire for 
want of a drink '. 

gold mair, s., gold Mair, D., ' marigold ' (Chrysanthemum 
segetum). 

goldyn, s., goldyn, D.G. li. 38, ' a gold coin ' : m velyn vel goldyn 
(W.H.); also applied to persons: 9 goldyn lartf, 9 goldyn fi:ab 
(O.K.). 

golx, s.m., golch, D., ' urine ' (formerly kept for cleaning 
purposes) : rhoid gjalam vedu 9n 9 golx, l to put a rod in pickle '. 
(Cf. irbrug.) 

golxbran, s.m., golchbren, R., ' beetle ' (washing instrument 
formerly in use) = kolbran (J.J.). 

go/xi,v., golchi, D. Imperative gol\a. (i) * to wash': golxf 
dilad, golxi ( mo/xt) dylo\ gol\i kstri suppar, ' to wash up the 
supper things ' ; golxi 9 laur, ' to clean the floor ' ; golxi 9 bgaid 
meun du:r oy:r, ' to bathe the eyes in cold water ' ; kruk gol\i, 
'washing tub'; troxjon golxi, 'soap-suds'. (2) 'to thrash' = 
rhoid kweir. 



158 golxjon gora 

golxjon, s.pl., golchion, D., f proluvies ' ; c pig's food ; dish-water '. 

golxrag, s.f., golchwraig, D., * washerwoman ; washer ' : may hi 
n olxrag reit 8a:, f she is a very good washer '. 
golxva, s., golchfa, D., s.v. ' lauatrina ' ; c a thrashing '. 

going, s.m.f., golwg, D. (i) ' sight ' (in various senses) : nabod 
ar 9 golug, uB 9 golug, ' to know by sight ' ; r o:y o wedi koti i 
olug, ' he had lost his sight ' ; 8ary o dim kodi i olug, ' he did not 
raise his eyes ' ; be u:ti n dal d olug arna i ?, ' why are you staring 
at me ? ' ; meun golug, 9n 9 golug, * in sight ' ; alan o r golug, ' out of 
sight ' ; wedi mynd o r golug, ' disappeared ' ; d o:ys na Sim golug 
arno vo ru:an, ' it is nowhere to be seen ' ; koli golug ar, ' to lose 
sight of ' ; r 0:8 'gmonu olug am lu:yB o &erig, ' they had some 
inkling they would get a cargo of stone '. (2) * appearance ' : may 
golug da: jaun 'arnynu, ' they look very well ' ; faf'un olug o.y8 arno 
vo ?, ' how did he look ? ' ; may golug buru ami hi, l it looks like 
rain ' ; an o:l po:b golug, ( to all appearances '. 

gobgys, adj., golygus, D., ' fine ', ' of prepossessing appearance ', 
* of good presence ' : dy:n, Kefyl gobgys ; golug gobgys jaun o:d 
arno vo. 

gonast, adj., comp. gonestax, onest, D. gonest, B.C. 70. 28, 
' honest ' : gonast a geirwir, l honest and truthful '. 

gonestruyb, s.m., gonestrwydd, I.G. 540. 12 ; onestrwydd, D., 
s.v. * bonitas ' ; ' honesty '. 

go:r, s.m., g6r, D., ' matter, pus ' : gwasgy 9 go:r alan o hono vo. 

gora, adj., goreu, D., ' best ' : 9 Ki:g gora glu:is i eri'o:yd, ' the 
best meat I ever tasted ' ; kovjon gora at, ' kindest remembrances 
to ' ; 3 gora o r o:l, 9 gora o r y:n, ' the best of all ' ; gora po:b 
dim, * the best thing of all ' ; gora pen ora, f so much the 
better ' : u:ti y gneyt i n o le:u / 9du wel, gora pen ora ; 
gora n 9 by:d, ' all the better ' ; tro:yd gora 9 mleyna, ' best 
foot foremost ' ; gora pey g9nta, ' the sooner the better ' ; gora 
pen vuya, ' the more the better ' ; gora bo: r durnod, gora bo: r 
gwaiQ, ' the better the day, the better the deed ' ; gneyd 9 gora o r 
gwe'y&a, ' to make the best of it ' ; 9 gora welis i a bgad 9 mhen 
dri'o:yd, ' the best I ever set my eyes on ' ; 9 berwyd gora o r y:n, 
f the best life of all ' ; followed by gin (cf. may n 8a: gin i] : 
p ryn di r gora gin ti ?, ' which do you like best ? ' ; be di r gora 
g9no vo ga:lf, ' what does he like to have best ? ' ; as substantive : 
r 9du i wedi gneyd 9 yora, ' I have done my best ' ; gneyd i ora gla:s, 
4 to do one's level best ' (cf. T.N. 90. 27) ; am 9 gora, ' in emulation, 
Fr. ' a qui mieux mieux ' (Anglo- Welsh, ' for the best ') ; mr9son am 
9 gora, ' to vie with one another ' ; 9n mynd am 9 gora i vo:d 9y 
g9nta, ( (each one) trying to get first ' ; ar 9 gora occurs in the 
expression mi na: i ar 9 gora a x i /> ' I will be even with you 



gorad gori 159 

yet ! ' ; ar i ora, (a) ' in one's best form ' : may o m br?e6ur da: 
jaun pen vy:& o ar i ora, ' he is a very good preacher when he is in 
his best form ' ; (b) ' straining to the utmost (and barely succeed- 
ing) ' : may o ar i ora 9y ka:l 9 bay pen Ijnin at i feilib, ' he strains 
to the utmost to make two ends meet ' ; o r gora, (a) ' all right ' ; 
(b) * well ! ' (Fr. eh bien !) ; (c) ' perfectly well ' : du i y gubod o r 
gora bo \* n deyd Kelwyb, 1 1 know perfectly well that you are 
telling a lie ' ; rhoi gora, (a) ' to give in ' : %hoi gora iko vo, * to 
give in to him ' ; (b) ' to cease ' : rhoi gora i gufjo, ' to cease 
fighting ' ; du i wedi rhoi gora i &aran o ; (c) ' to give up' : miro:B 
gora i r verx, ' he gave up the girl ' ; may nu wedi rhoi gora i ty: nu 
n lyndan, ' they have given up their house in London '. Cf. D.F. 
[151] i. Canys eu harferydyw ffrostio . . . nad rhaid iddynt roi'r 
goreu i ni mewn dim. 

gorad, s.f., pl.gorfada, koret, W.S. [A were]; cored, D., 'cataracta' 
and s.v. ' excipulae ' ; 'a space on the sea-sands enclosed on three 
sides by a wattled hedge, used for catching fish ; a weir '. Near 
Bangor occur the names gorad 9 &it, 9 gorad vaur, 9 gorad dre: 
kastal and 9 gorad go:\. 

gorad, adj. [agorad]. 
gordro, ordro, v., * to order '. 

gorb, s.f., pi. gyrti, gordd, D., ' sledge-hammer ; mallet ' : gorb 
heyarn (in slate quarries), * a sledge-hammer from 1 5 to 1 8 pounds 
in weight to drive in a ky:n kraig, to loosen the rock ' ; gorb bren 
(in slate quarries), ' a small wooden mallet used with a ky:n manolt ' ; 
gorb byba (E.J.), ' churn-staff' = gord gorBi (O.H.). 

gordrusj s., gorddrws, R. [a threshold, a hatch], ' the upper part 
of a double door ' (J.J.). 

gor/an, v., gorphen, D. Fut. S. i. gorfenna, 3. gorfenniQ. Pret. 
gorfennis, gorfis. Imperative gorfan^ gorfenna, ' to finish ' : da\i 
wedi gorfan /, ' have you finished ? ' ; dani wedi gorfan korlti, * we 
have finished churning '; da\i wedi gorfan (= darvod) hevo rhei n /, 
' have you finished with these ? ' ; hogyn, dy:n heb i or/an, ' an 
unlicked cub ', ' a freak '. 

gorfenna, s.m., GorfTenna, Yny Ihyvyr hwnn [13] ; Gorphenhaf, 
D, 'July'. 

gorfennol, adj., gorphenawl, O.P., ' in a finished state' : doux for 
ma, ma hun 9n vu:y gorfennol^ ' come this way, this (house) is in 
a more finished state '. 

gorfuys, s., gorphwys, D., ' rest '. 

gorfuyso, gorfuys, v., gorphwyso, D. Imperative gorfuysa ; 
gorfuysux, ' to rest '. 

gori, v., gori, D., s.v. ' suppuro '. (i) ' to suppurate, gather '* : 



i6o gorixwiljaQ gormod 

may va my:s ay gori (= kasgly), ' my finger is gathering '. (2) ' to 
sit ' (of a hen) : may r ja:r ay gori. 

gorixwiljaQ, s.f., gorchwyliaeth, Num. iv. 16 : ' duty, occupation, 
task ' : dilin i orixwiljaQ, ' to follow one's occupation '. 

gorivany, gorifynu; gorufynu, B.C. 43. 8. in phrase ar orivany, 
1 upwards '. 

goriwarad, s.m., gorwaered, D. ; goriwared, Micah i. 4, ' slope ' : 
pen a goriwarad, ' the top of the slope ' ; ar oriwarad, ' down ' ; 
may a le: i gi:d ar oriwarad, ' the whole place is sloping, on the 
slope ' ; ar a goriwarad, ' on the downward grade '. 

gorjad, s.m., pi. gorjada, agoriad, D. ; cf. goriadeu, B.C. 6. 4 ; 
1 6. 5, ' key ' ; tul gorjad, ' key-hole ' ; bundal o orjada, ' a bunch of 
keys ' ; gorjad mo:r, any shell of the genus Turritella. 

gorxast, s.m., pi. gorxestjon, gorchest, D., ' excellentia '. (i) 
' exploit, feat, achievement ' : / 0:8 hanny dim gorxast an a by:d, ' that 
was no feat at all ' ; may n rhiu orxast ani hi, ' she does it out of 
bravado ' ; gneyd rhiu orxast o rubaQ, ' to make a show of doing a 
great deal '. (2) ' conceit, vanity ' : i orxast sy ni 8meda vo. 

gorxestol, adj., gorchestol, D.F. [ix]. 27 ; [23]. 3; Gen. xxx. 8 ; 
B.C. 1 8. 1 6, 'conceited, vain': dy:n gorxestol = dy:n ba:x vy kredy 
mai a'vo: sy y gwelad a kubul, wela vo ne:b an debig ibo vo i hy:n 
(O.H.). 

gorxesty, v., gorchestu, O.P., ' to boast, to vaunt ' : r o.yti o n 
arvar gorxesty am i vo:d wedi vagy ny:n o saiB meun gwely peswyn, 
' he used to boast that he had been brought up one of seven in 
a chaff bed '. 

gorxuyl, s.m., pi. gorixwiljon, gorchwyl, D., ' work, duty, task ' : 
may x gorxuyl 9n dexra, ' your task is beginning '. 

gorlanu (so O.H. always) ; gorlan, s., gorllanw, D., ' high-tide ' : 
may hi m ben 'gorlanu, ' it is high-tide ' ; top gorlan, ( high-water 
mark ' ; top 'gorlanu mar8ur (neap), sbriy. 

gorlewin, s.m., gorllewin, D., ' west ' : mu:y an a gorlewin na . . ., 
' more to the west than . . . ' ; goglab orlewin, de: orlewin, ' north- 
west, south-west '. 

gorlewinol, adj., gorllewinawl, D., s.v. ' occidentalis ' ; 'western'. 

gorjyd, adj., gorllyd, D., s.v. ' purulentus '. (i) ' exuding matter '. 
(2) of fowls, ' inclined to sit ' : ja:r or]yd, ' a broody hen '. (3) of 
eggs, ' for hatching ' : u:y gorfyd. 

gormod, gormod, D., ' too much '. (i) adverb : dal gormod ar 
a de:, ' to keep too much to the right ' ; r o:y am buru gormod i mi 
8u:ad a vo: i vany, * it was raining too much for me to bring it up ' ; 
r oyd o n trastjo n ormod ar i enu, ' he trusted too much to his 
reputation '. (2) substantive : gormod o duru, ' too much noise ' ; 



gormodab gosod 1 6 1 

gormod o budi'n da&iQ &i: (prov.), ' too much pudding will choke a 
dog ', i.e. ' one can have too much of a good thing ' ; may hunna 
wedi ka:yl gormod m i vol, ' that fellow has had a drop too much '. 

gormodab, s.m., gormodedd, D., s.v. ' excelsus ' (sic) ; ' excess, 
superfluity ' : may o wedirhoi moyQa &i hi i ormodab, ' he has spoilt 
her to excess ' ; wad i ormodab. 

gorur, s.m., agorwr, i.e. * opener': gorur westras, gorur kre&in, 
'oyster-catcher' (Haematopus ostralegus). 

gorvad, v., gorwedd, D. Fut. gorveda. Pret. gorve&is ; veto's 
(O.H). Imperative gorva(ti), gorveda, ' to lie ' : gorva i laur (to 
a dog), ' lie down ' ; y gorvad vel klut, ' lying like a log ' ; 6ary 
r hu:x orvad ar 3 mo:x, ' the sow overlaid the young pigs ' ; r 0:6 9 
leyad sy gorvad ar i hoxor, * the moon was lying on its side ' ; may 
hi wedi gorvad am bedwar mi:s, ' she has been laid up for four 
months ' ; also used of corn, etc., which has been laid by the 
rain ; m i orvad, ' lying down ' ; ' sloping, slanting ' : may ghe'i n 
m srtax, dim m i gorvad Kimmint, ' these are standing straighter, 
not sloping so much '. 

gorvod, v., gorfod, D., ' to be obliged, to have (to) ' : daxi wedi 
gorvod gweitjad tippin ba:x ru:an ?, ' have you had to wait a bit 
just now ? ' ; wedi gorvod tmny 9 klo: ifur i ga:yl 9 gorjad, ' having 
had to take the lock off to get the key '. 

gorvodaQ, s.m., gorfodaeth, D., ' obligation ' : / oys na dim 
gorvodati, * there is no obligation (to do so) ', ' it is not obligatory '. 

gorvolad, s.m., gorfoledd, D., ' religious ecstasy '. 

gorvolety, v., gorfoleddu, D., ' to lose control of oneself and give 
full vent to religious emotion '. 

goryxavjaQ, s.m., goruchafiaeth, D., ( supremacy ' : daxi n teimlo 
n happys ar o:l ka:yl gory\avjaQ ar rubaQ, ' you feel happy after 
getting the best of something' (e.g. arriving at the solution of 
some question). 

gosod, v., gosod, D. (i) ' to set, place ' (not commonly used except 
in certain locutions = rhoi) : gosod karag ar i fen, ' to set a stone 
on its end ' ; gosod abuyd, l to set a bait ' ; gosod burb, ' to lay 
a table ' ; gosod i hy:n y (a) ' to make oneself smart ' : may o wedi gosod 
i hy:n sn nets ; (b) ' to put on airs ' ; (c) { to put oneself in a 
position (to) '. (2) ' to let ' : gosod ty:, ' to let a house '. (3) verbal 
noun used as attributive genitive : dannad gosod, ' false teeth ' ; 
gwisgo gwa:lt gosod, ' to wear false hair '. Cf. D., s.v. ' galericulum ', 
and ' bara gosod', i Sam. xxi. 6, etc. (='bara dangos') * shew- 
bread '. 

gosod, s.m., gosod, D. (i) 'an amount placed', in the exp. 
gosod o wair i r gwartiag, ' a feed of hay for the cattle '. (2) ' a 
letting, contract ' : ar osod, ' to be let ' ; in slate quarries, ' a con- 



1 6 2 gosodjad govyn 

tract between the contractor and the men as to the pay to be given 
for a day's work '. 

gosodjad, s.m., gosodiad, L.G.C. 421, 22; lolo MSS. 229. 28; 
D., s.v. ' constructio ' ; ' demeanour, bearing ' : dy:n kbvar o ran 
i osodjad, ' a man of fine bearing ' ; dy:n o osodjad balx, ' a nian 
of proud bearing '. 

gostag, s., gosteg, D., * silence ' : gostag!, ' silence ! ' 

gostegy, v., gostegu, D. (i) ' to silence, appease ' : 9n vy.an am 
ostegy r0u, ' quick at appeasing a squabble '. Also intr. mi stegob 
9 r0u. (2) ' to fall ' (of the wind) : os gostegiB d gwynt, trans. 
gostegy r gwynt m 9 stymmog. 

gostsyedig, adj., gostyngedig, D., s.v. ' humilis ' ; ' humble '. 

gostrfl'ibruyb, s.m., gostyngeiddrwydd, D., s.v. ' humilitas ' ; 
' humility '. 

genm t s.m., pi. gerund, gown, W.S.; C.C.M. 160. 29; gwn, D., 
' gown, dress '. 

govaly, v., gofalu, D., ' to take care, to look after ' : r 9du i y 
govaly am hmny, ' I see about that ' ; may r blodyn 9n tmy a ne:b ?y 
govaly am dano, ' the flower grows though no one looks after it '. 

govalys, adj., gofalus, D., ' careful ' : govalys am, ' careful about '. 

govar, s.m., pi. goveryb, gofer, D., ' outlet of a spring, stream ' : 
may fmnon a i govar i r de: 3n jaxysol, me8a r he:n bobol (J.J.)? 
' a spring with its outlet running towards the south is wholesome, 
old people used to say '. 

govi, s.m., ? Eng. cove, ' wag '. Only in the expression he:n 
govi (W.H.). I am informed that this was a nickname given to 
an old Bangor character, and is not in general use. 

govid, s.m., gofid, D. (i) 'grief. (2) 'pain, irritation' : idori 
riu ovid ne bo:yn, ' to allay some irritation or pain ' ; o:s na lawar 

ovid m 9 briu ? (O.H.), ' does the wound give much pain ? ' Cf. 
D., gofidio, s.v. ' vlcero '. 

govzdjo, v., gofidiaw, D., ' to grieve ' : 9 galon 9y govidjo. 
govtdys, adj., gofidus, D., 'full of grief : dy:n govidys i veftul. 

govol, s.m., pi. govalon, gofal, D., ' care ' : gid a govol, ' with 
care ' ; govol 9 ru:m oyb ami hi, ' she had to look after the room ' ; 
ksmmyd govol, 'to take care'; kzmmux ovol (= tendjux, gwt'ljux) 
*gl l > ' take care not to lose it ' ; rhaid i mi g9mmyd govol rhag 

1 x* glu:ad V9 hanas i gi:d, ' I must take care you don't hear my 
whole life's history'; may n far o gammy d govol o hono vo, 'he 
is sure to take care of it '. 

govyn, v., gofyn, D. Fut. S. i. gov9nna, vmna. Pret. S. i. 
gov9nnis, vsnnis. PI. 3. govanson. Imperative govyn, govmna ; 



govyn gravyn 163 

govmnu\, ' to ask ' : govmnux ytynu tu:ad, ' ask them to come ' ; 
net/ i ovyn ytynu be 'beydsonu, ' I asked them what they said ' ; 
may hi y govyn -vasa\i n leikjo ka:yl \wiadan by sy:l, 'she 
is asking whether you would like a duck on Sunday ' ; may hi 
y govyn p gyn ta vory ta drennyb da\i am vyndfurb, ' she is asking 
whether it is to-morrow or the day after that you are going ' ; 
(gan mod i) mor hy: a govyn, ' if I may be so bold as to ask ' ; 
govyn benOig su.^i, * to borrow a shilling ' ; of animals maris 
appetentes : ma: r hu:\ zy govyn ba:yb. Cf. D., s.v. ' equio '. 

govyn, s.m., pi. govmjon, gofyn, D. (i) 'requirement*. (2) 
' debt ' : o:s 'g?noxi lawar o ovmjon />, ' have you many demands 
upon you ? ' 

gradal, s.f., gradell, W.S. [A gyrdyron], 'griddle': kly:st 9 
radal, * the handle of the griddle ' ; bar a radal (i.e. bara ar radell), 
' bread baked on a griddle '. Cf. tnbab. 

grabol, adj., graddol, W.S. [graduate], 'gradual': mxy n rabol, 
* to be sinking gradually '. 

gra/tjo, v., ' to graft '. [As distinguished from (n)impjo, grafljo 
means to graft two branches together at their ends, (n)impjo, to 
insert small shoots by raising the bark on the sides of the end of 
the stock.] 

granar, s., ' granary '. 

gra:s, s.m., gras, D. (i) 'grace' : vo6o ra:s i iif, excl. 'upon 
my word ! ' ; dyu po:b gra:s /, excl. (2) ' grace (before and after 
meals) ', gra:s Kin, ar o:l bu:yd. (3) n. pr. ' Grace '. 

gra:t, s.m., pi. gratja, grat, W.LI. (Voc.), s.v. ' alch ' ; ' grate ' : 
fon 9 gra:t, ' bar of the grate '. 

gratjad, s.m., ' as much as fills a grate': gratjad maur o da:n, 
' a blazing fire '. Cf. tanluyB. 

gratjo, v., ' to grate ' : pe:6 i ratjo finfir, ' a thing to grate 
ginger '. 

gratyr, s.m., gratur, W.S., ' grater ' : gwynab * gratyr, ' very 
rough face'. 

graun, s.m., grawn, D. (i) 'grain' (in collective sense). Cf. 
gronyn. (2) ' spawn of fish ' : do! graun, ' hard roe '. 

graval, s.f., grafel, W.S. ; grafael, C.C.M. 121. 14, 'gravel'; 
also the disease so called. 

graveiljo, grweiljo, v., grafaelio, W.S. [To grauell], ' to wear the 
sole of the foot to the raw as sheep-dogs sometimes do in wet 
weather ' ; 'to make a sore by chafing'. 

graveil jog, grweiljog, adj., ' gravelly '. 

gravyn, v., gwarafun, vulgo gorafun, D., ' to grudge ' : / a: item, 
riu ravyn o.yd o roid o ben6ig o r bla:yn, ' I won't go : he lent it 

M 2 



1 64 grawys gro: 

rather grudgingly last time ' ; 9di hi y gravyn bakko.t *zV, 'does 
she grudge you tobacco ? ' 
grawys, s.m., Grawys, D., ' Lent '. 

gra:yn, s.m., graen, D.G. Ixxxvii. 10 ; W.S. [Grayne]. (i) 
' grain ' in wood, stone, etc. : m erbyn 9gra:yn, ' against the grain ' ; 
for may i gra:yn hi?, 'which way does the grain run?' ; / u:ti 8i'm 
ar i gra:yn hi, ' you are not working with the grain '. (2) ' finish ' : 
wedi rhoid gra:yn arno vo, * having put a finish to it ' ; / o:s dim 
gra:yn ar d\ gwaiO, ( there is no finish to your work '. 

greif'an, v., cf. Eng. (Dial.) grince [to grind the teeth], Nhb., 
' to grind ' of the teeth (W.H.) = grindgan, krin/'an. 

gresyn, s.m., gresyn, D., \ngresyngaru, ' a great pity '. (Seldom 
used = pitti) 

grfyan, s.f., graian, D., ' gravel ' : may r gla:u wedi kodi 9 lo:n 
nes may hi n reyan, ' the rain has churned up the road into gravel '. 

greynys, adj. (i) of persons, animals, etc., ' in good condition ' : 
may golug greynys arno vo. (2) of work, etc., ' with a finish ', e. g. 
one can see a man is a good workman because his work is greynys 
\gra:yn\. 

gridus, gridust, v., grydwst, D. = grydian, ' grunnire ' ; cf. also 
D., s.v. 'grunnitus', 'musso'. (i) 'to jump about in pain' 
(I.W.). (2) 'to make a slight sound ', e.g. of a child in the cradle 
when waking (Bangor) said also of a whispered report : pobol 9y 
gridust hevo i gilift bod na rubaQ 9m bo:d / ydanu dim dn fu:r ond 
bodna ridust (O.K.). 

grtivan, v., griddfan, D., ' to groan ' : gribvan o dan i vqyx, 
meun po:yn, ar o:l perQmas sy wedi maru ; gribvan uB varu 
(O.H.) ; also ' to grumble ' : gribvan am la:u. 

grift, s., grifft, D., s.v. 'gyrinus'; G.O. ii. 136. 9, * frog-spawn '. 

grindil (O.H.); grindil (I.W.), s.m., cf. alch gridyll, W.S. [A 
gyrdyron], 'gridiron'. 

grindjo, v., ? greidiaw, O.P. (i) 'to roast' (O.H.) : grindjo Ki:g 
(obsolete). (2) in the phrase r o:n i y grindjo na vasun in i gad o, 
c I was mad that I could not get it ' (Bangor). 

grindgan, v., * to grind ', of the teeth = greif'an, krinf'an. 

grifa, s.pl., sing, grifin, grisiau, D., s.v. 'gradatio'; 'stairs': 
ar ben 9 grif f a, ' at the top of the stairs ' ; yy yweylod 9 grif'a, ' at 
the bottom of the stairs ' ; i vmy, i laur 9 grif'a, ' upstairs, down- 
stairs ' ; may o i vmy 9 grif'a (= zn 9 loft), ' he is upstairs '. 

grif'al, s., grisial, D., 'crystal': glb'yu vel grif'al, 'as clear as 
crystal '. 

gro:, s., gro, D., 'gravel': gro: zy yweylod 9 nant, 'gravel at 
the bottom of the stream ' ; gro: ma:n, ' shingle ', e. g. on a beach. 



gronyn gubod 165 

gronyn, s.m., pi. gromnna, gronyn, D. (i) 'a single grain': 
gronyn o weniB, ' a grain of wheat '. (2) ' scrap ' : byttob 9 fcgod o 
bo:b gronyn, ' the mice ate every scrap of it ; dim gronyn o swnuyr, 
' not a grain of sense ' ; hitjo dim gronyn MO vo % * not to care a jot 
for it '. Cf. graun. 

gro:t, s.m., pi. grotja, grod, W.LI. xvi. 79 ; gr6t, C.C. 465. 28, 
' a groat, fourpence ' : su:[t a gro:t, * one and fourpence ' ; moxyn 
gro:t /, term of reproach, e. g. to a dog ; net di by6 ro:t m xw*-'X, 
' you will never set the Thames on fire '. 

grottan, s.f., grottan, G.O. ii. 22. 19, dim. of above: o:s &in ti 
bre:s ? na:g o:ys, s &in i r y:n rottan (O.H.). 

gr0ud, s., ' crowd' : xwaty r gremd ; ma na r0ud garu van ma 
(O.H.). 

greudi, s., ' crowd ' : gremdi o blant ; be da\i n neyd nf grerudi 
hevox&lib? (O.H.) 
grftudi, s., in kany gremdi \kr0udi\ 

gr0udjo, v., 'to crowd together ' : plant wedi greudjo at i gilib ; 
wedi greudjo i \wara (O.H.). 

grmis, s., ' grounds ', e. g. of beer (O.K.). 

grugnax, grugnaxy, v., grwgnach, D., ' to grumble ' : paid a 
grugna\. 

grugnaxlyd, adj., grwgnachlyd, O.P., ' given to grumbling '. 

gry:al, griual, s.m., ' gruel '. 

gry-'d> gryt, s-m., grut, D.G. ccv. 25 ; D., 'grit, fine sand '. 

gry:8, s.f., pi. gritya, grudd, D., ' cheek ' : / o:s na dim gwe:n ar 
i ry:8, ' he never smiles ' ; dagra ar i rid/a, ' tears rolling down his 
cheeks '. 

gry:g, s.m., grug, D., ' heather ' : 9sgyb gry:g, ' heather broom '. 

grygog, adj., grugawg, O.P., ' overgrown with heather ' : mmyb 
grygog '> f& rygog. 

grym, s.f., grym, D., ' force ' : o:ys grym 9n hun vory ?, 'does this 
hold good (is it in force) to-morrow ? ' ; rhi:6 o grevyb heb i grym, 
' an appearance of religion without its reality '. As expletive : 
grym vaur ! r u:li ny:n hyl! ; grym annul ! dakku i ti hogan glu:s ! 

gryt [gry:d]. 

gnmmys, adj., grymmus, D., ' powerful ' : pn&eQur grzmmys ; 
pregaQ rzmmys. 

gubod ; gitbad(Q.l{.\ v., gwybod, D. Pres. S. i.gun, 2.gwybost, 
gwyst.gust, 3. gu:yr. PI. i. gwybon, 2. gwy&ox, 3- gwybon. Im- 
perfect. S. i.gzuydun, i.gwybat, %.gwyba. PI. i. gwydan, 2.gwyfoiXj 
3. givyftan, ' to know ' : 'zvySoxij 3 Ans. gun, na: un i\ ' do you 
know ? ' Ans. ' Yes, no '. (d)un i dim, (/ t)du i dim zy gubod, ' I 



1 66 gudan gulun 

don't know ' ; am un i, ' as far as I know ' ; am un i bo:d o, 
' perhaps he is ' ; gun i am ru:in, ' I know of somebody ' ; un i m 
3 myu be na: 2, ' I haven't a notion what to do ' ; / oydun i dim 9y 
gubod (= wydun i dim) bo x* wedi du:ad, ' I did not know you had 
come ' ; / o:yd hi dim zy gubod be deyda hi, ' she did not know what 
to say ' ; mi wydun nad -eyBaxi dim, ' I knew you wouldn't go ' ; 
u:yr ne:b ar 3 d'eyar le: x ka:l xi, ' no one knows where to find you ' ; 
heb ubod ido vo, * without him knowing ' ; heb ubod i x^' X hy:n, 
' unconsciously ' ; gubod dim oruBo i hy:n, ' to be in a state of 
absolute unconsciousness'. Pres. S. i. with the pronunciation 
myun is often used to express ' I am sure ', ' I should think ', 
' I dare say ', ' I suppose ', ' about ' : o:d hi n u:y6, myun, f it was 
eight o'clock, I dare say ' ; Kin yxad a hun, myun, ' as high as this, 
I dare say ' ; 9di, myun, ' it is, I am sure ' ; os gun i, ' I wonder ' : 
9di o wedi du:ad, s gun if ; s gun i be& o:d no vo if'o. 

gudan, s., gwden, D., ' withe, generally of oak or hazel, placed 
round a chisel to hold it while working on a hard substance ' (O.H.). 

gudu, s.m., pi. gzdva, gwddf vulgo gwddw, D., ' neck ' : horn 
3 gudu, ' wind-pipe ' or loosely ' throat ' : r o:d 9r eira n du:ad at 
gorn 9 gudu, ' the snow was up to one's neck ' ; hevo r tavod zy 
yhorn 9 gudu, ' mum, silent, shy ' ; dolyr gudu, ( sore throat ' ; may 
gmo vo udu vel klagud, ' he has a neck like a gander ' ; u& i gzdva 
i gilid, 'at one another's throats'; gudu pottal, ' the , neck of a 
bottle ' ; so, also, of a narrow piece of land. 

gu:g, s.m., gwg, D., ' a surly look ' ; dayos gu:g aty:n, ' to look 
surlily at some one ' ; dy:n heb dsnny gu:g ne:b, ' a man who has 
incurred no one's displeasure ' ; welis i m o i u:g srro:yd, ' I never 
excited his displeasure ' ; dmas a gu:g ami hi, ' a surly-looking 
woman ' ; mynd heb na hu:g na gu:g (O.H.), ( to go away empty- 
handed ' (M.F. has ' heb na hwg na dwg '). 

gugan, s,, ' whirligig ' (I.W.). Cf. D. chwirli gwgon \xurlibugan\. 
gugys, adj., gygus, D., ' surly' : golug gugys. 

gulun, golun, gzlun, gelun, gilun, v., gollwng, gellwng, gillwng, 
D., gyllwng, D.F. [7]. 9. Fut. S. 3. byi6. Pret. S. 3. byob. 
Imperative gulun, bya. (i) 'to let loose ' : gulun i aval, ( to loose 
one's hold ' ; g^lun 9 vyux, ' to let out the cow ' ; galun 9 ga:0 alan 
o r ku:d, ' to let the cat out of the bag ' ; gulun kzfila, ' to unharness 
horses ' ; golun i hy:n, ' to forget oneself, lose one's self-respect ' ; 
9y gulun i davod heb if'o vo, ' letting his tongue wag unnecessarily ' ; 
' letting out a secret ' ; gulun ayo (i. e. gollwng yn angof), gulun 
dros go:, ' to forget '. (2) ' to let fall ' : gulun tida, glwe'irjon, * to 
dribble ' ; byod o o i la:u, ' he dropped it ' ; neu\i vruf'o x ko:f Kin 
mynd alan ; ma: rubaQ wedi elun arno vo, ' will you brush your coat 
before you go out ; there is something spilt on it '. Intransitive : 
(3) ' to run, leak ' : may r tebot sy gulun ; may r teftal wedi mynd 



gumman gur6glau(S) 167 

/ elun. (4) ' to give way ', e.g. a roof, stones, a cliff which is being 
eaten away by the sea, etc. 

gumman, s.m., gwmmon, gwimmon, D., ' sea-weed ' : gumman 
me/ys, gumman bytta, f edible sea-weed ' ; gumman kodog ma:n, 
1 bladderwrack ' (Fusus vesiculosus) ; gumman kodog bra:s (Asco- 
phyllum nodosum) ; gumman fedar (?). 

gun, s.m., pl.gmna, gwnn, D., s.v. 'scloppus'; D.G. xliv. 36, 
'gun'. 

gundun, s.m., gwndwn, Yny Ihyvyr hwnn [7] ; gwynndwnn, 
rectiiis gwynndonn, D. ; ' lay land, land which has never been 
ploughed ' : redig gundun, ' to plough a piece of land which has 
never been ploughed before ' ; gwair gundun (as distinguished from 
gwair rho:s), ' lay hay, hay from meadow-land '. 

gunnin, s., gwynning, D., ' the outside or sappy part of timber ' as 
opposed to the heart (rhibiri). O.H. 

gunnuy, s.m., gwynnwy, D., s.v. 'leucoma', ' volua'; 'the white 
of an egg '. 

gunny, v., gwynnu, D. ; gwnnu, W.LI. xlvi. 13, 'to turn white', 
e.g. of ripening corn ; said also of the hair. Cf. glasy. 

gu:r, s.m., pi. gwy:r, gwr, D. (i) 'man* (vir): gu:r bnetig, 
' gentleman ' ; he:n u:r, ' old man ' (more respectful than he:n 8y:n) ; 
j gu:r dru:g, ' the devil ' : may r gu:r dru:g i lond o, * the devil is in 
him ' ; as plant name hem u:r, ' southernwood ' (Artemisia Abro- 
tanum) ; bottum gu:r ivayk, ' bachelor's button ', i.e. ' large double 
red (or white) garden daisy' (Bellio perennis hortensis). (2) 
' husband '. (3) ' a married man ' : layk ta gu:r 3di o ?, ' is he a 
bachelor or a married man ? ' ; gu:r ivayk, ' bridegroom '. (4) 
' innkeeper ' : r o:n i n reit gbttys hevo r gu:r. 

gurdznny, v., ' to thrash ' : mi gurdmnis o n jaun ; gurdmny Ki: % 
etc. (O.H.). 

gurol, adj., gwrol, D. (i) 'brave, manful': edrax ?n urol = 
edra\ an dalgry. (2) ' vigorous ' : tzvy n urol. 

guroldab, s.m., gwroldeb, D., s.v. ' virosus '. (i) 'bravery, manli- 
ness'. (2) 'vigour' : ma na uroldab m 9 tu:, 'there is vigour in 
the growth ' (O.H.). 

gurtaQ, s.m., gwrtaith, D., ' manure '. Not in ordinary use (cf. 
tail], but common in the proverb gurtaQ da: 3di gwenwyn \gwenwyn\. 

gurQ, s.m., gwth, D., ' a push ' : mi ro:6 o ur6 i mi. 

gur&ban, s.m., gwrthban, D., ' a kind of sheet formerly used for 
threshing upon ' (O.H.). In the sense of ' blanket ', stUl remem- 
bered, but long since obsolete = plankad. 

gur6glau(b\ s.m., gwrthglawdd, D., s.v. ' agger ' ; 'an opposing 
wall ', e.g. directly opposite a gap, or the outside wall of the curve 



1 6 8 gur&jo guy I 

in a sharp turn of a road ' : trol m mynd truy aduy afaft 9 drol m 
mynd 9n erbyn 9 gurBglaub am vo:d 9 for dn rhy: gy:l (O.H.) ; mi 
drawis 3 nrhu:yn an 9 gurBglau, e. g. in darkness or mist (O.H.). 

gur&jo, guBjo, hur&jo, huBjo, hufjo, v., gwthio, D., ' to push ' : 
guBjo trol. 

gurBjol, adj., gwyrthiawl, O.P., ' miraculous '. 

-gurB-nebjad, -guB'nebjad, s.m., gwrthwynebiad,O.P.; gwrth'nebiad, 
T.N. 230. 7, 'opposition, objection': t o:s gin i dim -gufrnebjad, 
' I have no objection '. 

gurBod, v., gwrthod, D., ' to refuse ' : mi gurBodob hi, ' he refused 
it'; mi gurBodob vt, 'he refused me'; gurBod y:nfor a hmmyd 
ford aral, l not to take one road and take another '. 

-gurB-wynab, -guB-wynab, s.m., gwrthwyneb, D., ' contrary ' : ir 
'guQ'wynab, ' on the contrary '. 

gur&wyneby, -guBwyneby, v., gwrthwynebu, D., ' to oppose ' : 
-guBwyneby o, ' to oppose him '. 

gurQyn, adj., gvvrthun, D., ' offensive ' ; may nu n urByn i weld, 
' they are offensive to the eye ' ; r u:ti ar vai deyd 9r he:n air 
gurByn na uBo vo, ' you are to blame for using that offensive word 
to him ' ; jai& urByn, ( offensive language ' ; he:n walx gurByn ; 
he:n dga:d urByn. 

guru, adj., pi. garvod, gwrod, gwrryw, D., ' male ' : kaBodg9rvod, 
'torn cats' (I.W.); u:yn gwrod, ' male lambs' (O.H.); he:n be:B 
uru 9di hi) ' she is a virago '. 

guryd, s.m., gwrhyd, D. ; gwryd, I.D. xliv. 29, 'fathom '. 

gustun, gistun, v., gostwng, D. Fut. (gu)steya. Pret. (gu)strfis. 
Imperative gustun, steya. (i) ' to go down, abate ' : neiB o ustun, 
' it will go down ' (of a swelling) ; may r givynt wedi gsstun, ' the 
wind has gone down ' ; rhei ay kodi a rhei ay gustun, * some going 
up in the world and some going down'. (2) trans.: i godi a i 
ustun o, ' to move it up and down ' ; mi strftB 9 gwynt, ' it (the 
rain) will make the wind drop ' ; mi vasa kavod m nobl i zstun 
9 lu:x, ' a shower would be a splendid thing to lay the dust ' ; in 
knitting stockings, ' to decrease '. 

gustyl, s., gwystl, D., < surety ' : rhoid peB 9n ustyl (O.K.). 

guBjo [gurBjo]. 

gu:yb, s.f., pi. gwyba, gwydd, D., ' goose ' : -r ijybanu y gweibi r 
y: va:B a gwyda, ' they were cackling like geese ' ; hyujm gwyba, 
1 goslings ' ; mi a:B 9 grhoyn i vel kro:yn guyd, 1 1 went all goose- 
flesh '. Cf. klagub. 

gu:y, s., gwydd, D., ' presence ' : m t u:y o, f in his presence ' ; 
9y yu.yd, ' openly ' (opp. to 9n birgal). 

gu:yl, s.f., pi. gwilja, gwyl, D., ' feast-day, holiday ' : guyl eiljan 



gwadan gwagla 1 69 

[e'iljari] ; guyl vair, ' Lady Day ' ; guyl ivan, ' Midsummer's Day ' ; 
gu:yl 9 gro:g, ' Holy Cross Day ' \sgr9mpja\ ; guyl (yi)htyal, 
' Michaelmas ' ; durnod guyl, 'a holiday'; gwilja mdolig, '(Jhrist- 
mas holidays '. 

gwadan, s.m. (O.K.); s.f. (W.H. ; I.W.), pi. gwadna, gwadn, 
D., ' sole ' : gwadan 9 troyd, 9r es&id, ' sole of the foot, the boot ' : 
dary mi gyro vo nes 0:6 o dros i day wadan i vzny, 1 1 knocked him 
sprawling ' ; finjo r (g)wadan vel bo: r troyd, ' to cut one's coat 
according to one's cloth ' ; gwadan su:x, ' the lower removable part 
of a ploughshare, the sole of a plough ' (cf. D. gwadn yr aradr, 
s.v. ' dentale ') ; gwadan trol> ' the foundation of a cart '. 

gwadny, v., gwadnu, D. N * to sole ' : sodli a gwadny s&idja, ' to 
sole and heel boots ' ; gwadna hi, ' get away ' ; may o wedi 
gwadny hi, ' he has taken to his heels '. 

gwady, v., gwadu, D., 'to deny ': gwady arjan 9n je: taly, 'to 
deny a debt instead of paying ' ; gwady nad o:& o wedi gn'c'yd, ' to 
deny that he had done it '. 

gwa:d, v., gwahodd, D. ; gwadd, B.C. 38. 31 ; 39. 3. Fut. gwaho&a. 
Pret. gwaho&is. Imperative gwa:S, ' to invite ' : gwa:b ru:in i 
suppar, ' to invite some one to supper '. 

gwa:, s.m., gwahodd, D., ' invitation ' : gwa:b i &injo, ' an 
invitation to dinner ' ; gwa:b maur, ' a pressing invitation '. 

gwa:&, s.f., g\vadd, D., 'mole* : only in/r/Vd 9 wa:b, ' mole-hill, 
mole-hills '. Sometimes corrupted miopn':8 y wad, pribwal. (Other- 
wise ' mole ' = tur\ deyar.) 

gwaftod, s.m., gwaddod, D., ' sediment '. 

gwatiodi, v., gwaddodi, O.P., ' to deposit a sediment ' ; ' to settle ' : 
ma: r kuru y gwabodi. 

gwa:g, adj., pi. gweigjon, gwag, D. ( i) ' empty ' : kstri gweigjon,^ 
1 empty vessels ' ; y:n wa:g s ayi if'o?, ' is it an empty one you want? ' 
(2) in such expressions as kam gwa:g, ' a false step ' in the sense of 
expecting to find a footing and not doing so ; so also of the hands, 
kafgwa:g. (3) ' hollow '. 

gwagab, s., gwagedd, D., ' vanity ' : kany gwagab. 

gwagan, wagan, s.f., pi. gwageni, wageni, gwageni (pi), T.N. 
1 8. 2, ' waggon ' : gwageni gweigjon, ' empty waggons '. In slate 
quarries gwagan is a truck with sides, as opposed to kar or sle:d t 
a truck without sides. 

gwagenad, s., pi. gwagwe'idja, ' waggon-load '. 

gwagjo, v., gwagio, ' to empty '. 

gwagla, s.m., gwag-le, 2 Mace. xiv. 44; gwagle, B.C. 86. 13, ' a 
gap in the ground, a hollow ' : pontjo dros wagla, ' to bridge a gap ' ; 
ma na wagla n i \anol hi, l it is hollow inside '. 



170 gwa'ham gwaiB 

gwa'ham, s., gwahan, D., in the exp. ar w<rha:n, ' apart ' : ar 
wa'ha:n i hun, ' apart from this ' ; ma na gasgljad 'ganonu ar 
wa'ha:n, ' they make a collection apart '. 

gwahanjaB, gwanjaB, s.m., pi. gwanjeyBa, gwahaniaeth, D., 
' difference ' : may lawar o wahanjaB rhuy d wla:d a r dre:, ' there 
is a great deal of difference between the country and the town ' ; 
klyux 3 gwahanjaB hogla, ' smell the difference '. 

gwahanol, adj., gwahanawl, G.R. 42. 17 [separate]; cleifion 
gwahanol, St. Matt. xi. 5 [lepers], ' different ' : meun gwahanol 
levy, 'in different places'; gwahanol liuja, 'different colours'; 
m wahanol, ( otherwise '. 

gwahany, v., gwahanu, D., ' to separate '. 

gwair, s.m., pi. gweirja, gwair, D., ' hay ' : Ia:8, tori gwair, ' to 
cut hay ' ; xwaty gwair, ' to toss hay ' ; t'eyny gwair ; ' to spread 
hay ' ; rherjkjo gwair, ' to put hay in windrows ' ; gneyd 3 gwair sn 
viddla, ' to gather the hay into cocks ' ; tri:n, kweirjo gwair, ' to 
make hay ' ; karjo gwair, ' to carry hay ' ; kneya gwair, ' hay- 
harvest ' ; ta:s wair, ' haystack ' ; gwair sy:r, ' sour hay ' ; gwair 
luyd, { mouldy hay ' the result of being stacked when damp ; 
gwair wedi ko\i, ' "burnt" hay ', i. e. hay which has been stacked 
while green and has deteriorated through fermentation ; may r 
gwair wedi kledy, ' the hay has settled down in the stack ' ; maly 
gwair, ( to chop hay ' ; kadu ka:y m wair, ' to keep a field for hay ' ; 
gwair egras, gwair ivayk, gwair bluyS, ' hay of the first year used 
for grass the first time ' ; gwair gundun, ' lay hay ' =gwair medal, 
9stuy6,fruy6lon, m tzvy meun doly isal (J.J.) ; gwair rho:s, ' rough 
hay, growing in damp places, generally at a high elevation' = 
gwair kalad m twy ar le: gly:b (J.J.) ; gwair mwtiob, rougher than 
the latter and mixed with kr0uk ; le: -by:osti n hel gwair i dsgu:n ?, 
' where have you been off to ? ', said to some one who has been 
away, no one knows where, without saying a word to any one. 

gwaiB, s.m., gwaith, D. (i) pi. gwei&ja, ' work ' : gwaiQ 
eda a noduyft, ' needlework '; he:n waiQ bli:n (= ka:s) adi o, 'it 
is nasty work ' ; gwaiB aur, ' an hour's work ', what takes an 
hour to do, e. g. ' an hour's walk ' ; may paub an i laun gwaiB, 
1 every one is hard at work ' ; / o:ys na dim osgo gwaiB zno 
vo, ' he does not look like working ' ; rhoi durnod te:g o waiB, 
' to do a good day's work ' ; troi o o i waiB, ' to discharge him ' ; 
'vedrani dim gneyd day waiB ar ynwaB, 'we cannot do two things 
at once ' ; dy:d gwaiB, ' week-day ' ; noson waiB, ' week-night ' ; 
rhoid rubaB ar waiB, ' to make use of something ', e. g. may dyu m 
rhoid ksvran i bo:b y:n, ond t adi paub dim yn i roid o ar waiB. 
Expressing reiterated or habitual action : an 9 ywaiB zr 3du i n deyd 
uBi hi i bot i m berwi r wy:a n rhy: galad, ' I am continually telling 
her she boils the eggs too hard ' ; pu:y godod 9 sgo:l ma ? rvo:, nt 



gwaiB gwalx 1 7 1 

ydi n i wai'Q kodi sgo:ls />, ' who made this disturbance ? He did : 
isn't he always making disturbances ? ' ; (a:& adar may honna in i 
gwaiB, ' it is its nature to kill birds ' (speaking of a hawk). (2) pi. 
gweyBjb, ' works, mine, etc/ : gwaiB glo: t ' coal mine ' ; gwaiB ayr, 
1 gold mine ' ; gwaiB du:r, ' waterworks ' ; gwaiB sebon, ' soap 
works ' ; gwaiB sets, ' quarry for obtaining sets '. 

gwaiB, s.f., pi. gw&Bja, gwaith, D., ' time ' (Fr. ' fois ') : (awar 
gwaiB, ' many a time, often ' ; ynwaB ne buy, ' once or twice ' ; 
9 dwdyb waiB, ' the third time ' ; saul gwaiB />, ' how many times ? ' 
(also in indirect questions) ; amba^ i waiB, ' occasionally ' ; mi do:B 
o )ry:n waiB a \i:, ' he came the same time as you did ' ; mi la&uyd 

ar y:n waiB (= m 9 van), * he was killed on the spot'. 
Adverbially in the form weiBja, weithiau, D., s.v. interdum ' ; 
' sometimes ' : wtiBja vel hyn, weiBja vel aral we'iBja bo:b syt, 

1 sometimes one way, sometimes another '. Cf. fro:. 

gwaxal, gwa\lyd, gwaxyl, adj., gwachul, D., * feeble, poorly ' : 
may o n by:n gwa\al. 

gwal } wal, s.f., pi. gwalja, walja, gwal, D. (i) 'wall': gwal 
gtrig, * stone wall '. Cf. klaub, parad. (2) in slate quarries: 'a 
shed in which slates are worked '. The gwalja stand in rows ; 
the entrance to each is separated from the entrance to the next 
one by a projecting partition, usually formed by a single large 
piece of slate standing on end. Each side of this partition forms 
a corner which is called bagal. 

gwa:l; gwa:yl (O.H.); gwa:y (J.J.), s.f., gwal, D., * lair of 
a beast ', esp. ' the form of a hare '. 

gwalan [gjalam]. 

gwaldras, s., gwaldras, M.F., 'a blow with a stick across the 
shoulders ' (gwar). 

gwaljo, v., (g)walio, T.N. 477. 9, ' to wall'; 'to build a wall* : 
gwaljo vel bigalj f to build a wall in a bungling way ', e.g. karag ar 
garag instead of karag ar 9 dgeintja. Also ' to form (e.g. stones) 
into a wall '. 

gwaljur, s.m., gwaliwr, ' wall-builder ' : may o n waljur da:. 

gwalk, s.f., gwalc, D., ' coma, caesaries, capillitium '; * a turning 
up ' : het tair gwalk, l a three-cornered hat ' ; also kw alk (Bangor). 

gwalkjog, adj., gwalciawg, O.P., ' turned up ' : het walkjog. 

gwalx, s.m., pi. gwe'ilx, gwalch, D. (i) ' a kind of hawk (the 
colour of which was gla:s) now extinct in the district, but formerly 
common ' (O.H.). Apparently the Peregrine Falcon (Falco pere- 
grinus). (2) 'rogue': -hmmuxi ovol, gwalx f, 'take care, you 
rogue!'; hem wal\ ba:x, 'you rogue'; gira/x dru:g t 'a wag'; 
gwalx gla:s ?di o (O.H.), * he is a tough customer '. 



172 gwaltas gwana 

gwaltas, s., pi. gwaltesi, gwaldas, O.P., cf. W.S. gwalt [A welte], 
' welt ' : givaltas esgid. 

gwalva, s.f., gwalfa, B.C. 65. 26, ' a strewing, litter ' (J.J., who 
used the word of the cockle-shells which formerly lay outside all 
the cottages at Aber). 

gwal, s.m., pl.gzvala, gwall, D. } 'defect, weak spot ' : kodi gwala 
ar baub, ' to speak disparagingly of every one ' ; may r hBral wedi 
ka:yl i wal arno vo, ' the devil has found out his weak spot '. 

gwala, gwela, s.m., pi. gweleivja, gwellaif, D. ; guelleu, W.B. 
col. 483. n, ' shears for shearing sheep '. Used also for any kind 
of shears, e. g. for cutting hedges ; but these are always called 
sisurn by farmers. 

gwalgo, adj., pi. gwalgovjon, cf. gwallgof, D., ' insanitas ' ; 
' mad ' : hannar gwalgovjon, ' half crazy '. 

gwalgovruyb, s., gwallgofrwydd, ' madness '. 
gwalgovys, adj., gwallgofus, D., s.v. ' insanus ' ; ' mad '. 

gwa:lt, s.m., gwallt, D., ' hair ' (of the head) : gwa:lt gola, ' fair 
hair ' ; gwadt terwyl, ' dark hair ' ; gwa:lt ko:x, ( red hair ' ; gwalt 
wedi gunny, ' white hair ' ; may i wa:U o yglasy, ' his hair is turning 
grey ' ; may i wa:U o n mynd dn vaur, ' his hair is getting long ' ; 
tori gwa:lt, ' to cut one's hair', 'to have one's hair cut'; pu:y he:n 
vyux sy wedi kropjo da wa:lt dzf, ' what old cow has been cropping 
your hair ? ' (said to some one whose hair has been cut badly) ; 
i gwadt am ben i dannaft, ' her hair all over her face ' ; mi Sydif i 
uQo vo am bo:b blewyn m i wa:lt o (am bo:b blewyn o wa:ltm ibenno], 
1 1 told him explicitly ' ; gwadt 9 vorwyn, ' maiden-hair ' (Adiantum 
capillus-Veneris). 

gwaltog, adj., gwalltog, D., ' hairy ' (of the head) : po:b koppa 
waltog o 'honynu (cf. Psalm Ixviii. 21), ' every man-jack'. Some- 
times corrupted into koppa walgo, e.g. mi a: i a nu i r gwarxa bo:b 
koppa walgo o -honynu, ' I will take them to the pound every man- 
jack of them '. 

gwamaly, v., gwammalu, D., ' to act with levity, to make fun, to 
be frivolous '. 

gwammal, adj., gwammal, D. (i) 'fickle': mor wammal a r 
gwynt. (2) ' frivolous ' : hogan wammal. 

gwan, adj., pi. gweinjaid, gwann, D. (i) ' weak ' : Igada gwan, 
bgaid gweinjaid, ' weak eyes ' ; ma na rubaB m wan 9no vo, ' there 
is some weakness, defect, in him'. (2) 'pale': gla:s gwan, 'pale 
blue ' ; ko:t la:s gwan. 

givana, s.f., pi. gwaneivja, gwanaf, D. (i) ' as much as can be 
cut breadthwise with one sweep of the scythe ' (cf. arvod). (2) ' a 



gwan-hay gwarjo 173 

row of mown hay ; swathe '. (3) ' the breadth between the ropes 
used in securing a haystack ' (J.J.). 

gwan'ha:y, v., gwanhau, D., ' to weaken '. 

gwanjaB [gwahanjaQ'}. 

gwanjtyBy, v., gwahaniaethu, O.P., 'to differ; discriminate*. 

gwanfyd, adj., gwanllyd, T.N. 73. 19, ' weak, sickly'. 

gwantan, adj., gwantan, T.N. 27. 36 ; gwentan, C.F. 1890, 
332. 13. (i) 'unsteady, unreliable*. (2) 'weak, feeble, poor': 
may o m by:r wan/an, ' he is a poor specimen ' ; y:ngo wanlan ydu i, 
'I am rather poor* (e.g. at explaining); ara6 gwantan jaun o:yb 
gyno vo, ' he was a poor speaker '. 

gwanuyn, gwanun (old people), but generally gwanwyn, s.m., 
gwanwyn, D., ' spring ' : may gwenwyn m hayl 9 gwanwyn (prov.), 
' there is poison in the spring sunshine ' ; hirlum 9 gwanwyn, 
i.e. March and April. 

gwayk, s.f., gwangc, D., ' greediness, insatiable desire ' : may na 
wayk am vu:yd gno vo, ' he has a voracious appetite ' ; gwayk am 
ver\aid, arjan ; may 9 wayk arno vo = may o n fyyky 9 kubul 
(O.H.); gwayk aya, 'a voracious appetite sometimes preceding 
death '. 

gwaykys, adj., gwangcus, D., ' voracious '. 

gwar, s.f., pi. gwara, gwarr, D., ' the part of the back across the 
shoulders, where e. g. a yoke is carried ' ; magy gwar, ' to stoop ' 
(acquire a natural stoop) ; may r pun m sarQjo ar i waro, ' the 
pack is falling forward on to his (the horse's) shoulders '. 

gwarad, v., gwared, D., 'to deliver', in the exclamations gwarad 
ni ! gwarad 9 yhalon *'/, * save us ! ' ; also ka:yl gwarad o &e0, ' to 
get rid of a thing '. 

gwarant, s.f., pi. gwaranta, gwarant, D. ; D.G. x. 19, 'warrant': 
kodi gwarant ar, ' to take out a warrant against '. Cf. gwranta. 

gwaredtgaO, s.f., gwaredigaeth, R., ' deliverance ' ; Ke:s iwaredigaQ 
heno, ' I got a load off my mind to-night '. 

gwargammy, v., gwargammu, ' to stoop in the shoulders ' (as old 
people do). Cf. gwargwmmy. 

gwarglob [gwerglob]. 

givargrmimy, v., gwargrymu, O.P.; cf. gwarrgrwm, D., s.v. 'in- 
curuiceruicus ', ' to stoop in the shoulders ' (as old people do) : ma: 
r hem 8y:n na wedi gwargwmmy n aru (O.H.). Cf. gwargammy. 

gwarjo, v., 'to stoop ' : may o n gwarjo n aru. 

gwarjo, V M gwario, D., ' to spend ' : gwarjo arjan, ' to spend 
money ' ; neiO o Sim i gwarjo hi nes KeiQ o rubad am dani hi, ' he 



174 gwarxa gwasgy 

won't spend it till he gets a good equivalent for it ' ; y:n garujaun 
zdi o am warjo i bre:s, ' he is a terrible spendthrift '. 

gwarxa, s.m., gwarchae, D., ' a pound for strayed sheep or other 
animals '. Also by:ar& gwarxa. 
gwarxa, v., gwarchae, D., ' to impound '. Cf. above. 

gwarxod, v., gwarchod, D., ' custodire, observare '. (i) ' to keep 
house ' : du i y gwarxod m da:, ' I do the housekeeping well '. 
(2) in the exclamations gwarxod paub ! gwarxod ni! (for Duw 
gwarchod ni !) ; 9 nevob (= ta:d) vo y gwarxod! ' Heaven help us ! ' 

gwarog, adj., gwarrog, ' stooping ' : dy:n gwarog, ' a man with 
a stoop '. 

gwarB, s.m., gwarth, D., ' shame, disgrace ' : 0:8 m warB pry I 
hznny aryBrol, ' it was looked upon as a great disgrace at that 
time ' ; o:d m ward i fonoljaB i grogi o, ' it was a disgrace to 
humanity to hang him '. 

gwarBag, gwar&aig, s.pl., gwartheg, D., ' cattle ' : gwarBag dy:on, 
' black cattle ' ; gwarBag godro, ' milch cattle ' ; gwarQag hespjon, 
' dry cattle ' ; mi a: i ta gwarBag m 9 gweniB, ( I will go whatever 
happens '. 

gwarBys, adj., gwarthus, D.F. [169]. 6, 'shameful'. 

gwa:s, s.m., pi. gweif'on, gwas, D., ' servant ', esp. ' a farm servant ' 
(fern, morwyn) : pen gwa:s, ' the farm hand who follows the first 
team'; atlwa:s, 'the farm hand who follows the second team'; 
usnos gwa:s newy^ a phrase alluding to the diligence of a 
new servant or to the popularity of a new man : rieiB o dim para n 
usnos 3 gwa:s neivyd arno vo o hy:d, nearly equivalent to ' a new 
broom sweeps clean ' ; also ' people will get tired of him when the 
novelty has worn off* ; gwa:s i ywa:s i a ywa:s inna n djogi, said 
to a servant who shifts work on to others' shoulders ; gwa:s 9 go:g, 
' meadow-pipit ' (Anthus pratensis) ; gwa:s 9 neidar, ' dragon-fly '. 
(2) equivalent to ' my boy ', ' old fellow ', etc. : wa:s, wa:s i, ' my 
boy'; tyd 9mma wa:s, 'come here, old fellow' (e.g. to a dog); 
r he:n wa:s, euphemism for the devil. 

gwasanaB, s.m., gwasanaeth, D., ' service ', esp. in religious sense. 

gwa:sg. s.f., gwasg, D., ' press ', e. g. ' cheese-press '. 

gwa:sg, s.m., gwasg, D., ' waist '. 




gwasgy, v., gwasgu, D., 'to press': kerulad ba:x a i gwasgy n 
dyn (den), ' a small armful pressed well together ' ; gwasgy a r 
breixja, ' to hug ' ; gwasgy r durn> ' to clench the fist ' ; sdi r sgidja 
y gwasgy x traydP, ' do the boots pinch your feet ? ' ; gwasgy a r 
dannaS, ' to bite ' ; may r hu:x wedi wasgy o a i dannaS, ' the sow 



gwastad gwayd 1 7 5 

has bit him ' ; gwasga d? vegin (d* vrest), l keep your lips closed ', 
1 do not say a word '. 

gwastad, adj., gwastad, D. (i) ' level, even, straight': Kin 
wastattad a r gcinjog ;/or& was/ad, ' level road ' ; karag wastad, 
' a flat stone ' ; klut gwastad te:g, 'a nice flat piece of ground ' ; 
klau& gwastad, ' an even wall ' ; ka:l po:b pe:6 m wastad, ' to get 
everything straight ' ; m wastad a hun, * in a straight line with that ' ; 
sbi:a n wastad (= *y guderbyn) a dy druyn, ' look straight in front 
of your nose ' ; r tdu in tri:o i dal hi n wastad 9m mho:b man, ' I try 
and humour every one ' (cf. dal 9 bes&il m wastad) ; os na: vy:& 
popped yn wastad 'rtoyoni, ' unless everything is straight between 
us ' ; ' unless we are on good terms '. (2) * steady ' : myndm htrbjog 
m e: mynd m wastad. (3) ' staid, sedate ' : pu:y vasa n mebul 3 va:B 
be:B am dano vo a vmta mor wastad/, 'who would have thought it 
of him, considering that he is such a steady-going individual ! ' 
(4) adv., ' always ' : ?n wastad (te:g\ 

gwasta'tay, gwas'ta:y, stay, v., gwastattau, D. (i) 'to make 
level ' : gwasta'tay o gumpas ty: t ' to level the ground round a 
house' ; stay tippin arno vo, ' to level it a bit '. (2) ' to pacify ' : 
rhaid gtry ru:in i stay nu. (3) ' to settle up ' : gwasta'tay krvrivon, 
* to settle accounts ' ; in slate quarries : to make up the number 
of slates at the end of a month ; e. g. gwasta'tay nu n hannar kant. 

gwastattab, s.m., gwastadedd, D., ' plain '. 
gwastraf, s.m., gwastraff, O.P., 'waste, extravagance '. 
gwastrafy, v., gwastraffu, D., 'to squander '. 
gwatar, v., gwatwar, D., 'to mimic, imitate '. 
gwatfad, gwatfo, watfad, watfo, v., ' to watch '. 

gwaud, s.m., gwawd, D., ' mockery, derision ' : / oys dim ond 
gwaud gano vo, ' he takes nothing seriously, makes fun of every- 
thing ' ; o ran gwaud, ' in mockery '. 

gwaul, gwaun, s.m., gwawn, D., in rhafa gwaul (kwaul, J.J.), 
' gossamer ' ; also in davad gwaun, may hun wedi wty Kin veinad 
a davad gwaun, ' this is spun as fine as gossamer '. 

gwaur, s.f., gwawr, D. (i) ' dawn '. (2) ' tinge ' : may gwaur 
/a:s ar zr awyr, ( the sky has a blue tinge ' (sign of the weather 
clearing) j vy:o na dim lawar o waur arno vo wedyn, ' he succeeded 
but ill afterwards ' (cf. Eng. ' off colour '). Cf. D. s.v. ' defloresco '. 

gway, interj., gwae, D., ' woe ' : gwefti gway, O.H. (of a sup- 
posed ghost) ; gway i x* os gneu\i tonny /, ' woe to you if you do 
that ! ' 

gwayd, s.m., gwaed, D., ' blood * : gwayd m frydjo (sboykjo), 
' blood spurting out ' ; hmro o wayd, ' a Welshman by birth ' ; m 
arno vo ovn truy wayd i galon, ' he is beside himself with fear ' ; 



1 7 6 gwaydgi gwe: 

koysa wedi mynd ay goxjon i ammyl gwayd, ' legs chafed to the raw ' 
(e. g. by drifting sand) ; r o:d hi an i gwa:yd ar 3 laur, ' she was 
wallowing in her blood on the floor ' ; kynt 9 tummiQ gwa:yd na 
du:r (prov.), ' blood is thicker than water '. 

gwaydgi, s.m., pi. gwaydguns, gwaed-gi, D.P.O. 39. 9, ' blood- 
hound ' = Hi: gwayd ; as term of reproach : ta:u r hem waydgi 
gwirjon (waydgi bydyr\ said to some one who takes things 
wrongfully. 

gwayl, adj., gwael, D. (i) ' ill ' (= sa:l) : may o wedi mynd an 
wayl, ' he has been taken ill ' ; may going dy:n gwayl arno vo, ' he 
has the look of a sick man'. (2) ' bad, mean, sorry': kam'ra:ig 
gwayl, ' bad Welsh ' ; peB ba:x gwayl, ' a thing of no importance ' ; 
Iro gwayl (= sa:l), 'a shabby trick'; ru:m way I, 'a room of 
mean appearance '. 

gwayB, adj., adv., gwaeth, D., ' worse ' : mi lasa vod an wayB, 
' it might be worse ' ; an way 6 o r hannar, ' half as bad again ' ; 
mynd an way 6 way 6 o hy:d, * to get worse and worse '. Introducing 
a clause way 6 implies before it a suppressed negative, e.g. way 6 
i mi beidjo, na: wayB ? Ans. na: wayd (8im\ ' I might just as 
well not, mightn't I ? ' Ans. ' Yes ' ; wayd ar a deyar be:B, ' it 
doesn't in the least matter what ' ; wayd ydynu beidjo rhedag 8wi, 
( they might just as well not run ' ; wayB boxti wedi kodi am uyB 
ar dim r u:ti wedi n'e'yd, ' you might just as well have got up at 
eight for all you have done ' ; wayd be di o os adi o y gneyd djoni i 
Xt, ' it doesn't matter what it is so long as it does you good ' ; wayd 
y:n gair na xant, ' one word is as good as a hundred '. Followed 
by prepositions : am, ' as regards ' : wayd am dano vo, ' not worse 
as regards it ', i.e. ' never mind ' ; ta wayB (am hanny], 'if that is 
anything, for the matter of that ' : gin, e. g. wayB gin i, l not 
worse in my estimation', i.e. * I don't care '; wayB gin i be SydiBo, 
' I don't care what he says ' ; wayd gin i vaint n'e'iB o sbeitjo arna i, 
t adi o 8im am mhary dim arna i, ' I don't care how much he makes 
fun of me, he doesn't do me any harm ' ; be oyft gwayB gino vo 
be vo nu i>, ' what did he care for them ? ' ; wayd gano vo r y:n 
tammad, ' it made absolutely no difference to him ' ; i, ' for ' (for 
another example see above) : wayd t x^', ' not worse for you', i.e. 
' what does it matter to you ? ' ; wayd i mi deyd uB barn o bren nag 
'uBynhuBa, ' I might as well speak to a block of wood as to them ' 
(cf. wayd i mi 8eyd karag a dul) ; wayd i ti be vo nu, ' never mind 
them ' ; damma vi n deyd uBo vo nat oyb wayB t'do vo heb, 1 1 told 
him that it was no use his doing it ' ; wayB i ti heb na Bri:o (= heb 
dim tri:o], ' it's no use your trying '. Used substantively : rhag 
i X* go-' I gwayB, ' for fear you get something worse ' ; be wayB 
be vo ?, ' what does it matter ? ' 

gwe:, s.f., gwe, D., * web ' : may o wedi drasy r we:, ' he has 
upset the plans ' ; gwe: pry: kop, ' spider's web '. 



gwe:t gwi'tli 177 

gwe:b y s.f., pi. gweto', gwSdd, D., ' team ' : may gwe:& nobl jaun 
gmo vo, ' he has a fine team of horses ' ; pen we:&, ' the best team 
on a farm ' ; r ail we:d, etc. ; gwe:b vain, ' a team drawing tandem '. 

give:*, s.f., gwSdd, D., ' appearance, aspect ' : byu\ a gwe:b la: 
ami hi ; may na we:& Ita: 'arnaxi ; <1a: jaun o ran pry :d a gwe:&, 
' good-looking ' ; of the face, ' colour, complexion ', alluding to 
temporary modifications, such as paleness, etc. : gwc& i wynab. 
Cf. Dan. iii. 19, a gw6dd ei wyneb ef a newidiodd, "and the form 
of his visage was changed ". Fig. rhoi gwe:t ara[ ar betia, 'to put 
a new aspect on affairs '. 

gwefti, s.f., pi. gwe'di:a, gweddi, D., ' prayer ' : mi beydob o ar i 
wedi t ' he said in his prayer '. 

gwebil, s.m., gweddill, D., 9 gweto'l, ' the rest '. 

gwe-8i:o, v., gweddio, D., ' to pray ' : gwe-bi:o drost i 0j:d, ' to 
pray for her father ' ; mi dorob hogyn i we^i:o ar ganol 9 bregaO, 
' a boy broke out into prayer in the middle of the sermon ' ; 
gwe-di:o am luftjantar 9r axos, ' to pray for the success of the cause '. 

gwedol, adj., gweddol, D., ' moderate, reasonable ' : hogyngwe&ol, 
' a moderate sized boy ' ; sy da\i he&ju ? m weSol, ' how are you 
to-day ? ' ' Pretty well ' (= smmot). 

gwe&u, adj. and s., pi. gweftwon, gweddw, D., ' widowed ' : gu:r 
(dy:n) gwe8u, ' widower ' ; gwraig webu, ' widow ' ; du i n webu er s 
deigjan mhnad, ' I have been a widower for forty years '. 

gwe&wi, v., gweddwi, D., ' to put aside widow's weeds ' : may hi 
y giue&wi n aru implies ' she is looking out for another husband '. 
Also used similarly of a widower. 

gwetys, adj., gweddus, D., * proper, decent, seemly ' : dero vo n 
wedys, 'give it properly* (e.g. to a child handing something to 
some one in an unseemly way). 

gwe&il, s.m., gwegil, D., 'the nape of the neck': linin 9 gwegil, 
' the spinal cord ' ; may o wedi tori linin i zue/t'l, ' he has broken 
his neck ' ; r o:n i n mebul bod na rubaB 9n 9\ gwegil X 1 ', ' I thought 
you were offended with me about something ' (O.H.). 

gwegjan, v., gwegian, R., ' to totter ' : r o:b o y gwegjan ar i 
goysa ; r 0:8 9 nhoysa y gwegjan dana i, ' my legs bent under me '. 

gwegni, gwegi, s., gwegi, D. (i) ' emptiness ' : rhoid i droyd ar 
wegni, ' to make a false step ' ; sgavnax na gwegi, ' lighter than 
air '. (2) ' levity ' : dy:n m laun o wegni. 

gweidi, v., gweidi, R.B. 174. 18; L.A. 82. 27; gweiddi, M.LI, 
i. 1 1 6. 6 ; D.P.O. 298. 30 ; gwaeddi, D. Pret. S. 3. gweydod, 'to 
shout, to call ' ; * to squeal ' (of a pig), etc. : os fy:8 if'o pe:6 rhaid i 
\i wei'Si (alu\ ' if you want anything, you must call ' ; gweidi ar i 

1432 N 



178 gwe'im gweld 

gilib, ' to shout to one another ' ; na: i we'idi n said mu:y, ' I'll 
shout seven times louder '. 

gweini, v., gweini, D., ' to be in service ' : may gmo vo y:n verx 
vy gweini zm maygor, ( he has one daughter in service in Bangor'. 

gweisin, s.m., dim. of gwa:s, ' farm-servant ' : tyd smma yweisin 
(O.K.). 

gweitjad, gweitjo, v., gwa(i)tio, W.S. [Wayte] ; gwaetio, T.N. 
309. 5, ' to wait ' : gweitjux am vynyd, am vynyd 6a:x, ' wait a 
minute, a moment ' ; gweitjux, v?da i dim xwiykjad na vsba i m 
barod, c wait, I shall be ready in a moment ' ; mi a: i n ara de:g 
i x gweitjad xi, ' I'll go slowly on, for you to catch me up ' ; gweitjo 
tre:n, ' to wait for a train ' ; yy gweitjad am i Ba:d adra, ' waiting for 
her father to come home '.; gweitjad nu m i hod, 'to wait till they 
come back '. 

gweiQgar, adj., gweithgar, D., s.v. c affabre ', ' fabre ' ; ' hard- 
working '. 

gweiQjo, v., gweithio, D. (i) 'to work': gweiQjo i hoxor hi, 
' to work with all one's might ' ; gweiQjo vel la:b nadrod (= neidar), 
vel bustvil, vel Kefyl, vel negar ; gweiQjo n du&ul drebal, n bubul 
pu:ar, ' to work like niggers ' ; gweiQjo n ywy:s dweryd, ' to work 
till one is all in a perspiration '. (2) ' to work, to be in motion ' : 
rhaid i r vrayx weiQjo o r gesal, ' the arm must work from its 
socket', i.e. 'one must work hard'. (3) ( to froth, to foam; to 
ferment' (cf. Jonah i. n, 13). Transitive (4) ' to work' : may n 
haus i gweiQjo, 1 9di r Kerig dim mor s0und, ' it is easier to work it : 
the slate does not cling together so ' ; ma: nu y gweiQjo 9 xwaral dn 
vle:r ru:an, ' they are working the quarry waste fully now '. (5) 
' to act as a purgative upon ' : gweiQjo ru:inpen vy:b o wedirhummo ; 
ka:l i weiQJQy ' to have his bowels moved '. 

gwe'i6jur, s.m., pi. gweiQjurs, gweithiwr, D. (i) 'workman'. 
(2) ' worker ' : ydi r Kefyl 3n weiQjur da: / 

gweiQrad, s.f., pi. gweiQredob, gweithred, D. (i) 'deed'. (2) 
' deed ' (in the legal sense). 

gweld (more rarely gwelad), v., gweled, D. Fut. S. 3. gweliQ, 
gwe:L PI. 2.gwelux,gwrtux ('0faxi, -zluxi, 0\i\ PTet.S.i.gwetis, 
2. gwetist, 3. gwelob. PI. i. gwelson, 2. gwelsox, 3- gwehon. Im- 
perative gwe:l ; gwelux, gwzlux, 0lux. The future is very frequently 
used with present meaning. Sometimes the imperfect (gwelun) is 
used with preterite meaning, e. g. 9 pe:Q kmta 'welani, ' the first 
thing we saw'. (Cf. klyun.} (i)'to see': 'weluxf- r dy:n aku ?, 
' do you see that man ? ' ; wela i m ono vo, ' I don't see him ' ; pu:y 
wela vo ond . . . y 3 , ' whom should he see but ...?'; mi vy: 9n hi:r 
jaun Kiy 'gweluxi o etto, ' it will be long before you see him again ' ; 
i edrax be 'weluni, ( to see what we shall see ' ; gweld po:b for, ' to 



gwelugwel 179 

see in every direction ' ; may o wedi gweld gwtf d&ja, ' he has seen 
better days ' ; ?y bmmyd po:b pe:6 wc:l o, ' taking everything he sees ' 
(O.H.) ; muya vy:b dy:n byu, muya we:/ a muya glyu (prov.), ' we live 
and learn '. (2) with ka:yl, ' to see ', L e. ' to obtain information 
through the course which events take ' : %haid i \i ga:l gweld, ' you 
must see ' ; kaun weld etto, ' we shall see ' ; &<ti di weld be get di ar 
o:l d ewyrB, ' you will see what your uncle has left you '. (3) ' to 
look ' : gw*lu\I, rtux /, &lux /, ' look ! ' ; gwelux be neifi godi ar 

lo:n nei&jur, ' look what I picked up on the road last night '. 
to see ' = ' to understand ' : da\i y gweld ? -rtuxt, '0lu\i, ex?', 

o you see ?, you see ' (often used, as in English, as a kind of 
expletive at the end of a statement). (5) followed by an adjective 
or adverb = ' to seem ' : da\i y gweld tr adag m hi:r /, ' does the 
time seem long to you?' (Anglo- We'sh : 'do you see the time 
long ? ') ; r oybun i n i weld o n vaurjaun, ' he seemed to me very 
big ' ; -wybosti be: r ?du i n d? weld di n debig />, do you know what 



(4) ' 
' do 



I think you are like ? ' similarly os 'gwelu\i n da: (s gwelux 

' if it seems good to you ', i.e. ' please '. (6) ' to see ' = ' to visit ' : 



mi V3$a hunnu n du:ad i gwelt /', ' he used to come and see her f . 
(7) ' to see ' = ' to live until ' : may m bosib i ni be'idjo gweld r 
amsar honno, ' it is possible we shall not see that time '. Phrases : 
gweld bat, ' to blame ' [fo/J ; gweld i gi:l dannad, ' to experience 
the utmost of his unkindness ' ; gweld 3 werdon am dano, ' to be 
sick of waiting for it \ 

gwelu, adj., gwelw, D., ' pale ' (as result of illness seldom used 
= lu:yd) : r 0:8 going gwelu a gwa:yl arno vo (J.J.). 

gwelwi, gweuli, v., gwelwi, O.P., ' to turn pale '. 

gwely, s.m., pi. gwla:y (cf. gwlau, D.P.O. 317. 23), gwely, D. 
(i) 'bed': gwely wensgod, ' four-poster with curtains ' (J.J.), but 
cf. wensgod ; gwely py:st b?rjon, ' bed with short legs used when the 
ceiling is sloping, thus affording little space ' (JJ.) ; gwely peswyn, 
1 chaff bed ' ; mynd i r gwely, ' to go to bed ' ; da\i n mynd i x 
gwely y gyni ru:an, ' you go to bed earlier now ' ; may nu wedi 
mynd i u gwla.y, ' they have gone' to bed' ; wa:y6 i \i vo:d m i\ 
gwely 8im, l you might just as well be in bed ' ; may n haus mynd 
i r gwely na \odi o hono vo, ' it is easier to go to bed than to get up ' ; 
vy:om i ri'oyd m 9 ywely am durnod, ' I never spent a day in bed ' ; 
kweirjo, trim, gneyd gwely, ' to make a bed ' ; wedi ka:yl i gwely, 
said of awoman in childbed, 'to be brought to bed'. (2) used 
e.g. of a stone which lies well in the mortar : may gint hi wely da: 
(O.H.) ; similarly : may r gwair wedi hmmyd i wely n jaun, ' the 
hay (in the stack) has settled down nicely'. (3) 'flower-bed' 
= gwely bloda (cf. D., s.v. ' area ', gwely mewn gardd). (4) ' bed 
of a river '. 

gwel, adj., gwell, D., ' better ' : may o wedi gweld gwel dsbja, ' he 
has seen better days ' ; amsar gwel, ' better days ' ; ma: nu n we! k 

N 2 



1 8 o gwela gwennol 

ma: nu, ' they are better where they are ' ; daxi n edrax 3n wel, 
1 you look better ' ; with gin as wel gin t, ' I had rather ' : wel 
ganoxi i vjaun ta alan />, ' would you rather be inside or outside ? '- 
with i as wel i mi, ' I had better ' : wel i ni aros 9mma am vynyd, 
' we had better wait here a minute ' ; wel i ni gad tippin ba:x ar 9 
tarn, l we had better have something on the fire '. 

gwela, v., gwella, D., 'to improve ; to get better (in health) ' : 
os medri di wela dy hy:n, ' if you can better yourself. 

gwela, s. [gwala\. 

gwefy'ant, s.m., gwelliant, R., 'improvement': may hynna n 
we]jant maur. 

gwe:lt, s.m., gwellt, D., ' straw ':gwe:ltgla:s, ' grass ' [gweltglaitf] ; 
sometimes gwe:lt alone is used in this sense as sdp o we:lt, 
'a tuft of grass', e.g. left by cattle; to: gwe:lt, 'thatched 
roof ' ; het we:lt, ' straw hat ' ; ^ha:f we:lt, ' straw rope ' ; 
potlal (= suppyn) o we:lt, 'bundle of straw'; gu:r gwe:lt, 'a 
kind of guy formerly left on no:s glayg'eya, as an insult, at the 
house of a girl by a rejected lover; sometimes tied to the top 
of a tree where it could be seen by the neighbours before it could 
be taken down ' (O.H.) ; may r durnod wedi mynd i r gwedt, ' the 
day has gone by without anything being accomplished ' (cf. wedi 
mynd i r brenin} ; also used of persons ( he is a failure ' ; also 
gary i hy:n i r gwe:lj. 

gweltglaitf, gweltglatf, gwestglaitf (J.J.; O.K.); gwestglas ; 
gwesglas (E.J.), gwe:lt gla:s, s.m., gwelltglas, D., ' grass '. 

gweltog, adj., gwelltog, D., (of corn) ' rich in straw '. 

gweltyn, s.m., gwelltyn, D., ' blade of grass ; a straw '. 

gwe:n, s.f., pi. gwena, gwSn, D., ' smile ' : / o:s na 8im give:n ar 
i ry:8 o ; 'weluxi by9 we:n ar i ry:8 o, ' you never see him smile ' ; 
tippin ba:x o wena, ' a little cheerfulness ' ; gwe:n ar i ena, ' a smile 
on his lips ' ; mi Seydob hmny gid a i we:n ar iwynab, ' he said that 
with a smile on his face '. 

gwenar, s., Gwener, D., dy gwenar, 'Friday'; no:s wenar, 
' Friday night ' ; dy gwenar 9 grogliO, ' Good Friday '. 

gwe:n-de:g, adj., ' pleasant spoken but insincere ' : y:n -gwe:n'de:g 
ddi o,y:n 'we:n'de:g ddi hi. 

gwendid, s.m., pi. gwendida, gwendid, D. (i) ' weakness ' : ma: 
gviendid sn 2 top gmo vo, " he is a bit off it " ; tru mo:d im zywendid, 
' as I was in a weak state ' ; ywiljo (kodt) gwendida, ' to seek out 
weak points '. (2) ' pudenda ' : ka:l slap m i wendid. 

gwenhiQan, s.f., gwenhithen, M.LI. i. 240. 26, 'a grain of wheat'. 

gweniQ, s.m., gwenith, D., ' wheat '. 

gwennol, s.f., ^\. gwenoljad, gwennol, D. (i) ' swallow ' : gwennol 



gwe:n-ple:s gwerm 1 8 1 

9 mo:r, term applied to all species of tern (Sterna fluviatilis, etc.) = 
derynpenwaig, xividlurpenwaig. Cf. D., s.v. ' cypsellus ', ' drepanis ' ; 
morwennawl, R.B. 102. 26. (2) 'shuttle'; also in making nets, 
* needle, an instrument for holding and netting the material '(O.H.). 

'gwc:n'pk:s, adj., ' affable ' : r o:& o n 'we:n'ple:s jaun hevo mi 
(generally implying that the affability was a mere blind ; cf. 
gwe:n'de:g). 

gwenwisg, s.f., gwenwisg, D., 'surplice*. 

gwenwyn, s.m., gwenwyn, D. (i) 'poison': ma: r dy:n wedi 
hmeryd gwenwyn, 'the man has poisoned himself . (2) 'envy, 
jealousy, spite', cf. B.C. 17. 17 ; may i wenwyn m i !a:9 o, ' his 
jealousy is the undoing of him ' ; gurtaO da: 3di gwenwyn, a proverb 
implying that envy often profits those towards whom it is shown. 
Cf. may li:d a \mvigan m 0:8 i per\cnnog. 

gweny, v., gwenu, D., ' to smile ' : 'ma:y o y gweny n &//, ' he 
does smile prettily ! ' of sunshine : r hayl m tunny ag ?y gweny n 
nobl. 

gwenyn, s.pl., sing, gwensnan, gwenyn, D., ' bees ' : haid, hat/ad 
o wenyn, ' a swarm of bees ' ; hxjad gwenyn, ' a hiveful of bees ' ; 
gwenyn meir\ (mei'x), ' wasps '. 

gwep, s.f., gwep, D., 'vultus, facies, rostrum', (i) 'face' : tro: 
di wep gad i mi roid y:n i \ti (O.H.), ' turn your face for me to give 
you a slap '. (2) ' mouth ' : kay d? wep /, ' shut your mouth ' ; r 
he:n wep I (= r he:n &e:g /), said of some one who cannot keep a 
secret. [The word is only used in a facetious sense.] 

gwe:r, s.m., gw6r, D., ' animal fat such as that about the entrails 
of sheep and cattle ' (gwe:r 3 pervab) ; ' tallow ' : wa:st ? gwe:r, 
( droppings of tallow from a candle '. 

gweran, s.f., gweren, D., ' caul or fatty membrane investing the 
intestines, epiploon, omentum ' ; cf. y weren fol, D., s.v. ' omentum ', 
' peritonaeum ' ; also ' suet ' = lu:yn, now generally fiuai\ gweran 
byppyr, ' a dish made by melting suet, adding pepper and salt, 
mixing it with bread crumbs in a bowl, and pouring boiling water 
over it ' (O.H.). 

gwerglod, gwarglod, s.f., pi. gwergloty'a, gwarglobja, gweirglodd, 
D. ; gwerglodd, M.LI. i. n6. 3, 'meadow'. The following 
gwerglobja formerly existed on the low-lying land along the sea at 
Llanfairtechan on each side of the river: gwerglob y{y:s, syrdan, 
ba:\, kay r onnan, ben 3 bryn, tan r a:ltba:\ y tan r a:lty\a, 
vydyr^ vaur, luyngugan, ygilvax, * welsman, 3r henar, 
y doldir (O.H.) lbrenhinas 3 werg/od, * meadow-sweet ' (Spiraea 
Ulmaria) = xwy-'s arQyr. 

gzverin, s.f., gwerin, D., ' the common people ' ; also 3 werin 
bobol. 



182 gwern gwey 

gwern, s.pl., sing, gwernan, gwern, D., ' alders '. 

gwers, s.f., pi. giversi, gwers, D., ' lesson '. 

gwerB, s., gwerth, D. (i) verbal noun, 'sale': ar werB, 'on 
sale '. (2) ' worth, value ' : rhoid i baub an o:l i werB, ' to give to 
each according to his worth ' ; rubaB sy a gwerB mo vo, ' something 
of value ' ; daxi y gneyd gwerB zx bu:yd?, ' does what you do cover 
your keep ? ' ; / o:s na dim lawar o werB ano vo, ' it is not worth 
much ' ; 'g0usoxi werB axpre:s rieiBjur ?, ' did you get your money's 
worth last night ? ' ; gwerB dimma, ' a halfpennyworth ' (= mewaff) ; 
preceded by dim, ' not much' (but dim o werB, ' nothing of value ') : 
"X^msoxi Sim gwerB o budin, ' you have not taken much pudding ' ; 
vedar hi dim gwerB, ' she can't (talk) much (Welsh) ' ; Sary mi g*sgy 
dim gwerB neiBjur, * I did not sleep much last night ' ; / adi hi dim 
?n wel dim gwerB, ' she is not much better ' ; dim gwerB oford, ' not 
far ' ; vdda i dim gwerB zn i rie'yd o, ' I shan't be long doing it ' ; d 
9di o dim gwerB, ' he is not much good ' ; as adjective : mi vasa n 
werB i xi ' gweld nu, 'it would be worth your while to see them'; 
/ adi o dim gwerB i re&i, ' he is not worth swearing at '. 

gwerBol, s.f., pi. gurBavlja, gurBalva, gwerBolja, gwrthafl, D. ; 
gwarthol, D.F. [84]. 8 ; gwarthal, C.Ch. 56. 37, 'stirrup': d0ro 
da droyd m 9 werBol, ' put your foot in the stirrup '. 

gwerBur, s.m., gwerthwr, D., s.v. ' vendax ' ; ' seller ' : gwerBur 
p3sgod, ' a seller of fish '. 

gwerBy, v., gwerthu, D. Imperative gwerB, gwerBa, ' to sell ' : 
/ oys na dim n agos Kimmint o werBy 'arnynu ru:an, l there is not 
nearly such a good sale for them now '. 

gwer By d ; gwarBy I, gwerBy I (Q .}$..}, s.f., gwerthyd,D. (i) 'spindle'. 
(2) ' the iron rod which unites the power to churns, to water- 
wheels, etc.' 

gwestyn, s.m., ' a thin wiry man ' (I.W.) often used as an endear- 
ing term, r he:n westyn bsxan (of a child) ; o: ywestyn ba:x / (to a dog) 
O.H. Cf. Ar lleidar gwesdyn drwg i gasdie, A. (Ellis Roberts). 

gweuluyd, adj., gwelwlwyd, ' pale ' (O.H.). 

gwevl, s.f., pi. gwevla, gwelva, gwefl, D., ' lip ' used both of 
human beings and animals : gwelva tena. ' thin lips ' ; ledy ( = estyn, 
leysy] i welva, ' to pout' (cf. CC. 18. 9) ; paid ag 9sguyd da wevla 
arna i, ' do not say a word '. Cf. gwevys. 

gwevlgammy, v., gweflgammu, ' to make a wry mouth ' (O.H.). 

gwevrjo, v., gwefrio, G.O. ii. 242. 20. in phr. dest a gwevrjo, 
' to be on fire for anything ' (I.W.). 

gwevys, s.f., pi. gwevdsa, gwefus, D., ' lip ' : gwevzsa meinjon, 
' thin lips '. Cf. gwevl. 

> v., gweu, D., s.v. 'textim'. (i) 'to weave; to knit': 



gweydlyd gweyu 183 

gwey sanna, * to knit stockings ' ; ko:t wey, ' jersey ' ; krnbas wey, 
1 a jacket with sleeves worn by workmen underneath a coat '. (2) 
of rapid motion in and out : i pisgod yy gwey t%u t gi/i&. Cf. D.G. 
xlvii. 30. 

gw'e'ydlyd, adj., gwaedlyd, D. (i) ' bloody, blood-stained '. (2) 
1 revengeful ' : dy:n gweydlyd = dy:n djalgar : r hem ena gweydlyd 
djalgar (O.H.). 

gweydlyn; gweydlyd (I.W.), s.m., gwaedling, gwaedlif, D., ' fluxus 
sangumis ' ; ' bleeding from the nose ' : kayl > gweydlyn ; ^fa 
r gweydlyn = mtitoil, ' yarrow ' (Achillea Amlefolium). Cf. Lng. 
(Dial.) ' stanch-girss '. 

gw'e'ydwylt, adj., gwaedwyllt, D., s.v. ' impetuosus ', ' temerarius ' ; 
' passionate ' : gwy:lt weydwylt. 

gweydy, v., gwaedu, D., * to bleed '. 

gweylati, s.m., gwaeledd, D., s.v. ' leuitas ' ; ' sickness ' : ty kodt 
0:8 ar weytad, * arising from sickness '. 

gweylod, s.m., pi. gweylodjon, gwaelod, D. (i) 'bottom': ay 
yweylod y grif'a, ' at the bottom of the stairs ' \m weylod also 
occurs ; cf. yn waylod eigion, C.L.C. v. vi. 51. 22) : 9y yweylod > 
dilady 9 du:r, ?r avon, etc. ; 9 gweylod tsa, * the very bottom '. (2) 
fig. ' bottom ' : m ? gweylod, ' at bottom ' ; dim in 9 gweylod, 9y 
kogjo bo:d ar 3 gwynab, * not really, looking as if he was, pretending 
to be '. (3) ' grounds ' : gweylod blaud Keirx wedi berwi, ' grounds 
of boiled oatmeal'; also in pi.: gweylodjon baril ; gweylodjon 
golxi ?n * kruk. 

gwe'yly, v., g\\'aelu, O.P., 'to become poorly, infirm' : may hi y 
gweyly n aru er s riu day vi:s, ' she has been getting very infirm the 
last two months or so ' ; may hi wedi gweyly fawar, ' she has been 
pulled down very much ' (by her recent illness). 

gweyrod, s.pl., cf. gwyryng, D., 'vermiculi in dorsis bourn', 
(i) ' worms that breed under the skin of cattle ', i.e. ' the maggots of 
the warble-fly' (Hypoderma bovis), called gweryd, gweryrod in 
Medd. An. p. 89. (2) 'ship-worms': gweyrod meun ko:yd joy 
(O.K.). Cf. W.S. gwyran aderyn gwyllt ' A bernacle '. 

gweyQa, adj., gwaethaf, D., ' worst ' : may r adag weyBa wedi 
paf'o, ' the worst time (of year) has passed ' ; wedi mynd i r (e: 
gweyQa, ' gone to the bad ' ; vel may gweyBa mo:8, ' I am sorry to 
say ' ; used substantively : ar weyBa, * in spite of ' ; ar i weyBa (ar 
hy:d i weyBa) &o:B o, ' he came in spite of himself, against his will ' ; 
ar i weyBa vo n i tiannab, ' in the teeth of his opposition ', also ar i 
weyBa vo n i e:n. 

gweyBdy, s.m., gweithdy, D., s.v. ' lithotomia ' ; 'workshop' : 
gweyBdy sa:yr. 

gweyu, s.m., gwayw, D. (i) 'spear', in the plant-name dail 



184 gwi:al gwilihoban 

bla:yn 9 gweyu (O.H.). G. has (p. 4) Ranunculus Flammula, 
Lesser Spearwort, Blaen gwaew lliaf, and R. Lingua, Greater 
Spearwort, Blaen y gwaew mwyaf. (2) ' a shooting pain' : gweyu 
m i \evn ; mi a:Q gweyu i go:ys y:n onynu ; vedra r doktor dim 
tori r gweyu. 



gwi:al, s.pl., gwial and gwiail, D., ' rods ' : gwi:al meinjon, astu 
1 slender, pliable rods '; kru:B sgotta wedineyd o wi:al, 'a fishing 
basket made of rods, osier '. Cf. gjalam. 

gwi:al, s.pl., sing, gwialan, f. gwaell, pi. gweyll, gwehyll, D., 
' knitting needles ' ; gwialan wa:lt, ' hair-pin '. 

gwi:b, wi:b, s.f., gwib, D., ' vagatio '. (i) ' a run ' : grieyd, hmmyd 
wi:b (O.H.), ' to take a run ' (before a jump); mi na:6 wi:b alan, 
1 he rushed out ' ; ar wi:b, ' post haste '. (2) ' wandering, peregrina- 
tion ' : wedi mynd ar i wi:b, ' gone off on his wanderings '. (3) 
1 spirit of unrest' : may riu wi:b garu dni hi (= riu vynd, riu 
an'sevad'logruyti), f she is always gadding about ', ' she cannot settle 
down ' ; may riu wi:b dno vo am vynd o hy:d ; pen drawa r wi:b 
arna i (ar 9 mhenni), ' when the wandering spirit came upon me ' ; 
may o y hmmyd 3 wi:b m i ben ag ifur a vo:, ' he gets the wander- 
ing instinct on the brain and off he goes ' ; ma: lawar o wt:b wedi 
dir.ad ar 9 by:d y ' the world is full of unrest '. 

gwibdaiO, s.f., gwibdaith, ' flying visit, hurried journey ' : may 
o wedi ksmmyd i wibdaid ; may o wedi mynd ar i wibdaiQ. 

gwibjo, v., gwibio, D., ' to be given to wandering, to be unable to 
settle down ' ; ' flighty '. 

gwibjog, adj., gwibiog, D., s.v. ' vagabundus ' ; ' given to wander- 
ing, roaming about ' : wel wi:r, r o:n i n wibjog jaun pen o:n i n 
ivayk in mynd ar ol mermaid ; seran wibjog, ' falling star'. 

gwigil) adj., gwygyl, O.P., 'sultry': may r dwiyb 9n wigil 
(= mul, marwaib). 

gwi:x, s.f., pi. gwixja, gwich, D., ' squeak '. 

gwi\jad, s.pl., sing, gwi'xin, gwixan, gwichiad, D., ' periwinkle '. 
Also called, for the sake of distinction, gwixan vytta ; gwixjad 
mo:x, ' whelk ' (Fusus) ; varieties are gwixjad mo:x melyn and ko:x ; 
gwtxan Ki: (Littorina littoralis), gwixan arjan, apparently a shell of 
the genus Trochus worn to a silvery colour. 

gwixjan, v., cf. gwichio, D., 'to squeak'; 'to creak' (e.g. of 
boots) ; ' to screech ' (of fowls and owls) : gwixjan giaenftj*, ( to 
giggle ' (applied especially to girls). 

gwixlyd, adj., gwichlyd, O.P., 'creaking': sgidja gwt'xfyd. 

gwilihoban, v., gwilhobain, O.P. [to gallop], ' to gallivant, to fool 
away one's time ' = dgolih0utjo, may hi wedi mynd i wilihoban 
alan ; le: may r hogyn ? may o y gwilihoban ar o:l sr he:n ne&od na. 



gwiljad gwirkjo 185 

gwiljad, gwiljo, v., gwylio, gwyliaid, gwilio, gwiliaid, D., gwylat, 
W3., col. 74. 18 ; gwilied, D.F. [166]. 12 ; B.C. 34. 2 ; D.P.O. 
56. 28. (i) ' to watch ' : du i y gwiljad i simidjada (J.J ) ; rhaid 
i wiljo vo (O.H.). (2) ' to mind, take care ' : gwilju\ S9rtyo, ( mind 
you don't fall '. 

gwiljad, s., in the phrase ar wif/ad 9 dy& = 9 waur gmta n tori 
(O.H.). a.guyl. 

gwi^inab, s.m., gwylltineb, D., 'fury': gneyd Kigtitdra m i 
wilfinab (wirjondab) (O.H.), ' to commit an act of cruelty in a 
moment of passion '. 

gwiljo, gultjo, v., gwylltio, D. (i) ' to fly into a rage' (hevo). 
(2) ' to go wild ', e.g. with excitement : / zdynu Mm 9y gwiljo ru:an t 
ma: nu wedi syvylo, * they are not in wild excitement now, they have 
quietened down '. (3) ' to take fright ' : mi wfyjob 9 Kefyl. Trans. 
(4) 'to make angry*. (5) 'to frighten': gwijljo r adar', (of a 
sheep-dog) gwijljo r devaid i vmy t 

gwi:n, s.m., gwin, D., ' wine '. 

gwina, adj., gwinau, D., ' bay ' (of horses). 

gwinjo, v., gwynio, D., ' to throb ' (I.W.). 

gwt'yo, v., gwingo, D. ; B.C. 31. n. (i) 'to quiver, twitch* (of 
an animal on the point of death). (2) ' to set one's limbs in 
motion, exert oneself : may rhei zy gwi'yo hmny "vedranu a mynd 
dim kam m i bleyna ; rhaid i ti wiyo am dz dammad ; dy:n 9y 
gwiyo gweiBjo. 

gwi:r y adj., gwir, D., ' true ' : Kin wirad (wi'rjad f ) a f adar, a r 
evcyil, a bo:d bara meun tor6 y ' as true as the gospel ' ; in wz:r, 
' really, truly ' : m wi:r dlaud, ' really poor * ; also ' indeed ' 
(here m is generally omitted) : i:a wi:r, ' yes, indeed ' ; na: na, wi:r t 
'I will not, indeed*, i.e. 'no, I wonV; elawi:r mai dwa be sy:, 
' perhaps, indeed, that is what it is ' ; vejy wi:r, dzna be o:y o, 'just 
so, that was it ' ; vefy wi:r ! aije /, ' really ! ', ' you don't mean 
it ! ' As substantive ' truth ' : gwi:r a xeluyd, l truth and falsehood ' ; 
deyd 9 gwi:r, ' to tell the truth ' ; mi vasa fanny n agosax i r gwi:r t 
' that would be nearer the truth ' ; du i wedi deyd fawar o stry:on 
'iiQaxt, a lawar o wi:r 'snynu, ' I have told you a great many 
stories, and there is a great deal of truth in them too ' ; gin 9 
gwirjon Keir 9 gwi:r (prov.), 'from the innocent is obtained the truth'; 
\eu\i m o r gwi:r gmo vo, ' you can't get the truth out of him ' ; 
/ 9di o dtm ?y kayl 9 gwi:r, ' he does not get justice, get his due ' (in 
good sense) ; ar 9\ gwi:r P ar 9 ywi:r t faun i maru r mynyd ma /, 
' Really ? ' ' Really, upon my life and soul ' (lit. ' were I to die this 
minute '. 

gwirjo> v., gwyrddio, 'to become green*: may r ko:yd ?y 
gwirdjo. 



1 8 6 gwirjon gwla:d 

gwirjon, gurjon, adj., gwirion, D. (i) ' simple (in good sense), 
innocent ' : r 0:8 o mor wirjon f, ' he was so simple ! ' ; 9 pe:6 ba:\ 
gwirjon /, ' poor little thing ! ' (2) ' stupid, foolish ' : Kin wirjonad 
a i gssgod, ' as foolish as can be ' ; he:n lob (lolyn, bembul, etc.) 
gwirjon, ' old fool'; he:n dgolpan wirjon da\i '/, 'you silly idiot ! ' ; 
wedi mynd 9n wirjon he:n, ' in his dotage ' ; paid a gneyd dz hy:n m 
wirjon, 'don't make a fool of yourself; m daxi n wirjon 9m 
b3sta\y vel hyn /, ' how stupid you are to overwork yourself like 
this ! ' ; mi es i n wirjon gadal d maifis dn 9 loft, ' it was stupid of 
me to leave the matches upstairs '. 

gwirjona&i s.m., gwirionedd, D., ' truth ' : deyd z gwirjonab ; may 
hi m berfaQ wirjonati, ' it is perfectly true ' ; wirjonad inna /, 
' dear me ! ' 

gwirjondab,gurjondab, s., gwiriondeb, D.. * innocentia ' ; 'foolish- 
ness ' : gneyd Kigeibdra 9n i wirjondab (wiltinaV), O.H., ' to commit 
an act of cruelty in a moment of passion . 

gwirjonebol, adj., gwirioneddawl, O.P., ' true, real ' : m wir- 
jonebol sa:L 

gwirjoni, gurjoni, v., gwirioni, O.P., 'to play the fool'; also 
trans. : gwirjoni genad, ' to make a girl love one madly '. 

gwi:sg, s.f., pi. gwisgob, gwisg, D., ' dress, clothes ; covering, 
husk, etc. ' : d9nas vle:r vydyr m i gwi:sg a i gwaiB, l a slatternly 
woman ' ; Keirx wedi tsnny i wi:sg, ' oats with the husk taken off ' ; 
gwi:sg 9r arad, ' part of a plough opposite the mouldboard ', ' side 
of a plough '. 

gwisgi, wisgi, adj., gwisgi, D., ' nimble ' : may o n wisgi i dro:yd, 
gwisgi ar i dro:yd. 

gwisgo, v., gwisgo, D. (i) 'to dress': may hi y gwisgo am 
dani, l she is getting dressed ' ; may hi y gwisgo am dani hi, ' she is 
dressing her '. (2) * to dress ' (implying style of clothes worn) : 
gwisgo n syvyl, ' to dress plainly '. (3) ' to wear ' (transitive) : 
gwisgo r bais a r &lo:s, ' to wear the breeches ' (of a woman) ; 
intransitive : may o y gwisgo n da:, ' it wears well '. (4) ' to wear 
out ' (trans.) : du i y gwisgo V9 sgidja ar 9r oxra, ' I wear out my 
boots on one side ' ; intr. ' to wear out, wear away, grow thin ', 
used of other objects as well as clothes, e.g. may r garag wedi 
gwisgo, ' the stone is worn away ' ; wedi gwisgo i r eda, ' threadbare '. 
used also of persons. 

gwiQan, s.f., pi. gwiBenna, gwythen, D., *' vein ' ; also ' vein of 
slate, etc.' 

gwi:v, s.f., pi. gwivja, gwif, D. ; pi. gwifiau, s.v. ' palangae ' ; 'a 
large crowbar used esp. in slate quarries to move a block (pty-'g) 
after blasting '. 

gwla:d, s.f., pi. gwledyb, gwlad, D. (i) ' country ' (Fr. ' pays ') : 
dim ond burn ar 9 wla:d, ' only a burden on the country '. (2) 






gwladab gvunedyn 187 

' country ' (Fr. ' campagne ') : m 9 wla:d t ' in the country ' ; mynd 
am dro: i r'wla:d, l to go for a walk into the country ' ; dy^gwla.'d 
o farad, ' a manner of speech in the country '. 

gwladab, adj., gwladaidd, D. (i) 'of the country', 'rustic': 
ma na olug gwladab jaun ami hi. (2) ' of a kindly disposition', 
' pleasant to deal with ' = baud i dri:n, hmdeiOasol, hmuynasgar, 
3$ gneyd m de:g a fault, meun amoda da: a faub (O.H). Cf. B.C. 
13- 23- 

gwla.-n, s.m., gwlan, D., ' wool '. 

gwlanan, s.f., pi. gwlanenni, gwlanen, D., ' flannel ' : knsbas 
wtanan, * flannel shirt ' ; pats wlanan, ' flannel petticoat ' ; gwlanan 
o dy:n, ' a man of weak character, without backbone ', so r he:n 
wlanan J [This term was once applied by a preacher to the 
Almighty through the mouth of Jonah, when the destruction of 
Nineveh was not carried out. W.H.] 

gwlanennur, s.m., gwlanennwr, ' wool-buyer, flannel-maker '. 
Cf. Yn union daw'r gwlanenwr, lawn brynwr yn ei bryd. C. 
'CerddyrEdau Wlan'. 

gwlasbant, s., gwylmabsant, O.P., ' feast of the patron saint of a 
church, wake ' : gwlasbant lanvar, abar, duygyu9l\i died out about 
1 83 2 (O.K.). 

gwlasbanta, v., gwylmabsanta, O.P., ' to frequent wakes, make 
merry at a wake ' (O.H.). 

gwledig, adj., gwledig, D., 'rural': ardal wledig, 'a rural 
district '. 

gwle:$, s.f., pigwJetod, gwledd, D., ' feast ' : kadugwleti, ' to have 
a feast '. 

gwlebast, s.f., gloddest, D., ' revelling, carousing, riotous living ' 
(O.K.). 

gwlesta, v., gloddesta, D., ' to carouse '. 
gwlt:6, s.m., gwlith, D., ' dew '. 
gwliGlau, s.m., gwlithlaw, D., s.v. ' psecas ' ; ' fine drizzle '. 

gwliBo, v., gwlitho, D., ' to fall ' (of dew) : may hi y gwli6o, ' dew 
is falling '. 

gwly:d, s.pl., sing, gwli&in, gwlydd, D., 'sprouts', e.g. of potatoes 
coming up further advanced than e&in : gwfy:d dom, ' chickweed ' 
(Stellaria media) ; gwly:& geiru = bu:yd gwyba, 4 robin-run-in-the 
hedge, goosegrass, cleavers ' (Galium Aparine). 

gwly:x, s.m., gwl>>ch, D., 'liquid ' ; ' gravy ' (I.W.). 

gwnadyr, gwnjadyr, s.m., gwniadur, D., ' thimble '. 

gwnedyn, s.m., pi. gwnjada. Cf. gwyniad, D., s.v. ' sario ' ; 
' salmon-trout ' (Salmo trutta) I.W. ; young salmon (O.H.). 



1 8 8 gwneppryd gwra.'x 

gwneppryd, s.m., wynebpryd, D., s.v. ' fades ' ; ' countenance ' : 
gwneppryd brunt ssgavn. 

gwnidog, s.m., pi. gwentdogjon, gweinidog, D., ' minister '. 

gwniyan, m'yan, s.f., pi. gwniyod, niyod, cwningen, D. ; O.F. 
conin, connin ; Anglo-French, coning, ' rabbit ' : 9 wniyan. 

gwniygi, niygi, s.m., gwenwyngi, ' a jealous man ' ; 'a peevish 
man'. 

gwni:o, v., gwnio, D. Fut. S. i. gwnt:a, ^.gwni:B, gwni:f. Pret. 
3. gwm:o. Imperative, gwni:a ; gwni:ux, ' to sew '. 

gwmQvan, s.m., gwenithfaen, G.O. ii. 177. 6, 'granite' a 
common word in slate quarries. Four varieties are distinguished : 
gwniBvan gla:s, gwyn, dy:, and ko:\. 

gwm:ur, s.m., gwniwr, O.P., ' one who sews '. 
gwnjadrag, s.f., gwniadwraig, D., ' sempstress '. 

gwnjadur, s.m., pi. gwnjadurs, gwni'adwr, O.P., ' one who sews ' 
(O.H). 

gwnynfyd, adj., gwenwynllyd, D. (i) ' poisonous'. (2) 'malig- 
nant ', e. g. of an ulcer = Udjog. (3) ' keen ' : ma: r gwynt an 
wnynjyd. (4) ' spiteful, mean ' : r 0:8 o n rhy: wnynlyd io vo ga:l 
kur o r zmbcrrel, { he was too spiteful to let him have a corner of 
the umbrella '. (5) ' jealous, envious '. 

gwnyno, v., gwenwyno, D. (i) ' to poison '. (2) ' to be jealous '. 

gwobr, s.f., pi. gwobra, gwobr, D., 'reward, prize'. (Rather 
literary, but common in connexion with eisteddfod competitions, etc.) 

gweudjo, v., gwawdio, D., s.v. ' ludo ' ; 'to mock, make game 
of : mi gw0udjo vi, ' he made game of me '. 

gwvudjur, s.m., gwawdiwr, B.C. 38. 17, 'mocker, jester'. 

gw0udlyd, adj., gwawdlyd, D., ' mocking, derisive ; inclined to 
jeer'. 

gwaurjo, v., gwawrio, 2 Pet. i. 19. (i) 'to dawn'. (2) 'to 
improve ' : may o n dexra gw0urjo is said e. g. of one who has been 
in bad circumstances, when things are beginning to improve. 

gwrai'8, s.pl., sing, gwr'e'tbm, m., gwraidd, sing, gwreiddyn, D. ; 
gwreiddin, D.G. clxxv. 25, ' roots ' ; kodi o r gwraib, ( to root up ' ; 
gwraz'8 witf, ' twitch, couch-grass '. 

givraig, s.f., pi. gwragaft, gwraig, D. (i) * woman ' (more 
complimentary than dwas) ; gwraig d ty:, ' lady of the house ' ; 
buru he:n wragab afyn, ' to rain cats and dogs '. (2) ' wife ' : u:y& 
o blant o r wraig ganta, ' eight children by the first wife ' ; gwraig 
ivayk, ' bride ' ; gwraig weu, ' widow '. 

gwra:x, s.f., pl.gwraxod, gwrach, D., ' hag': koyl gwra:x ar o:l 



gwrido 189 

byttayud, ' an old wives' fable '. (For similar expressions cf. D.F. 
fx]. n, [45]. 12.) brtykuyd gwra:x m o:l i hufys, "the wish is 
Father to the thought"; tre:x duy wra:\ nag y:n (prov.), "two 
heads are better than one ". Used also of men : ' an owl ' ; 
gwra:x 9 lydu = gwra:\ 9 tukka, ' woodlouse ', gwrach y lludw, 
D., ' cutio, porcellio '. 

gwraxan, s.f., pi. gwra\od t gwrachan, D., s.v. 'anicula'. (i) 
' hag ', as term of reproach : ta:u r he:n wra\an I (2) This term 
is applied indiscriminately to all kinds of sea-bream and wrasse : 
gwraxan dy:, ' black sea-bream ' (Cantharus lineatus). Two other 
varieties are distinguished : gwraxan go:\ and gwraxan wen. Cf. 
also pasgodyn arjan, pssgodyn ayr. gwraxan 9 ba:u, 'a small 
fresh-water fish about four inches long, of a reddish colour, which 
lives in still water ' (O.H.), ' ? minnow ' (Leuciscus phoxinus) ; 
gwraxan ba:x, l a kind of bird '. Cf. gwrach y cae (O.P.), ' hedge- 
sparrow ', i. e. Accentor modularis. 

gwrando, v., gwrando, D. Imperative gwrando, gwranda ; 
gwrandux, ' to listen * : gwrando ar 9 pe:6 sy arno vo, ' to brood 
over one's illness '. 

gwranta, v. (Fut. S. i), warantaf, S.G. 94. 36; wrantaf, S.G. 
42. 30; cf. D.G. cxxiv. 31, cxxx. 27: mi gwranta i di, Til 
warrant you '. 

gwregys, s.m., pi. gwregwa, gwregys, D., ' truss ' (apparatus used 
in cases of rupture). 

gwrei'8/o, v., gwreiddio, D., ' to take root ' : fig. may o wedi 
gwret&jo n 8a: jaun, ' he has remained long in his situation '. 

gwreid/ol, adj., gwreiddiol, D. (i) ' thorough, from the root': 
dasgy n wrfi'8/ol, ' to learn thoroughly'. (2) ' reliable, true* : may 
r pe:B ddu i wedi Sejyd 9m berfaiB wre'ibjol. 

gwreigan, s.f., gwreigari, D., s.v. ' vxorcula f ; 'a little woman ' : 
may hi n he:n wreigan bra:v, ' she is a fine little old woman ' ; also 
' wife ' : 9 wr'tigan afcu, ' the old woman at home '. 

gwretxjon, s.pl., sing, gwrei'xjonan, gwreichion, D., ' sparks '. 

gwre:s, s.m., gwres, D., ' heat ' : may r ta:n m rhoi gwre:s y ' the 
fire is hot ' ; may hi y kodi n wre:s, ' it (the weather) is getting hot '. 

gzvresog, adj., gwresog, D. (i) ' hot, heat-giving ': may r glo: 
n wresog, ' the coal gives out a great deal of heat '. Also applied to 
the weather, a stronger term than tesog. (2) ' cordial*. 

gwri:d, s.m., gwrid, D., ' ruddiness, flushing of the face ' : 9 gwri:d 
wedi mynd o r boxa. 

gwrido, v., gwrido, D., ' to blush ' : gwrido d at i glistja, gwrido 
at vo:n 3 gwa:lt, ' to blush to the roots of one's hair '. 



1 9 o gwrinan gwybal 

gwrinan, s.f. Cf. gwirin, D., s.v. ' verminatio ' ; and gwraint, 
sing, gwreinyn, ' ring-worm ' : 3 vrinan (O.H.). Cf. derwinan. 

gwritgox, adj., gwridcoch, D., s.v. 'ruber'; 'ruddy, rosy-cheeked*. 

gwrodan, s.f., gwaroden, S.E., s.v. ' switch ' ; ' rod ' : gwrodan 
8eru ne golan i waldjo (O.H.) thicker and tougher than rhodan. 

gwry:x, s.m., pi. gwr^xod, gwr^ch, D., ' hedge '. (Seldom used 
= klaub, but klauft gwry.x is in fairly common use to distinguish 
from klauft tferig, etc.) ; pbgy gwry:x, ' to bend a hedge '. 

gwrym, s.m., pi. gwwmja, gwrimja, gwrym, D., ' a small ridge; 
a weal ' : r o:ft 9 yhevn i n wrzmj'a maur vel 3 my:s (JJ .), ' rny back 
was covered with weals as big as my finger ' ; also * a pleat ', 
e. g. of a stocking. 

gwry:sg, s.pl., sing, gwrysgan, gwr^sg, D., ' small branches cut 
off* : gneyd klaub gwry:sg, ' to make a hedge by inserting poles in 
the ground and entwining branches between them ' ; gneyd aduy 
wry:sg \aduy\. 

gwwtym, gwrytym, s.m., ' withe ' (?) : gwrzdyn basgad, ( handle 
of a basket '. 

gwraxyn, s.m., gwrychyn, D., s.v. 'seta', (i) 'bristles': ka:6 
9y kodi i gwrzxyn, ' a cat arching its back ' (kodi i xry>'X is also 
heard) ; mi godis 9 ywrzxyn vel bay$ fonSeirjog, ' I bristled up like 
a mad boar '. (2) ' blades of grass left standing after the scythe ' 
(O.H.) ; gwrsxyn arvod, ' such blades left standing between each 
sweep of the scythe forward '. 

gwramjog, adj., gwrymiog, D., s.v. ' fimbriatus ' ; ' full of ridges, 
ribbed ', applied e. g. to the sand of the sea-shore when the tide is 
low (J.J.). 

gwybad, s.pl., sing, gwybedyn, gwybed, D., ' flies '. 

gwydro, v., gwydro, D., 'to glaze '. 

gwydrur, s.m., gwydrwr, D., ' glazier '. 

gwydyn, adj., sup. gwytna, ' tough ', applied to meat, hay, etc. 
(opp. bray) fig. may o n y:n gwydyn (?n wydyn vel kortyn), ' he is 
a tough customer '. 

gwydyr, s.m., gwydr, D., ' glass ' : lamp wedi tori i gwydyr, ' a 
lamp with a broken chimney'; pa:yn (= kwarat) o wydyr, ' a pane 
of glass '. 

gwj>:S, s.m., pi. gwtijon, gw^dd, D., ' arbusta, arbores, caules ' ; 
gwydd aradr, s.v. 'aratrum'; cf. also W.LI. Ivi. 101, 'plough' 
(Pentir, Tregarth, and the neighbourhood of Bangor). Cf. arad. 

gwy:8, s.m., pi. gwshibjon, gw^dd pro gwehydd, D., ' weaver '. 

gwybal, s.m., pi. gwybelod, Gwyddel, D., ' Irishman '. As term 
of reproach : gwybal hyL 



gwyfafas gwyn 1 9 1 

gwyblas, s.f., Gwyddeles, ' Irishwoman ' : bank r ht.-n wy&efas, 
name of a sand-bank. 

gwytelig, adj., Gwyddelig, 'Irish': t%o: gwyklig, 'a shabby trick'. 

gwy:\, adj., gwjch, D., ' splendid, fine, smart ' : guy:* o bt:0 ; 
ma na olug gwy:\ ar 9 gwarQag ; dy:n gwy:\ ; gwtiQjur gwy:\ ; 
ma na olug gwy:\ ar i waiQ. Not often used : English words such 
as krand, ne'is, smart tend to take its place. 

gwylab, adj., gwylaidd, S.E., s.v. ' modest ' ; ' modest '. 

gwylan, s.f., pi. gwlanod, gwylan, D., 'sea-gull': gwylan benty, 
' black-headed gull ' (Larus ridibundus) ; gwylan vre:\, ' herring- 
gull ' (Larus argentatus) ; guy fan wen, ' common gull ' (Larus 
canus) ; gwylan Kevn dy:, ' black-backed gull ' (Larus marinus). 

gwyl, s., gwyll, D., in phrase /id a gwyl 9 no:s = rhuy day ofa 
(O.H.). Cf. D., s.v., ' Yngwyll y nos, Crepusculo vespertine '. Cf. 
also gwilfad. 

gwy:lt, adj., pi. gwiltjon, gwyllt, D. (i) ' wild = not tamed ' : 
dovi anival gwy:lt, ' to tame a wild animal ' ; mo:\ gwilljon, ' wild 
boars ' ; kaBod gwilljon, ' wild cats ' ; Kefyl gwy:lt, ' a horse that 
has not been broken in'. (2) 'wild, growing wild': mavon 




spite of brushing '. (3) applied to what has never been cultivated 
(of land) : ti:r gwy^t. (4) ' wild, stormy, raging ' : tu:y% anwadal 
gwydt, ' wild, unsettled weather ' ; du:r gwy.lt, ' a strong current ' ; 
may hi n veru gwydt, { it is in a wild state of excitement ', e. g. 
a meeting ; may o n holiks gwydt, ' he is in a terrible temper '. 
(5) * of anything that burns quickly or bursts suddenly into flame, 
inflammable ' : glo: gwy:lt, ' coal that burns quickly ' ; dy:n gwy:lt 
vel mat/an, ' one who flares up in an instant like a match '. (6) 
'quick tempered': dy:n gwydt (cf. the last example); gwy:lt 
weydwylt, ' passionate''. (7) ' hasty, apt to act in a hurry '. (8) 
' malignant ' : davad wy:lj, ' a cancerous wart '. (9) trayO gwy:lt, 
' quicksand ' (O.H.). 

gwymmad [gwynab~\. 

gwyn, adj., fern, gwen ; comp. gunna\, pi. gun/on, gwynn, D. ; 
comp. gwnnach, L.A. 16. 14; G.R. 31. 18 ; pi. g\vnnion, D.F. 
[viii] 22. (i) ' white ' : may hi n vy:d gwyn, ' it is a white world ' 
(after a fall of snow) ; 9 m?mdod 3n i krisa gun/on, ' the mountains 
covered with snow ' ; fosab ko\jon gun/on, ' white fox-gloves ' ; 
menig gunjon, ' white gloves ' ; r o.yd po:b man 9n wyn o varig, 
' everything was white with frost ' ; mi vy:d 9\ pen m wyn pen 
weluxi h9nny, ' your hair will be white by the time you see that ' ; 
o r bora givyn dan no:s, ' from early morning till night ' ; Ki:g gwyn, 
* fat meat'; gwyn 9 gwe:l 9 vra:n i x*u (prov.). (2) 'white-hot*. 



1 9 2 gwynab gwynt 

(3) 'blessed', in phrase gwyn dz vy:d!, 'what a happy man you 
are'; similarly: gwyn po:b pe:6 nezvyd (prov.). As substantive: 
(i) ' fat '. (2) ' silver coins ' : o:ys 'g9noxi XWt'X o bre:s m le: xwt-'X 

wyn ?, ' have you six coppers for a sixpenny piece '. (3) 'desire ' : 
gweld i wyn arno, * to like it ' (I.W.). 

gwynab, rarely wynab ; gwymmad, wymmad (O.H. always) 
(A by-form xwynab, ywymmad also exists, e. g. 9 ty: xwymmad i 
V9ny, ' face upwards ' ; dim ar xtvymmad 3 deyar, l nothing on 
earth'), s.m., pi. gwyneba, wyneb, D. (i) 'face': ka:l rubaB 
gmo vo mor hau a tmny la:u hyd i wynab, ' to get something from 
him as easily as stroking his face ', i. e. ' for the mere asking ' ; 
rhoid wynab agorad ar baub, ' to act frankly towards every one ' ; 
deyd rubaB m 9x gwynab, ' to say something before your face ' 
(opp. 9n 9x Kevn, ' behind your back ') ; deyd rubaB 9n 9x gwynab 
no:y&, ' to say something before your very face ' ; gneyd rubaB m 
wymmad 9 gsvraB (O.H.), ' to do something in the face of, against 
the law'; dal gwynab (z), 'to make believe': / 0:8 o dim sn leikjo 
vo o gubul, ond r 0:8 sn dal gwynab 280 vo ; dal blaud gwynab 
\blaud\ ; tmny gwyneba, ' to make faces ' ; tmny gwynab hi:r, ' to 
pull a long face ' ; sarBjoft i wynab, ' his countenance fell '. (2) as 
term of reproach, implying ugliness : r hem wynab ! (3) ' surface ' : 
ar wynab 9 mo:r, ' on the surface of the sea ' ; un i 8tm ar wynab 
9 Seyar, ' I have no notion ' ; gwynab 9 dorB, ' the surface of the 
loaf; rh0ux bla:t ar i wynab o, 'put a plate over it' (i.e. over 
another plate). 

'gwynab'galad ; 'gwymmad'galad (O.H.), adj., gwynebgaled, 
'bare-faced, impudent' (= talog) : may o mor -wymmad-galad na 
neiB rhesum m o i droi o. 

gwynab-gledux, s.m., gwynebgaled wch, ' barefacedness, impu- 
dence '. 

gwyneby, v., wynebu, D., 'to face ' : Bala fon 8im i wyneby taiB 
9n 9r he:n amsar, ' a stick would be useless to face a journey in 
old times '. 

gwynera : may na fitja gwynera arno vo, ' he is changeable ' 
(I.W.). 

gwynlasy, v., gwynlasu, O.P., ' to turn deadly pale '. 

gwynt, s.m., pi. gwyntob, gwynt, D. ( i) ' wind ' : givynt9 duyran, 

1 east wind ' ; gwynt maur, ' high wind ' ; gwynt tros 9 ti:r, ' land 
wind ' (on the sea) ; may na awal 8a: o wynt heibju, ' there is a good 
breeze to-day ' ; / o:s na 8tm x^ a: ( = evlyri] o wynt, ' there is not a 
breath of wind ' ; / o:ys na 8im digon o wynt i 9sguyd 9 briga, ' there 
is not enough wind to move the branches ' ; / 9di r gwynt 8im 9m 
buguB, 'the wind is not boisterous'; may r gzvynt 9n vain 
(= wnynjyd'), ' the wind is piercing, keen'; may hi y kodi n wynt, 
' the wind is rising ' ; may hi wedi kodi nwynt 9n aru jaun, ' it has 
got very windy ' ; may r gwynt wedi mynd i laur (tori i laur, huiljo 



gwyntog gmna 1 9 3 

/' laur, gostegy, gustun, $i'ha:y\ ' the wind has dropped ' ; may r 
gwynt wedi /got', * the wind has changed ' ; r o:& 9 gwynt m * yhevn, 
' the wind was behind me ' ; 9y gfosgod 9 gwynt, ' sheltered from 
the wind ' ; Xiy gmtad a r gwynt, ' as swift as the wind ' ; farad 
i r gwynt, ' to talk nonsense ' ; mynd a i ben 9n 9 gwynt, ' to be at 
a loose end, to be harum-scarum, to flaunt about ' ; gwynt te:g ar 
d 0.7 <///, ' good riddance ! ' (2) ' breath ' : du i wedi ko[i ywynt, 
* I have lost my breath ' ; ka:l givynt, ' to get one's breath ; to have 
a moment's rest ' ;. a i wynt m i u&u, ' breathless ' ; r o:& 9 ywynt 9n 
9 nurn i, ' my heart leapt to my mouth ' ; kmmux. *X gwynt, l take 
your breath ' ; mi byko& 9 kuru ar y:n gwynt, ' he swallowed the 
beer at one gulp ' ; fig. may o n laun o wynt, * he is a frothy man '. 
(3) ' draught '. (4) ' wind ' (in the stomach) : gwynt 9$ kasgly. (5) 
' inclination ' : / o:s gin i dim gwynt i vynd mo, * I don't feel much 
inclined to go there, I don't much care about going there ' ; n?dig 
iaun o wynt sy gin mam i&o vo, ' mother doesn't much care for him '. 

gwyntog, adj., gwyntog, D., ' windy'. 

gwyntyl, s.f., gwyntyll, D., s.v. ' vannus ' ; ' winnowing fan ' : 
9 wyntyl i Inay 9r y:d (O.H.). 

gwyrb, fern, gwerd, pi. gwar&jon, gwirbjon, adj., gwyrdd, D., 
'green'. 

gwyrblas, adj., gwyrddlas, D., s.v. * virido ' ; ' green ' : may r ka:y 
9n wyr&las. 

gwyrblesni, s., gwyrddlesni, D., s.v. ' viriditas ' ; ' greenness ', 
esp. of grass. 

gwyro, v., gwyro, D., 'to stoop, bend ' : -vedru\i dim mynd m 9\ 
sevyl, rhaid i \i wyro ; gwyrux u6 ben 3\ pla:t, ' lean over your 
plate '. 

gwyrQ, s.f., pi. gurQja, gwyrth, D.; pi. gwrthyev, L.A. 83. 6; 
gwrthiau, M.LI. i. 94. 9, ' miracle '. 

gwyvo, gwywo, v., gwywo, D., s.v. ' flacceo ' ; gwyfo, C.L.C. 
ii. 37. 26; T.N. 74. 2, 'to fade'. 

gwyvyd, s.m., gwyddfid, D. : bf'a r gwyvyd, ' honeysuckle * 
(Lonicera Periclymenum). 

gwyvyn, s., gwyfyn, D., ' moth '. Seldom used. 

gW9hiljon, s.pl., gwehilion, D., ' dregs ' (literal and figurative). 

gwzfory, v., gweryru, D., ' to neigh ; to guffaw '. 



gyr, s.m., pi. garob, gyrr, D., ' flock, drove ' : gyr o tievaid, 
warBag, gtfMa, wyba, etc. 
gytto, pet name for ( Griffith '. 
gyflog [tofilog]. 
gtnna, adv., gynneu, D., ' just now '. 

1438 O 



194 garnat hagar 

gzrnat, s.m., 'gurnard': gwnat gre:, garnat sbotjog, 'grey 
gurnard ' (Trigla gurnardus) ; garnat ko:x, ' red gurnard ' (Trigla 
lineata). Cf. xurnur. 

garur, s.m., gyrrwr, D., s.v. ' exactor ' ; ' driver ' : robin 9 garur, 
'gad'fly '; also ' drover' properly the assistant ot&pordmon. 

gary, v., gyrru, D. (i) 'to drive': gsry 9 we:8, 'to drive the 
team ' ; gsry moxyn, ' to drive a pig ' ; r\i: dary ysry vi ar 9 
kwestjun, ' you made me ask the question ' ; may o y gary ar i dri: 
mt:s, ' he is nearly three months old '. (2) ' to send ' (= anvori) : 
gsry Myr, ' to send a letter ' ; gsry govyn, ' to send an invitation ' ; 
gary frosod -attynu, ' to send over to them ' ; gary morwyn ar negas, 
1 to send a maid on an errand '. 

gastifol, \T\pel gdstifol, ' ever so far' : ma: nu wedi mynd 9m del 
gistifol (O.K.) = bdstifol. 



k 

ha:, s.m., haf, D., ' summer ' : durnod kmta r ha:, ' the first day 
of summer ' (i. e. May i) ; hannar ha:, ' midsummer ' ; fair vaygor 
hannar ha: ; r ha: &a:x, ' St. Luke's summer ' (but applied to the 
end of September). 

ha:d, s.m., had, D., 'seed' (in the aggregate). Cf. hadan, 
hedyn. 

hadan, s.f., pi. hada, haden, O.P., 'a single seed' : hadan o de:, 
'tea-leaf '(O.K.). 

hady, v., hadu, D., ' to seed '. 

hadyd, s.m., hadyd, M.LI. i. 169. i, ' seed-corn'; also 'potatoes 
kept for planting '. 

hafjad, s., haffiad, ' handful ' : faro i mihafjad o we:lt, o brikja. 

haf jo, v., haffio, T.N. 47. 10 ; 225. 5 ; 300. 35. (i) ' to snatch, 
snatch at, jump at ' (= hOry i be:B, rieidjo ibe:Q, J.J.) ; ku:n an haf jo 
ar i gih'8 ; paid a haf jo arna i, ' don't jump down my throat '. 
(2) ' to gulp ' : hafjo bytta (of human beings or animals) = Ivukjo. 

hafla, s.pl., affleu and *hafflau, D. (i) ' grasp ' : lond i hafla, ' as 
much as can be grasped by the two hands and arms '. (2) ' clutches ' : 
r 0:8 o dn i hafla ; a:B an in/on i u hafla ; a:B o i hafla rhag bla:yn ; 
kadu alan o hafla r he:n blismon na. 

hagan \agari\. 

hagar, adj., hagr, D., ' ugly ' = hyl (but the latter is the ordinary 
word) ; tru:y de:g ne hagar } ' by fair means or foul '. 



hagry hampar 195 

hagry, v., hagru, O.P., ' to make ugly, become ugly '. 

hat, in the expression hai luk I an exclamation equivalent to ' may 
it be so, indeed ', e.g. gob'tiQjo by:t hi vffy wcl, hai luk I 

haid, s.f., pi. hi'idja, haid, D., ' swarm ' (of bees) ; ' flock' (of 
birds) ; ' shoal ' (of fish) ; * pack ' (of hounds), etc. 

haft, s.m., haidd, D., ' barley '. 

haint, s., pi. heintja, haint, D., 'epidemic '': may &fya gla:s tn 
dfakkax o heintja, ' a green winter is more likely to bring epidemics 
with it '. 

halt, s.m., pi. hakja, Eng. hack, ' a cut, cleft ' : mi doris hak ar 9 
la:u ; hak m 9 graig, ' a cleft in the rock '. (Cf. agan) 

hakjo, v., haccio, C.G.M. 95. 23, Enp;. hack, ' to notch, to cut 
marks in a stick ' the old-fashioned way of keeping accounts. 

halan, s.m., halen, D., ' salt ' : pin/in o halan, ' a pinch of salt ' ; 
Kettog (halan), ' salt-box ' ; kalan o halan, ' bar of salt ' ; mi ro: i halan 
m i bottas o /, ' I'll be even with him ! ', ' I'll have it out with him ! ' 
= mi ro: i halan ar i vriu o. 

hald, s., ? hald, D., ' succussio ' ; R. [the trotting or jogging of a 
horse] in the phrase ar i hald as 8o:d ar i hald, ' he came un- 
expectedly, as the whim led him ' ; mi do: i riu durnod etto ar v? 
hald, I shall be turning up again some day '. 

-haldi-war, s., ' a ruffian ' (I.W.). 

haldjo, haldfan, v. ; cf. haldian, D., s.v. ' nuto ' ; 'to reel ' (of a 
drunken man) ; haldjo o r y:n o\or i r lal. 

haljo, v., ' to haul ' : haljo ku:\. 

ha:l o t, adj., pi. heiltjon, hallt, D., ' salty, salt ' (intensified xw* 
ha:lt) : du:r ha:U, ' salt water ' ; Kin haltad a heli trimor (deyvor, day 
vo:r), ' as salt as the water of three seas ' ; daxi n i glu:adon ha:^^, 
1 does it taste salty to you ? ' fig. may n ha:U gin 3 yhalon Wyd, ' it 
grieves me to say '. 

halty, v., halltu, D., ' to salt '. 
ham, s.f., pi. hams, 'ham'. 

hamfagjo, v. (i) ' to humbug ' (trans.). (2) ' to play the fool ' 
(u6 bexy, vefavi, vyu n avradlon, etc.). (3) 'to play the deuce with ' : 
hambzgjo ijexid. (4) ' to overwork ' : hamfagjo i hynan = bntaxy. 
(5) 'to ill-treat'. (All O.K.) 

hamftan, s.f., hamdden, D., 'leisure '. 

hamftenol, adj., hamddenawl, O.P., 'leisurely': gnfyd rubaB m 
hamdenol ; y:n hambenoljaun di o, ' he takes it easy '. 

hampar, s.f., hampar o enaQ, ' a romping girl ', ' a torn-boy ' ; 
he:n hampar (vydyr)/ (Cf. M.F. rhampen.) 

02 



1 9 6 hamport hayhps 

hamport (O.H.) ; hamburt (Bangor), s.m., ? Eng. hand-board ; 
' a kind of tray formerly placed on the table to hold the tea things, 
with one leg supported by three feet and generally made of oak ' 
(O.H.) also ' tray '. 

hanas, s.m., pi. hanef'on, hanes, D., ' story, history ' : deyt hanas, 
' to tell a story ' ; mi dri:fi ga:yl dr hanas gmo vo m bersonol ond 
mi veQif, ' I tried to get the story from him personally, but without 
success ' ; tasa r he:n sgidja ma n medry farad mi *g0usani dippin o 
i hanas o, ' if these old boots could speak we should hear a bit of his 
history ' ; dim hanas ono vo, ' no signs of him '. 

handi, adj. (i) 'handy, convenient '. (2) ' quick ' : d#rux lump 

gaus 9n i ge:g o, mi gnoiQ hunna n o handi, ' put a lump of cheese 
in his mouth, he'll chew that quickly enough '. 

handlan, s.f., pi. handls, ' handle ', e. g. of a can or bucket. Also 
handl. Cf. ko:ys, tro:yd, kly:st, gwwbyn. 

hanesyn, s.m., hanesyn, O.P., ' a little story '. 

hannar, s.m., hanner, D., 'half: hannar kant o bynna, 'fifty 
pounds ' ; may o drost i hannar kant, ' he is over fifty ' ; ?y gant a 
hannar o:yd, ' a hundred and fifty years old ' ; blu:yb a hannar, 

1 eighteen months of age ' ; hannar aur wediy:n or 8e:g, ' half-past 
eleven ' ; hannar dy:b, ' midday ' ; hannar no:s, ' midnight ' ; hannar 
koron, ' half a crown ' ; hannar lanu, hannar trai, ' half tide ' ; 
hannar Kimmint aral, ' half as much again ' ; mu:y o r hannar, l half 
as big again ' ; ma: nu n rhy: va:n o r hannar, ' they are too small 
by half ' ; wel gin i o r hannar, ' I had far rather ' ; bron wedi 
darvod, nag ar i hannar nag ar i xwartar xwat0> ' nearly finished, 
neither half finished nor quarter finished either ' ; r 0:8 na helynt 
a hannar, ' there was a terrible row ' ; tori 3n i hannar (tru i 
hannar), ' to break, to tear in two ' ; as adverb : hannar Kiy grmad 
a hi:, ' half as strong as she ' ; wedi hannar i lugy, ' half-starved ' ; 
mi a:B a r Hi: ar hannar bytta, ' he took the dog away when he 
had only half finished eating ' ; hannar pan, " not all there". 

hannos \annos}. 

hanny, v., hanfod, D., 'to originate, come originally (from)': 
pu:y deyly zdi o / may o n hanny alan o hun a hun ; hanny alan o 
fi:r vo:n (O.H.). Somewhat literary. 

hanob [ano$\. 

hantiks, s., Eng. antics, (Dial.) hantics : mynd tru i hantiks, danos i 
hantiks, ' to show his naughty tricks ' ; 'to make an exhibition of 
himself. 

haykas, haykatf, s.m., pi. harjKetfi, ' handkerchief ' : haykas pokkad. 
hayhpjo, hayhfjo, v., 'to handcuff'. 
hayhps, s.pl, ' handcuffs '. 



hay la haul 197 

hayla, s.f., ' a scolding ' : %hoi hayla i by:n (I.W.). 

hapnjo, v., cf. hapio, W.S., ' to happen ' : tary mi hapnjo i weld 
o = diguyb. 

happys, adj., happus, D., ' happy '. 

hapysruyk, s., happusrwydd, D.F. [138], 28; P.G.G. 63. 7, 

' happiness '. 

harbur, s.m., harbwr, C.L.C. iv. 33. 24, 'harbour'. 

hard, adj., harctd, D., ' pretty ' : merx ivayk hard tomynol, ' a 
pretty, comely young girl ' ; may hnny n o le:u o hart, ' that is 
rather pretty '. 

hardy, v., harddu, Rev. xxi. 19, 'to beautify'. 

harjo, v., hario, Eng. harry, (i) 'to be tired' (stronger than 
blino) : du i wedi harjo n !a:n, ' I am dead tired '. (2) ' to tire ' : 
mi haris i nu ii:d. (3) 'to spoil ' : may gwynt 9 duyran m harjo, 
yn dveBa po:b pe:6. 

harlig, adj., haerllug, D., s.v. ' importunus ', 'impudens'; 
' impudent, audacious ; hard, grasping', e.g. of one who drives a 
hard bargain. 

hard/o [ar&jo~\. 

hary [darvod~\. 

hasart, s., Eng. hazard, 'risk' : hasart garujaun, 'a great risk'. 

ha:st, s.f., hast, C.C. 214. n, ' haste ' : mynd ar ha:st vaur. 

hastys, adj., ' hasty, apt to do things hurriedly '. 

hatlin, s., hatling, St. Mark xii. 42, 'mite': s gin z dim hatlin, 
1 1 have not a brass farthing '. 

hat/ad, s.f., ' hatch ' : hatfad o gmijon ; hatfado wenyn> ' a swarm, 
hiveful of bees ' ; hatfad o vo:\, ' litter of pigs '. 

hau8, adj., comp. haus, hmibax, sup. herusa, heruba, hawdd, D., 
' easy ' : mi vy:8 9n haus i x* vytta na dim by:daral, ' it will be easier 
for you to eat than anything else ' ; rhoi dilad meun du:rga:l nu vod 
m haus i golxz, ' to put clothes to soak so as to make them easier to 
wash ' ; pe bay r wybva y gaus mi v&a n haus ka:l kosyn (prov.), 
' if Snowdon were made of cheese it would be easier to get one ', 
i.e. ' if ifs and an's were pots and pans, there'd be no trade for 
tinkers ' ; with^/w : may n haus gin ivebul, ' I am inclined to think '. 
Comparative with the verb to be : pu:y haus wSuxi /, ' what will it 
avail you ? ' ; vasa r k0ujon dim haus uB gad knstyn oni ba:y vod 9r 
ja:r m i valy vo n digon ma:nybynu, ' the chickens would be none 
the better for getting a crust unless the hen made it into small 
enough bits for them ' ; be du i n haus a mynd ru:an a r tre:n wedi 
h\uyn /, ' what is the use of me going now when the train has 
started ? ' ; be o:yb o haus a rhoid kweir ido vo ?, ' what was he the 



198 haul heb 

better for giving him a thrashing ? ' ; vy:o vo dammad haus, ' he was 
none the better for it ' ; ' it was of no avail '. 

haul, s.m., pi. h0ulja, hawl, D. (i) 'right' : haul pori devaid a 
Qori maun, c the right of pasturing sheep and cutting peat '. (2) 
' principal ' : byu ar ar haul, ( to live on the principal ' ; lo:g a haul, 
1 interest and principal '. 

havaft, adj., hafaidd, D., ' summery '. 

havlig, s., haflug, D., ' abundantia, copia ' ; ' a number ', generally 
in a derisive sense : ' troop, crew, bevy ' ; havlig o fipfuns, ' a 
troop of gipsies ' ; r hem havlig / 

havn, s.f., pi. havna, hafn, F.N. 5. (5). A by-form of kavn, with 
the meaning ' hollow '. 

havog, s., hafog, D.F. [74]. 21, 'havock'. Often implies 'a 
sudden mishap ' : mi do:0 an havog o la:u ssdyn, a ninna n smmyl 
ka:l 9ry:d (O.H.). 

hay ; hey (J.J.; O.H.), v., hau and heu, D., ' to sow '. 

hayl, s.m., haul, D., ' sun ' : may r hayl dn tunny, ' the sun is 
shining ' ; may r hayl ay kodi, ' the sun is rising ' ; may r hayl m 
mynd i laur, 3n mynd dan geyra, 9n maxfyd, ' the sun is setting ' ; 
may hi n du:ad (= kodi) m hayl, ' the sun is coming out ' ; 9n bgad 
(= zy $he:g) sr hayl, ' in the sun ' ; pbdra r hayl, ' rays of the sun ' ; 
py:st hayl, ' sun rays seen descending from clouds in the distance ' ; 
cf. W.LI. (Voc.), s.v. ' terydr ' ; klip ar yr hayl, ' eclipse of the 
sun ' ; dam hayl ar vryn etto^ ' better days will come ' ; hayltommos 
0wan, ' the moon '. 

hayl, adj., hael, D., ' generous, liberal ' : ha:yl vy:8 h/srwal ar 
burs 9 wla:d (prov.), c he cutteth large thongs from another man's 
leather ', ' he is liberal at other people's expense '. 

ha:yls, s.pl., Eng. (Dial.) hail [small shot, pellets], Sc., Irel. 
' small shot '. 

ha:yn, s.f., pi. heyna, haen, D., Mayer, film, veneering': du:r 
wedi rhewi n ha:yn o re:u arno vo, ' water with a film of ice over it ' ; 
ha:yn ar ha:yn, ' layer on layer'. 



heb, prep., heb, D. With pronouns: S. i. hebba t, 2. 
3. heb&o (vo), hebbi (hi). PI. i. 'hebon(i), 2. hebto>x(i)> 3- 'hebyn(u). 
Followed by the vocalic mutation, * without ' : heb i vai heb i eni 
(prov.), ' no one is without his faults ' ; heb raid nag axos, * without 
any reason whatever' ; heb vlewyn (= beilari) ar i davod, ' without 
mincing matters ' ; \tir m o r melys heb 9 \weru (prov.), ' every rose 
has its thorns ' ; heb amsar i dim by:d, * no time for anything ' ; mi 
g'e'iQ o vod hebbo vo, * he shall do without it ' ; with dim, ' without 
any ' : bara heb dim kodjad, * bread that has not risen ' ; after 
mynd and du:ad, negative of mynd a, du:ad a, e.g. mi eif i heb 9 



hedag heglog 199 

pappyr, ' I never took the paper ' ; wedi <ju:ad tub 9r y:n 9 may o t 
' he has not brought one ' ; with verbs (i) ' without ' : heb ubodi\i 
X hy:n, ' unconsciously ' ; r oybun i am buy noson heb dtnny 
s&idja o:& ar 3 nrhayd, ' I was two nights without taking off my 
boots ' ; mi gwelis i hi heb vebul i gwelt /', ' I saw her accidentally ' ; 
mi -lasanu roid o ito vo heb ibo vo ovyn, ' they might have given it 
to him without him asking for it '. (2) ' unless ' : / e'yBun i bim heb 
i x* daly, ' I wouldn't go unless you paid me '. (3) where in 
English a simple negative or ' and ... not ' or 'who, which ... not ' 
would be more usual : may r korn heb vynd etto, ' the horn has not 
sounded yet ' ; mi ro:6 9 Ki: meun kuppurb heb roi tammad o vu:yd 
fto vo, ' he put the dog in a cupboard and gave him nothing to eat ' ; 
Keirx heb i valy, ' unground oats ' ; gwar&ag ivayk heb g9rab dwluyb 
o:yd, ' young cattle under two years old ' ; heb vod in vaur, heb vod 
m va:x, ' neither large nor small ' ; dy:n heb vedry farad 9y groyu, 
' a man who cannot speak plain ' ; wa:y& &in i ta:ti heb neyd am 
draguyboldab a durnod dros ben, ' I should not care if you did not 
do so for ever and a day'; b la:u (=. heb law) = 'besides, 
but ' : may rubaQ m 9 nhadu i b lau klo: a \likjad, ' something 
keeps me besides lock and latch ' ; . . . a lawar b la:u nu, ' . . . and 
many others besides '; pu:y 0:8 yn 9 van na b la:u plismon, ' who 
should be there but a policeman '. 

hedag, v., ehedeg and hedeg, D. FuL S. 3. hediQ, ' to fly* : / idi 
gu:y vra:s dim m hedag 9 mhel (prov.), i.e. 'a man of worth does 
not go far to be appreciated' ; also ' to run to seed ' : kabaitfwedi 
hedag. 

hedjad, s.m., hediad and ehediad, D., f flight ' : do:s ar d injon vel 
hedjad bra:n, ' go straight as the crow flies '. 

hedyft, s.m., pi. hedzty'on, hedydd, D., 'lark': hedyb 9 mo:r t 
' ringed plover ' (^gialitis hiaticula). 

hedyn, s.m., pi. hada, hedyn, D., 'a (single) seed': hada mar\ 
men] ' hips ' ; po:b hedyn o hono vo, ' every scrap of it '. 

hedux, s.m., heddwch, D., ' peace ' : x e '$ o Mm mynyd o hebux nes 
kodiQ o, ' he won't have a minute's peace till he gets up ' ; -pnnna 
hebux = kay d9 ge:g\ sstys hedux, 'justice of the peace'; kregin 
hebux, ' money '. 

hefar, s.f., pi. he/rod, heffer, W.S. [Hecforde], ' heifer \ 

hegal, s.f., pi. hegla, hegl, D., ' cms, tibia ' ; ' foot, leg ' : miro:6 9r 
he:n vyux gik i mi a i hegal. Generally used in the plural, implying 
large, clumsy feet combined with lankiness of limb, esp. in a semi- 
facetious sense, as tyn d9 hegla atiat o:d arfor, ' take your legs out 
of the way ' ; ssmmyd d3 hegla o: na ; paid a hel d9 hegla bydron 
hyda i ; maQry gwely bloda hevo i hegla. 

heglog, adj., hegla wg, O.P., ' long-legged ' : m heglog ovnaduy ag 



2OO hegly hel 

m vaur (O.H., speaking of a dragon-fly). Also applied to a person 
with large awkward feet, e. g. turning too much in or out. 

hegly ; hegljo (O.K.), v., heglu. (i) 'to be off', "to hook it", 
" to kick the bucket " : may o wedi hegly hi, " he has hooked it " ; 
may o dgest a i hegly hi, ( he is on the point of death ' ; r otihidgest 
wedi hegljo, ' she was on the point of death '. (2) ' to come to 
grief, to fail in one's object ' : may o wedi hegljo = wedi meOy i 
amkan ; may o wedi hegljo hi, e. g. dexra bysnas ag an me6y. 

heibjo, heibio, D., adv. ' past, over, aside ' : mi sgybob heibjo, ' he 
rushed past'; may hi wedi troi hunna heibjo, ' she has given that 
fellow up ' ; troi arjan heibjo, ' to put money by ' ; he:n sgidja wedi 
froi heibjo, ' old boots thrown aside '. prep. ' past ' : mynd heibjo 
ru:in y ' to go past some one '. 

heidjo, v., heidio, D., s.v. ' examine ' ; 'to swarm ' : may r le: n 
heidjo o bssgod. 

heiftan, s.f., haidden, D., ' a grain of barley '. 

hei&jannol, adj., haeddiannol, D., s.v. ' meritissime ' ; ' deserved ; 
deserving ' : sgurva heidjannol, ' a well-deserved thrashing ' ; u:ti n 
he'ity'annol />, ' are you deserving ? ' (O.H.) 

he'&jant, s., haeddiant, D., ' deserts ' : may o wedi ka:yl i he&jant, 
1 he has his deserts '. 

heftju, adv. and s., hediw, W.B., col. 26. 23 ; heddiw, G.R. 65. 19 ; 
heiddiw, C.C.M. 34. 13; 128. n, 13, 17, etc.; C.L.C. ii. 28. 27; 
heddyw, D., ' to-day ' : usnos i he'ibju, ' a week to-day '. 

heiljonys, adj., St. James i. 5, ' liberal, bountiful'. 

heini, adj., heinif and heini, D., ' brisk, vivacious, active ' : may 
o ny:n heini ar i dro:yd, ' he is nimble on his legs ' ; gu:r heini, * a 
fine, brisk man ' ; lavn o 8y:n heini, kayan o hogan heini. 

hel, v., hel pro hely, D. Fut. helja. Pret. S. 3. heljob. PI. 3. 
helson. Imperative helja ; heljux, helux- ( i ) 'to chase, drive, 
drive away ' : hel nu o: na /, ' drive them away from there ! ' (e. g. 
to a sheep dog) ; so, hel ar d o:l!, l drive (it) back ' ; hel alan, ' to 
drive out ' ; heljux r adar ifur, ' drive the birds away '. (2) f to 
drive together, to collect ', esp. hel devaid, e. g. for the purpose of 
shearing. (3) 'to drive': hel (= gary) moxyn. (4) 'to collect 
together and remove ' : hel d9 bak !, ' otf with you ! ' ; hel Kerig, ' to 
remove stones from a field ' ; helux * briuf'on, ' get the crumbs up ' ; 
helux 9 lestri bydron ar z tre:, ' take away the dirty things on the 
tray'. (5) 'to collect ' (in full hel at i giliti) : may o n hel popped 
g'e'iQ o aval 'anynu o he:n beBa, ( he collects all old things he can lay 
hands on ' ; hel 3 dre:6, ' to collect taxes ' ; hel arjan (or simply hel\ 
' to collect (money), in a place of worship or otherwise '. (6) ' to 
collect ' (intr.), e. g. of matter : hel at i gilti, ' to form into a compact 



held helm 201 



mass ' : pcB gwair wedi hel at i &il& ; also of persons, ' to huddle 
oneself, to crouch '. (7) ' to gather ' : hel bloda, ' to gather flowers ' ; 
hel kokkos, * to gather cockles ' ; da\i wedi hel tippin go le:u o ve:l i r 
ku.'x, 'you have feathered your nest pretty well'. (8) various phrases : 
hel d) garkas a fur a til, ' be off with you ! ', so hel d? dra:ydl ; 
hel d) brenja I (i. e. "stumps"); may hi n hel gla:u, 'there is rain 
coming '; hel {anas/, ' to turn everything topsy-turvy ' ; hel meblja 
dru:g t ' to take a pessimistic view of things ' ; helstry:on, ' to gossip ' ; 
m hel ag m tri:o ka:l rubaB am dana t\ ' trying to rake up some- 
thing about me ' (i. e. against me) ; m hel ag m tp:n t ' to scold ' [hel 
by itself in some parts, e. g. Llanuwchllyn, means ' to scold '] ; / o:s 
na dim hel a vo:, 'one can do nothing with him '; paid a hel da tylo 
hyda i7, ' don't touch me ! '. 

hela, v., hely, hela, D., s.v. 'venor' [only in the infinitive], 'to 
hunt ' : mynd i hela, ' to go hunting ' ; ku:n hela, ' hounds '. 

helaB, adj., helaeth, D., 'abundant'; 'extensive'. 

helbyl, s.m., pi. helbylon, helbul, D., 'trouble': meun hellyl 
(= po:yn, by:d, trafarff), 'in trouble, in difficulties'; meun helbyl 
bli:n (O.H.) ; tru:y helbyl^ 'with a great deal of trouble'; wedi 
tmny 3 mei\ja i helbyl, ' after getting the surety into trouble ' ; tmny 
pentur o helbyl, ' to draw upon oneself a load of trouble '. 

helbylys, adj., helbulus, D., ' troubled, in trouble '. 

heli, s., heli, D. (i) 'salt water': heli r mo:r ; Kin half ad a 
heli tpmor, ' as salt as three seas '. (2) ' brine '" (for pickling) . 

helig, s.pl., sing, hehgan, f., helyg, D., ' willows ' : helig melyn, 
helig luyd. 

heljur, s.m., heliwr, D., s.v. 'venator'. (i) 'hunter'. (2) 
' gatherer ' : heljur x^^dla, ' gossip-monger, slanderer ' ; cf. D. 
heliwr chwedlau, s.v. ' delator ' ; heljur raks, ' ragman '. 

helk, s., ' limp ' : may na helk m i gertad o (W.H. ; J. J. ; O.H.). 
Cf. heyk, herk. 



v., helcyd, helgyd, D. (i) ' to chase, drive ' : kayl i helKid, 
'to be driven from pillar to post'. (2) 'to drag, lug ': be na: i 
helKid o mor bel a baygor ?, ' why should I lug it all the way to 
Bangor?'; be ma: pe&a vel hyn wedi helKid mor bel? (3) 'to 
search': helttid (= xwiljo) am arjan (O.H.). (4) 'to speak evil 
of: dy:n m helKid pobol eril (O.H.) ; as substantive: 'trouble, 
difficulty ' : may o meun riu helkid o hy:d (O.H.). 

helkjan, v., ' to limp ' (W.H.). Cf. heykjan, herkjan. 

helm, s., pi. helma, helem, C.C. 372. 13 ; Eng. (Dial.) helm [a 
shed in the fields for the shelter of cattle when turned out to 
pasture; a hovel or hut], n.Cy., Yks., Lin.; 'shed for storing hay 
consisting of four supports and a roof. 



202 help he:n 

help, s.m., help, D., * help ' : / o:ys na dim help (/ o.ys m o r help), 
' there is no help for it ' ; / o:s gin i dim help, ' I can't help it '. 

helpjo, helpy, v., helpu, D., s.v. ' auxilior ' ; helpio, St. Luke x. 40, 
' to help ' : may hi n medry helpy dippin arno vo, * she is able to be 
of some help to him ' ; dy:n a i helpjo /, ' Heaven help him ! ' ; 
dyu a m helpo i ! 

helu, s. Cf. bod ar helw un, ' possideri ', D., s.v. ' elw*. A by- 
form of elu, only used in phrases of the form / o.ys gin i dim fzrliy 
ar v? helu, ' I do not possess a farthing '. 

helva, s.f., pi. helveyb, helfa, O.P., f a certain portion of mountain 
land from which the sheep are collected periodically at one great 
drive '. 

helynt, s.f., pi. hebntjon, helynt, D., < iter, venatio '. (i) ' trouble ' : 
diwad ar helynt ma, 'the end of this trouble' (i.e. the strike at 
Bethesda) ; may r helynt drosod, ' the trouble is over ' ; be di r 
helynt sy 'arno\i ru:an /, ' what is troubling you now ? ' ; / o:s na 
dim vaur o helynt ami hi, ' there is nothing much the matter with 
her ' ; hebntjon 3 by:d ma, ' the troubles of this world ' ; mi vy:d 
helynt amma heno, ' there will be trouble (a fuss, a bother) here 
to-night ' ; vy:d m helynt 'arnoxi!, f you'll get into a row ! ' ; mi 
'vasaxi meun helynt bra:v vory !, ' you would find yourself in a 
pretty pickle to-morrow ! ' (2) ' state ' (of health, affairs, etc.) : 
gadux i mi glu:ad 3 ijhylx ?X helynt, ' let me hear about you '. 
Cf. G.R. (2). 5. 

he:n, adj., comp. hy:n, hmax, eq. hmad, sup. hma, hen, D., ' old ' : 
he:n u:r, he:n dy:n, he:n bobol, he:n grjadyr ; du i n hy:n o gurs 
maur na vo: (O.H.), *I am much older than he ' ; peidjux a kodi 
he:n beQa, ' do not rake up old sores ' ; wedi mynd an wirjon he:n, 
'in his dotage'; wedi he:n gavino, 'after long habit'; r he:n a 
u:yr a r ivayk a dabja (prov.), ' the old man knows, and the young 
man thinks (he knows) ' ; ialy r he:n a du:yn a newyb \du:yn\ ; pryn 
he:n pryn e'ilwaQ \eilwa&\ ; used very frequently in a derisive or 
derogatory sense, or sometimes merely in an intensive sense : he:n 
gi: ba:x /, ' the wretched dog ! ' ; he:n benKi adi r hogyn na, ' that boy 
is a stubborn fellow ' ; he:n voxyn bydyr !, ' you dirty pig ! ' ; peidjux 
a mynd ar gwyl plant ty: nesa, ma: nu n he:n blant rhy: ru:g, 
' don't go near the children next door, they are too ill-behaved ' ; 
so of various depreciatory epithets male and female, as he:n wa/x, 
soppan, wep, wlanan, x^islan^ bembul gwirjon, grimpin, etc., etc. ; 
he:nfurna ovnaduy, ' a terrible journey ' ; he:n waiQ ka:s ddifevjo, 
* shaving is an unpleasant business ' ; may r moxyn wedi gneyd he:n 
lanast 9mma, ' the pig has made a nice mess here ' ; he:n hogla dru:g 
jaun adi hunna, ' that's a very nasty smell ' ; he:n beQa gwirjon, 
' stupid things ' ; he:n lol, ' nonsense ' ; he:n dro:!, ' what a nuisance ! ' ; 
riu he:n gut ba:x o he:n dy:, ' an old hovel of a house ' ; gneyd riu 
he:n su:n dru:g, ' to make a nasty noise ' ; riu he:n gastja dru:g, 



henaint herk 203 

' mischief. Sometimes hen when not emphatic, especially in the 
secondary sense. 

htnaint, s.m., henaint, D., ' old age ' : bant henaint dim i hynan 
(prov.), 'old age does not come alone', i.e. brings evil in its 
train. 

hendra, s., hendref, D. (no meaning given), Mow-lying in- 
habited country ' ; ' lowlands as distinguished from the mountain 
pastures where the sheep are in the summer ' : mynd a r devoid o r 
hendra i r rmnyb (]]) 

heneity'o, v. } heneiddio, D., ' to become old '. 

heno, adv. (used also substantively), heno, D., ' to-night ' : may 
n noswaO brav heno, * it is a fine night ' ; mi ba:u o heno ne vory, ' he 
will come to-night or to-morrow ' ; mi rieiQ 9 tro: am heno, ' it will do 
for to-night '. 

henu [enu~\. 

heygaL adj., hengall, 'old-fashioned* (applied to children), 
J.J. ; O.K. ; di:ar annul/ nt idin edra\ m heyga[I (J.J.). 

heyk, s.; cf. M.F. hengc; Eng. (Dial.) henk [to limp; to dance 
awkwardly], Sh., I., ' limp ' : may heyk mo vo (J.J.)- 

heykjan, v. ; cf. M.F. hengcian : heykjan Kerbad (J.J.). 

hepjan, v., heppian, D., ' to doze '. 

heplas, eplas, s.m., heples, R., ' sponge ' (in making bread). Cf. 
tplesy. 

heppil, s.f., heppil, W.B., col. 31. 7 ; D., s.v. 'concubo' ; P.G.G. 
254. 7 ; hepil, W.LI. xx. 70; eppil, D., ' family ', but only used in 
a derogatory sense : ' brood, crew ' ; ' a pack of rascals ' : hun a hun 
a i heppil; rhe:n heppil I, heppil -qydanu zri-oyd (J.J.) ; riu he:n heppil 
ayhmnas, ga:s, aru (O.H.). Cf. piljo. 

her, s., hyrr and herr, D., ' a provoking ' ; 'a challenge ' : du i 
wedi derbyn d9 her di, ' I have accepted your challenge '. 

hergud, s., hergwd, O.P., ' a push ' : mi rois i hergud ibo vo nes 
tio vo s9rBjo ar laur, ' I gave him a sudden push and knocked him 
down '. 

herjan, herjo, v., hyrrio, ymherrio, D., s.v. 'prouoco'; herian, 
T.N. 89. 7. (i) ' to provoke, to nag at ' : may o n herjan (=plagjo) 
arna i (J.J.) ; herjan ar igilib (= kodi kneks, rmgerjan, E.J.) ; herjan 
ru:in nes gwiltiQ o (O.K.). (2) ' to challenge '. (3) to warrant ' : 
mi d? herja (= d^feia) i di mo:d i njaun (O.H.). 

her jog, adj., heriog, G.O. i. 8. 28, * contumacious ' (O.H.). 
herjur, s.m., ' one who challenges '. 

herk, s.f., here, O.P. [A jerk forward], ' limp ' : may herk mo vo, 
o herk no vo, herk ve\an (O.H.; so also I.W. ; J.J. had 



2 O4 herkjan hevo 

heyk, not herk. Cf also helk ; herk appears to be the most usual 
form). Cf. C.C. 173. 19. Nac un here na allom roddi Gownt oi 
blegid heb gwilyddio which is possibly the same word. It is 
glossed, however, in the margin by ' gweithred '. 

herkjan, v., hercian, O.P. [to reach forward quickly], ' to limp, 
hobble ' (of a lame man or old people) ; ' to slouch ' : dakku vo n 
mynd dan herkjan, ' there he goes hobbling along '. (J.J. had also 
heykjan!) 

herko, s., hanercof: r he:n hannar herko gwirjonf, 'the daft fellow !' 
herjyd, adj., herllyd, ' contumacious ' : an herlyd ag an gekrys 
(O.H.). 

herob \neroti\. 

herwa, v., herwa, D.,'profugere, exlex vivere'; R.B. 57. n ; D.G. 
ccxxii. 40, ' to wander at night ' (of cats) : kaBod in mynd i herwa. 

hesban, s.f., hespen, D., ' fibula ' ; Eng. hasp ; (Dial.) hesp, ' a 
piece of iron for fastening a door on the outside, secured by a piece 
of wood inserted through a staple '. 

hesbin, s.f., pi. sbsrnjad (J.J.), hespin, D., s.v. ' ovicula ' ; 'a ewe 
of a year old '. 

hesbmux, s.f., pi. mo:\ hesbinux', hesbinhwch, O.P. : hu:x ivayk 
heb dori ami (J.J.). 

hesburn, s.m., pi. sfarnjad, hespwrn, D., s.v. ' ovicula ' ; 'a sheep 
of a year old '. 

tog-, s., h&sg, D., ' sedge'. 

het, s.f., pi. hetja, hett, D. ; D.G. vii. 10 ; Ixxxv. i, ' hat': koryn, 
kantal het, ' crown, brim of a hat ' ; het we:lt, ' a straw hat ' ; het 
silk, ' a top hat ' ; ka:yl le: i roi het ar ho:yl, ' to get a place to hang 
up one's hat ', i. e. * to marry a woman and live with her parents or 
in her home ' ; rhoi i het am i ben, ' to put one's hat on ' ; as term 
of reproach : ar hem het wirjon / 

he&, s.f., cf. M.F. heth, term applied to cold, windy, snowy 
weather, e'ira, rhe:u a gwynt m sgsBry po:b pe:B ag an h'xfo fyux'veyb 
dros ben a kloty'a (O.H.) ; may an heB vaur jaun (JJ). Cf.ja:0. 

heul, s.f., heol, D.; hewl, C.C. 30. 6, ' farm-yard ' = ly:arB (O.K., 
who frequently uses the word) : heul ar eval, ' an enclosed space 
where horses are placed preparatory to being shod ' (O.H.). 

hevo ; havo (J.J. frequently), prep., hefo, efo. Originally ef a, 
* he and'. Cf. L.A. 79. 2, ' ef a barnabas ' ; ' with '. (i) ' in com- 
pany with, together with ' : du:ad hevo xi, ' to come with you ' ; 
du:ad hevo (= a) r davod, ( to bring the sheep' ; a:B o hevo r Mi:, 
1 he took the dog away ' ; may o wedi mynd a r vasgad hevo vo, ' he 
has taken the basket with him ' ; na: i dim mynd a vo: hevo mi, ' I 



hevran hfyarn 205 

shan't take it with me ' ; rhaid i \i ga.yl sgurs hevo vo, ' you must 
have a talk with him '. (2) ' with ' in an attributive sense, intro- 
ducing an adjectival or adverbial clause (generally expressed by a) : 
dym hevo het vaur am i ben, ' a man with a large hat on '. (3) 
' with ' (followed by a word expressing instrument or means), ' by ' : 
mi doroto i by:s hi n sy:6 hevo kpmman, ' he cut her finger clean off 
with a sickle ' ; mi vrivi di hevo ghiti n, ' you will hurt yourself with 
those ' ; bar a wedi neyd hevo haib a gwem'6, ' bread made of barley 
and wheat ' ; hiru\ hi n re'it da: hevo bun, ' smear it well with this ' ; 
hevo 'bysabaud, ' with finger and thumb ' ; hevo kannuy^ * by candle- 
light ' ; mynd hevo r t%e:n, ( to go by train '. (4) ' with, with respect 
to ' : ma: by:d ovnaduy hevo *//', ' there is no end of trouble with 
you ' ; syt 8o:0 i hevo x*V, ' how did you get on ? ' ; da\i wedigor/an 
( = darvod) hevo rhei n ^ ' have you done with these? ' ; vedrun i m 
9 myu neyd dim hevo vo, 'I could do absolutely nothing with 
him ' ; may r amsar m mynd am bo:yn hevo nu, ' time becomes a 
burden to them ' ; may hi wedi bo:d mfair hevo mi hei^ju, ' I have 
been very busy to-day ' ; pen 'V9ba\i ar laur hevo menyn ne rubaQ, 
' when you run short of butter or anything * ; mi eif i lerpul hevo 
glhyu, ' I went to Liverpool about my hearing '. 

hevran, v., Eng. (Dial.) haver [to talk in a foolish, incoherent 
manner ; to talk nonsense], Sc., Irel., Nhb., Cum., ' to speak evil of : 
dym m hevran dmas m i x*vn (O.H.). 



hevyd, conj. and adv., hefyd, D., ' also ' : mi &a:u vel na hevyd, 
1 that will do too ' ; mi da:u ?x adag \iQa hevyd, ' your time will 
come too ' ; by& a hevyd, ' for ever and a day '. 

hevys, s.pl. ; cf. Ene:. heave, ' swell ' (at sea) : 3 mo:r m riu hevys 
maur ar o:l storom (O.H.). Also Bangor. Cf. Py ceit i riw hefis 
go rymus i roch, Dy ddiwedd rwi'n coelio fudd cario nod coch. 
B. (Ellis Roberts). 

hey \hay\. 

hcyarn, haiarn, Non Haearn aut Hayarn aut Hauarn, D., s.m. 
(i) ' iron ' : heyarn buru, ' cast iron ' ; vel heyarn sbayn o galad, 
1 as hard as Spanish steel ' (said of a man who cannot be turned 
aside from his intention). (2) applied to various instruments made 
of iron: heyarn knula, 'snuffers'; hey arm (heyyrns) ta:n, 'fire- 
irons ' ; he'yyrn kwik, ( curling tongs ' (O.H.) ; heyarn guQjo, * an 
instrument for clearing away the top layer of peat when bringing 
peat-land under cultivation ' ; heyarn troi (in slate quarries), ' an 
instrument used when a flaw (klystari) appears in pillaring, in order 
to keep the line, if possible, from slanting off to one side ' (J.J.) ; 
' a piece of rail which is placed over another and forms a kind of 
point by which trucks can be diverted on to another tramway'. 
(3) adjectively : ' iron, made of iron '. 



206 heyfy hik 

heytiy, v., haeddu, D., ' to deserve ' : may o n heydy i grogi, ' he 
deserves to be hanged '. 

heylo, v., heulo, D., ' to shine ' (of the sun) : may hi n heylo, ( the 
sun is shining ' ; may y kodi i heylo, ' the sun is coming out '. 

heylog, adj., heulog, D., s.v. 'apricus'; 'sunny*. 
heynan, s.f., ' film '. Cf. hayn. 

heyntys, adj., heintus, O.P., ' infectious ' : may hi n heyntys, ' it is 
infectious '. 

heyry, v., haeru, D., ' to affirm, assert ' : paid a heyry Keluyb, ( do 
not persist in what is an obvious lie '. 

heyur, s.m., hauwr, St. Matt. xiii. 3 ; hdwr, D., s.v. ' seminator ' : 
' sower '. 

hi.", not stressed hi, often i\ conjunctive form hi6a t emphatic 
'hi:, pron., hi, ' she, it ' : mi eif i ywarvot i, ( I went to meet her ' ; 
gwelt i, ' to see her ' ; gneyt i, ' to do it ' ; mi do:0 z, ' she came ' ; 
hi (sometimes o) is also used for impersonal ' it ' : may hi m bra:v, 
' it is fine ' ; so also dma hi(:) (often z) dma vo(:), ' that's it '. 
As complement to i ' her ' : i Ba:t i, i gu:r (fi)z\ imha:p i, i fen (h)i, 
' her father, husband, son, head '. 

hidil, adj., hidl, D., ' dropping as out of a sieve ' : r 0:8 o y kri:o 
n hidil 8agra, ' he was weeping copiously ' ; so r o:d hi n tu:alt 
dagra dn hidil, dagra o r bgaid 3n hidil; may o v el gogor hidil, 
said of a man who cannot keep a secret. 

hidjo, hitjo, v., G.O. ii. 140. i; hidio, T.N. 22. 37, 'to care, 

heed ' : hitjo dim dn ne:b, * not to care a jot for any one ' ; hidjo r 
y:n blewyn (r y:n tattari), ' not to care a jot ' ; du i 8im in hitjo 
hdnny 'mox^ ' I don't care that for you ' (snapping the fingers) ; so 
klep ar 3 maud / be du i n hidjo ano vo ? ; hidjux be vo, ' never 
mind it ' ; hidjux oe vo vo:, ' never mind him ' ; vy:8 hi dim m hidjo 
i ne:b smokjo ymma, f she doesn't care for any one to smoke here ' ; 
hidjun i 8z'm govyn ibo vo, ' I have a great mind to ask him* ; du i n 
hitjo dim lawar am dano vo, ' I don't care much for it '. 

hidlan, s.f., cf. hidl, D., ' strainer ' (for milk, etc.). 

hidlo, v., hidlo, D., 'to strain ' : hidlo r layd ; fig. ' to be unable 
to keep a secret '. 

h&ig, s.m., huddygl, hiddygl, D. ; hiddigl, B.C. 95. 26, 'soot' : 
may o wedi du:ad vel htiig i bottas, ' it has come like soot into the 
broth', i.e. suddenly, unexpectedly; so mi e'i6 vel hibig i bottas. 

hik, s.f., pi. hikja t Eng. (Dial.) hick, a form of hack. [The latter 
has in Sc. the meaning ' a mark, notch ; a deep cut, a fissure '.] 
' slit, crack ' applied to the narrow holes for ventilation in barns, 
a crack in a door, the hands, etc. ; r o:d i dylo n hikja igid, ' her 



hik-hak hiraB 207 

hands were cracked all over ' ; os gritiB ihik -?nynu mibaran in hu:\, 

* if she makes a slit in them (the flower stalks) they will last longer ' ; 
du:y hik 9 mlayn i gly:st> describing a sheep's ear- mark. 

hikhak, adv., ' jagged ' : tori pappy >r m 'hik-hak (E.J.), ' to tear 
paper in a clumsy manner so as to give it a jagged edge ' ; of 
speech) 'slow and blundering' (I.W.). 

hikjo, v., 'to split, crack ' : r o:t i het wedi hikjo a m'eyty (E.J.). 
Mdfoi, s.m., 'slit' (E.J.). 

hi:l, s., hil, D., ' suboles, proles, posteri ', in the phrase hi:l ert, as 
jrhi dru:g -ydynu o hi:l gerb, ' badness runs in the family', ' evil is 
inbred in them ' ; du i n nabod nu o hi:lgerd, * I know the stock they 
come from '. 

hiljo, v., hulio, Prov. ix. 2 ; hilio, D.F. [92]. 7. 22; Eng. (Dial.) 
hill [to cover up or over, etc.], to cover ', only used of a table 
spread : pen eij i mo r o:d 3 burb wedi hiljo (JJ.), ' when I went 
there the table was spread '. 

hiljogaB, s.m., hiliogaeth, D., ' stock ' : puy hiljogaB idi of, 'of 
what stock is he ? ' 

htm&a, s.f., hindda, D., 'fair weather' : os kyl 9 glau | o r duyran 
9 da:u, | os kyl sr himba | o r duyran da:u hiBa, ' if the rain is lost it 
comes from the east ; if the fine weather is lost it also comes from 
the east'; na:B i dim ton (= eguf) o himSa he&ju (O.K.), 'there 
has not been the slightest lull in the bad weather to-day ' ; kodi n 
himba, ' to clear up '. 

ht:n, s.f., hin, D., ' weather ' (rare = tuyti) : may n SrzkKm 
ovnaduy, t adi o dim m fit i \i vynd ; rhosu\ tan fy:8 hi n hi:n 8a: y 
1 the weather is extremely bad : it is not fit for you to go. Wait 
until the weather clears ' ; newid yr him, ' change in the weather '. 

hindgin, s., ' hinge '. 

hinsaud, s.f., hinsawdd, ' climate '. 

hi:r, adj., comp. hu:y, hira\, eq. ky:d, sup. huya y hir, D., ' long ' : 
ky:d a hun, l as long as this ' ; ky:d a heity'u ag mory, ' as long as 
to-day and to-morrow ' (used facetiously of something very long) ; 
fariQ o dim ky:d, ' it will not last so long ' ; Kin bo hi:r, ' before 
long' ; 9 mhen hi:r a huyr, * at last, at long last'; gobeiOjo na ne'if 
hi dim para n hir, * I hope it won't last long ' ; may n hi:r ?y knesy, 
' it (the weather) is long getting warm ' ; da\i y gweld yr adag ?n 
hi:r ?, ' does the time seem long to you ? ' ; vy:d hi dim sn hi:r ru:an, 

* she won't be long now ' ; 3 dy:d huya, * the longest day '. 

hirad, irad, s., iraid, D., ' grease for greasing axles, etc.' 

hiraB, s.m., hiraeth, D., ' longing ' : may m fyndan veftiginjaB at 
bo:b pe:B ond rhak hiraB, ' there is in London a remedy for every- 



208 hirbuyB hoi 

thing except to keep off longing ' ; may gmo vo hiraB ar i hola 
nu, ' he misses them ' ; hiraB am gartra, ' home-sickness '. 

hirbuyB, s., hirbwyth, i.e. ' long stitch*, in the exp. du i dim ond 
am roid riu hirbuyB a brasbuyB m hun, * 1 am only going to put 
a few hurried stitches in this'. 

fa'rdyd, s.m., hirddydd, G.R. 2. 10, ' long day ' : o:d m hirtyb m 
r ha:. 

hireyBy, v., hiraethu, D., ' to long ' : hireyBy ar o:l i gartra. 

hirgrun, adj., hirgrwn, D., s.v., < cylindrus ' ; long and round, 
oval', often applied to stones, and generally in a somewhat dis- 
paraging sense : ly:d ma a r y:n hirgrun na ; ma: r hem be6 
hirgrun na n Sigon hi:r i vynd trutii hi (i.e. the wall); applied 
also to persons : riu hem by:n hirgrun. (All O.H.) 

-hirheglog, adj., hirheglawg, O.P., ' long-shanked '. 

hirlum, s., hir and llwm, in the phrase hirlum 9gwanwyn, applied 
to March and April : may hirlum 9 gwanwyn wedi du:ad (O.H.). 

hirnos, s., hirnos, B.C. 73. 20, * long night' : ar hirnos *> geya, 
1 on a long winter's night '. 

hiro, iro, v., iro, D., ' to grease ' : hiro sgidja a sai'm, ' to grease 
boots ' ; fig. hiro dylo, ' to bribe ' (= rhoi Ki:l durn). 

hirtjo, v., hurtio, D., 'to lose one's senses; to be dazed, "mithered"; 
to become weak in the head ' : du i dgest a hirtjo, ' I am almost 
driven out of my senses'. 

hirvain, adj., hirfain, ' slender ' : dmas hirvain. 
hirvys, s.m., hirfys, ' middle finger ' [^.'JJ. 
hi'.rwyntog, adj., hirwyntog, ' long-winded '. 
hislan \hzslay\. 
hitjo, v., Eng. heed \hidj 6\. 

hitjo, v. (i) ' to hit ' : may o n i hitjo hi bo:b hnnig, ' he hits it 
every time ' ; mi hitja i di nes babi di m p0uljo, ' I'll knock you 
sprawling'. (2) 'to happen*: hitjo bo:d zno, 'to happen to be 
there '. Cf. T.N. 134. 3. Os hitiais i siarad yn rhy ffest. 

hi6a, pron., hithau. Conjunctive form of hi:, ' she also ' : mi rois 
i o tit hi, ag mi ro:B hi6a hun i minna, ' I gave it to her and she 
gave this to me '. 

htv/Oy v., hifio, D. (i) ' to heave ' : hivjun /, ' pull away, lads ! ' 
(O.H.). (2) 'to pluck off, to cut off (esp. wool) clumsily, with 
difficulty ' : tmny r gwla:n o:b ar ^ Savad dn ansbarBys hivjo sn 
le: kneivjo am vo:d 9 gwala heb vi:n (J.J.) ; hivjo hem bavad wedi 
maru (O.H), ' to pluck the wool off a dead sheep '. 

hob, s. = hobad (O.H.). 



hob ad hoi tin 2 09 

hobad, s.m., hobaid, D., 'modius'; 'a measure of corn, about 

244 Ibs/ (O.H) = sa\ad ; pedwar talbo (talbo = about a quart) = 

\wart maur ; pedwar j<warf maur = Kibin ; uy:6 g^bmnad = hobad 

fi:r gnarvon, hobad baygor ; day hobad baygor = tri hobad konuy ne 

abar&ela = pegad (O.H.). 

-hobidi'hoi, excl. of delight (O.H.). 

hobl, s., Eng. hobble ; meun hobl, ' in a scrape, in an awkward 
predicament '. 

ho/ol, adj., hoffol, = hofys, which is the commoner form. 

hofys, adj., hoffus, ' lovable, attractive, taking ' : r o:yb rubaB 
hofys 3no vo, ' there was something lovable in him '. 

hog, s., in phr. na:nu dim hog, ' they will not do a stroke '. 

hogan, s.f., pi. gennod, hogen, R., ' girl ' (the usual word ; &ena6 
is less common) : hogan ivayk, 'young girl up to the age of about 21 '. 

hogi, v., hogi, D. Imperative hoga, ' to whet ' : kalan hogi, 
' whetstone '. 

hogla (rarely ogla), s.m., arogleu, L.A. 52. n. = 'odorem* ; 
81. 15; S.G. 10. 14; D., s.v. 'rentifolia', 'spiritus'; B.C. 55. 2; 
'rogle, C.C. 26. 20; aroglau, M.LI. i. 81. 4. (D. has arogl in the 
W.-L. part, but this is a ' learned' formation), ' smell ' : hogla da:, 
hogla dru:g, ' pleasant, bad smell ' ; daxi y klu:ad hogla bakko ?, 
' do you smell tobacco ? ' ; klyux 9 gwahanjaG hogla, ' smell the 
difference '. 

hogla, v., ' to smell ' = klu:ad. 

hoglayk, s.m., hoglangc, G.O. i. 124. i ; 158. 10, ' a young fellow 
up to the age of about 21'. The preceding stages are krub and 
krumfast. 

hogleyo, v., arogleuo, cf. M.A. i. 253. 18, 'to smell' (trans, and 
intr.) ; intr. generally used of a bad smell, ' to stink '. 

hogyn, s.m., pi. hogja, hogyn, R., ' boy ' (the usual term ; ba~xgan 
is not often used in this sense) ; krumfast o hogyn, ' a big strapping 
lad'. 

hoi, s., Eng. (Dial.) hoy [in wrestling, the throw of an adversary], 
Nhb., rhoi hoi, ' to administer punishment in a playful manner, 
generally by two men holding the culprit by the arms and another 
by the legs, and a fourth smacking him behind ' (O.H.) : rhoi hoi 
i ru:in am rei ; kal hoi hevo rha:u, etc. 

hoiljo, v., hoelio, D., ' to nail '. 

hoit, s., cf. hoit, M.F. ; Eng. (Dial.) hoyt [a long rod or stick], 
Lan., ' a whip with a long handle and long lash used when driving 
a coach with three or four horses '. 

hoitin, s.m., cf. Eng. (Dial.) hoit [a foolish, awkward, clumsy 

1138 P 



2 1 o hoitjo hodt 

person ; a fool, simpleton, etc.], Sc v Nhb., Yks., Lan., ' a foolish 
fellow ' ; hb'itin medu, ' a drunken sot '. 

hoitjo, v., hoetio, T.N. 329. 3, 'to play the fool ', esp. of an old 
man who goes after women : he:n &y:n an hoitjo am verxaid; mynd 
i hoitjo gin wirjoni. 

hod, ho:yl, s.m., pi. (ti}oljon, ol, D., ' mark, trace, track ' : be di r 
ho:l na sy ar da wymmad di ?, ' what is that mark on your face ? ' ; 
may ho:yl ?x law ard pappy r, 'there is a mark of your hand on the 
paper ' ; hod bodjo, ' thumb-mark ' ; may hod z\ tro:yd 9n 9 ba:u, 
' there is a mark of your foot in the mud ' ; ho:yl kri:o maur arno 
vo, ' the marks of much crying on his face '. 

holbran, s.f., pi. holbrenni, rholbren, R., ' rolling-pin '. Of two 
kinds, one smooth for making pastry, the other rough for grinding 
oat-cake in order to make/0/. As term of reproach for a woman : 
r he\n holbran wirjon. 

holi, v., holi, D. (i) 'to ask questions': holi (m 9r asgot), 'to 
ask questions round a class ' ; holt am, ' to ask about ' ; holi a stiljo, 
* to inquire persistently, to cross-examine'. (2) 'to sue': holi 
meun ly:s. 

holiks, s. : may o n holiks gwydt, ' he is in a terrible temper ' ; 
fy:d zn holiks 'arnati ' you are in for it '. 

holma, kolma, Mmjan, holmjo, kolman, kolmjo, v. (i) 'to potter 
about ' : wedi bo:d an rula m holmjo ; wedi mynd i holmjo i rula. 
(2) ' to talk nonsense ' : paid a holmjo. 

holmyn, s.m., cf. holmun, C.F. 1890, p. 333. ir, 'a worthless 
good-for-nothing fellow'; he:n holmyn gwirjon ; wedi mynd zn 
holmyn gla:n, e.g. through drink. 

holo ; also holuy (I.W.), adj., ' hollow '. Sometimes expressed by 
gWKg, gwagle. 

holpjo, v., 'to talk incoherent nonsense ' : holpjo farad m wirjon, 
said of a drunken man. 

holpyn (J.J.; O.K.); hylpyn (I.W. ; ' O.H.), s.m., fern, holpan, 
hylpan, cf. holpyn, M.F., ' fool, sot ' : un yn cerdded o amgylch heb 
amcan yn y byd ganddo (JJ.) ; y:n wedi kad kam basa vo njaun 
tasa vo wedi kal i waret'8/o (O.H.) ; he:n holpyn medu, ' drunken 
sot' (O.H.); hylpyn penywiban (I.W.). 

ho:l, adj., holi, D., ' all, (the) whole ' ; w hod vy:d, 9r hod usnos 
(more often expressed by i gi:d, ar hy:d, etc. Sometimes ho:U as 
i hodt a]y. 

holol, adv., hollawl, D., s.v. ' omnino ' ; ' quite, entirely ' ; yn 
holol wahanol, ' quite different '. 

hodt, s.m., pi. holta, hollt, D. (r) ' cleft, split, slash ' : hodt meun 
stslan, ' a cleft in a plank ' ; du i wedi tori hodt ar 9 ywynab, ' I 



ho\tan hos 211 

have cut my face open '. (2) a sheep's ear-mark so called : ' a 
horizontal slit at the tip of the ear ' [no:d]. (3) in slate, etc., 
' cleavage ' : may ho:[t ar 9 garag. 

ho[tan, s.f., hollten, dim. of above. 

hop, v., hollti, D. Put. S. 3. ho[tiB, hy:\f. Imperative holla, ' to 
cleave, split ' : holfa i benno, ' cleave open his head ' ; mi ^loffob i 
galon (fig.), ' he broke his heart ' ; hoffi le\i, ' to split slates ; ; to{/i 
blewyn (fig.), ' to split hairs ' ; ma: r maid wedi ho(fi n buy, ' the 
party is split in two '. 

holtur, s.m., holltwr, O.P. (in slate quarries), 'splitter', i.e. one 
who splits kbtja into sglodjon by means of a ky:n manoff. 

honfyst, s.f., cf. hunffost M.F. and (?) honffest, ' pais ', W.LI. 
(Voc.), term of reproach for a woman : weli di be u:ti wedi neyd, r 
he:n honfyst vaur i ti! (O.H.). Cf. fomfost. 

honni, v., honni, D., ' publicare ' ; 'to assert ' : du i n honni bod 
m 'rhy:frvr3dur> ' I acknowledge myself a Liberal ' ; dary o bim 
honni r y:n gair am 9 pe:B, ' he had not a particle of information to 
give as to the matter ', e. g. when asked a question. 

honjan ; hongjan (O.H.), v., hangian, W.S. (? read hongian) ; 
hongian, C.C. 334. 33; O.E. hongian beside hangian, 'to hang' 
(in all senses except on the gallows = k&*) ' ko.yd a bun/is maur 
sn honjan o'ruBynu, ' trees with large clusters (of berries) hanging 
from them ' ; honjan erbyn traust, ' to hang to a beam ', e. g. with 
the hands ; honjan ar i dra:yd (= uB ben i dra:yd)> ' to reel ', 
e. g. of a drunken man or one who is weak through recent illness. 
Cf. W.S. hangian val dyn meddw yn profi kerddet. 

honlad, s., applied to objects of a rambling, clumsy, inconvenient 
nature, esp. riu honlad o he:n dy:. 

hopjar, s.f., ' copse ' : hopjar ko:yd. 

hopran, s.m., pi. hoprod, hoppran, D., ' infundibulum ' ; hopran, 
M.Ll.i. 249. 5; 'hopper': r u:ti vel hopran melin, i.e. noisy. 
Also facetiously, ' mouth ' : kay d9 hopran. Cf. B.C. 66. 6. 

horn, s., mynd i r horn, ' to sulk ' (used esp. of children). 

hornjo, v., ' to sulk ' : be u:ti n hornjo />, ' what are you sulking 
about ? ' ; hornjo kri:o, ' to cry from temper ' = strankjo. 

hors, s.f., pi. horsys, cf. hobi-hors, D.G. cxxii. 29, 'clothes- 
horse '. Also ' a platform of a scafifold with its supports '. 

horslau, s.m., ' pouring rain ' : horslau maur na welis i m o i 
drammax zri'oyd. 

horuB ; horuyB (O.H.), s.m., ' a fat fellow ' : ta:u r hf.n horuyB 
gwirjon ; also applied to animals : horuyB o vo%yn, o &ejyl, etc. 

hos, s. (i) ' a hoisting ' : %hoit hos i vmy (O.H.). (2) ' show ' 
(hss O.H.) : tippin ba:\ o hos 9n 9/enast ; gneyt hos, ' to show off '. 

P 2 



212 hosan hub/an 

hosan, s.f., pi. sanna, hosan, D., cf. also W.B., col. 68. 2 ; D.G. 
xvii. 26 ; xlvi. 47 ; cxxxiii. 29, ' stocking ' : rhoid hosan ar 2 gwi:al 
(= masga), ' to put a stocking on the needles ' ; gwey sanna, ' to knit 
stockings ' ; kro:Q, meiluy hosan, ' the thick and thin part of the 
leg of a stocking ' ; bla:yn, tru:yn hosan, ' the toe of a stocking ' ; 
m nrha:ydi sanna, " in his stocking feet " ; sanna sisurn, ' stockings, 
the feet of which are past repair, and are mended with pieces cut 
from another pair '. 

hofo, v., ' to hoist ' : hofo moxyn i vmy (O.H.). 

hmial; hu:al (O.K.), Hywel, ' Ho well'. 

hm&gar, adj., hawddgar, D., s.v. ' amabilis ' ; ' amiable, lovable '. 

h0uljo, v., hawlio, ' to claim '. 

how, s.f., pi. hovja, ' hoe '. 

hoval(].].', O.H.); Mywal(W.H.', I. W.), s.f., Eng. (Dial.) hovel 
[a shed for cattle or pigs, an outhouse of any kind], ' a shed with 
three walls and the remaining side open ' : hoval drolja, ' cart shed ' ; 
hoval i badoli hfzla, ' shoeing shed ' ; hoval vo:x, ' a shed for weigh- 
ing pigs landed from vessels', before the railway was made (O.H.). 

hovjo, v., ' to hoe '. 

hoydal, s.f., hoedl, D., ' life ' : mz'vzda n dtgon am 9x hoydalxivynd 
mo, ' it would be at the peril of your life for you to go there ' ; r adu 
i am V9 hb'ydal 3n i gadu vo rhag gn'eyd dru:g, * I do my very best to 
keep him out of mischief ' ; xmasun (jymsuri) i m o vs hoydal a 
mynd mo, ' I wouldn't go there to save my life ' ; mfoiam i hoydal, 
1 fleeing for his life ' ; hoydal o annuyd, ' a very bad cold '. 

hoyl, s., pi. hoiljon, hoel, D., ' hat-peg ' : rhoi het ar ho:yl \hef\. 

hoyl \ho:l\ 

hb'ylan, s.f., pi. hb'ilja, hoelen, O.P., ' nail ' : tori tul o vla:yn 
hoylan, * to make a hole for a nail ' ; kyro hb'ylan, ' to hammer a 
nail ' ; kodi hoylan, ' to pull out a nail '. 

hqynys, adj., hoenus, R., ' full of life '. 

hoy tan, s.f., hoeden, C.C.M. 76. 28, Eng. hoiden, ' a silly girl '. 

ho'yu, heyu, adj., hoyw, D., ' nimble ' =fonk, gwisgi. 

hb'ywal \hovat\. 

hub, s., hwpp, D., ' conatus, molimen ' ; hwp, s.v. ' impetus ' ; 
hwb, S.E., s.v. ' hop '. (i) ' hop' : hub, kam a nez'd, ' hop, skip and 
jump' (children's game). (2) 'limp' : r 0:8 na riu hub 9no vo n 
natirjol. (3) ' a lift up ', e. g. over a wall : rh#ux hub i mi. 

hubjan, hub jo, v. (i) ' to rise in the stirrups ' : hubjux / (W.H.). 
(2) 'to hobble', e.g. of an old man or one who has been ill; 
"weluxi hunna n hubjan mynd? riu he:n hubjan gwetBjo, said of 
slovenly work. (3) ' to give a lift up ' : hubjun o i vmy !, ' up with 
it, lads ! ' (O.H.). 



huda hun 2 1 3 

huda, hudju\, hwde, D., ' here ' implying ' take ', Fr. ' tiens ', 
huda di / ; huda vre\tan i //, ' look, here's a piece of bread and 
butter for you '. 

huf, s. (E.J.; O.K.), Eng. (Dial.) huff [haste, hurry], Sh. I., 
' hubbub, scuffle, flurry ' : -welso\i ri-oyd fafun huf ag o:yb ar i 
s/emmar (E.J.), ' you never saw such a hubbub as there was in the 
steamer '. 

hufjan, huf jo, v., Eng. (Dial.) to huff away [to get on smartly 
with one's work], Feb., ' to work hard and hurriedly for a short 
time ' (O.K.). 

hu:g, in phr. mynd heb na hu:g na gu:g, ' to go away empty- 
handed ' (O.H.). Cf. gu:g. 

hu:i, hwi, R.; C.L.C. ii. 14, 17 ; cf. Eng. (Dial.) hooy [a call 
of encouragement to a dog], Yks., a call to a dog at a distance 
to make it drive sheep '. In quasi-verbal sense : hu:i &id a (fuvo) 
r Hi: a hu:i /id a r ga:Q (prov.), ' to run with the hare and hunt 
with the hounds '. Cf. hx. 

-hu:i'hu:t\ may o n 'hu:i'hu:i rula, ' he is far away somewhere'; 
also as lullaby : si: 'hu:i'hu:i lull. 

huiljo, v., hwylio, D., ' dirigere, praeparare '. (i) ' to sail ' : dakku 
log 9n huiljo n huylys \ heibjo r puynt ag at 9r ?nys, \ huilja sidan 
ko:\ (gwyn) sy& ami, ' there is a ship sailing apace past the point 
(Callow's Point) and towards the island (Puffin Island) ; her sails 
are of red silk ' ; huiljo ar le:d, ' to sail to foreign parts '. (2) ' to 
prepare ' : ma: n anod huiljo r bu:yd heb dim popty, ' it is difficult to 
cook without an oven ' ; huiljo i vynd i r kappal, * to get ready for 
chapel ' : huiljo i vynd ifur, huiljo i vynd at i waiO. (3) in phrase : 
may r gwynt 9n huiljo i laur, ' the wind is falling '. (4) * to amuse '. 

huiljo, v., ' to wheel ' : hmniyd berva a huiljo (rubaff) ar hy:d 3 ka:y. 

huiljog, adj. hwylioc, Exod. xxi. 36. (i) 'lively, funny, witty': 
may o n huiljog jaun (= may na hu:yl garu hevo vo), 'he is very 
funny'; he:n 8y:n huiljog ovnadsan. (2) ' lively, amusing, pleasant ' : 
noson huiljog. (3) ' lively, amused ' : mi kadwod nu n huiljog ; ' he 
kept them amused ' ; 'r oydanu n huiljog i u rwedy. (4) ' lively, 
animated ', e. g. owing to a large concourse of people : fy:d 9 dre: 
m huiljog ; kwarvod huiljog, ' a lively meeting '. (5) of preaching, 
1 with the hu:yl ' : pne6ur huiljog, prigeBy n huiljog. 

hu:x, s.f., pi. foxpd, hwch, D., ' sow ' : hu:\ vagy, hu:x goiad, 
' brood sow ' ; r u:ti vel hu:\ meun haft, i. e. ' very destructive ' ; 
hu:\ di:n gutta, a bogy to frighten children. 

hulpyn \holpy n\. 

hun, fem. hon, neut. hyn, pi. (n), hwn, D., ' this '. (i) adjective: 
hun and hon are very seldom used, and then only for the sake of 



214 hunakku hunnu 

emphasis in certain stereotyped expressions. The only instances 
I have heard are : may n divar gin i hyd sr 'aur 'hon, ' I regret it 
to this very hour ' ; 9y gneyd dim ar 9 deyar 'hon, ' doing absolutely 
nothing ' ; 9 pe:6 kasa gin i ar 9 8eyar 'hon, * the thing I hate most 
in the whole world ' ; Balsun i dim ar 9 beyar 'hon, ' I would never 
pay '. Otherwise their place is taken by ma (yma). hyn is, how- 
ever, frequently used with certain words as 9 van 'hyn, ' this place, 
here ' ; 9 forb 'hyn (for 'hyn\ ' this way '. This form is more 
emphatic than the commoner (9) -van ma, (9) -for ma. The plural 
only occurs in the form n in (9) rhei n, y rhai hyn, ' these '. (2) 
pronoun (masc.) : ga: i helpy \i i beB o hun />, ' may I help you to 
some of this ? ' ; hun 9 may o if'o />, ( is this what he wants ? ' : mi 
eif i r ty: nesa 9n le: du:ad i hun, ' I went into the next house 
instead of coming into this ' ; 9n wastad a hun, ' level with this ' ; 
/ euxi m o hun hevo xt, ' you won't take this with you ' ; 8ary mi osod 
3 ty: i hun a r lal, ' I let my house to this, that, and the other ' ; hun 
a hun, ' such and such a person ' ; (fern.) rieiQ hon i vytta ?, ' is 
this good to eat ? ' (neut.) hyn a hyn o rubaB, ' such and such an 
amount of something ' ; Kin hyn, 'before this' ; gida hyn, 'presently ' ; 
weiBja vel hyn, weiBja vel aral, ' sometimes in this way, sometimes 
in another '. The plural is not used. 

hunakku, pron., fern, honakku, neut. and pi. hynakku (all often 
nakku), hwnnaccw, G.R. [121,]. 7, ' that (yonder)'. Often used in 
the sense of " the old man, the old woman (at home) ". 

hunna, pron., fern, honna, neut. hynna (pi. rhei no), hwnna, 
' that ' (of a person or thing within reach of the senses, or an abstract 
idea under discussion : he:n hogla dru:g jaun 9di hunna, ' that is a 
very bad smell ' ; may hunna wedi kayl gormod 9n i vol, ' that fellow 
has had a drop too much ' ; may hi wedi trot hunna heibjo, ' she has 
given that fellow up ' ; paid a tsnny hunna o d9 ge:g^ ' don't take that 
out of your mouth ' ; i be: may hunna n da: ?, ' what's the good of 
that ? ' ; neiB hunna m o r tro: \waiQ, ' that won't do either ' : mi 
gammod honna 9n le: mynd i vjaun, ' that (nail) bent instead of going 
in ' ; may honna n o le:u o hard, ' that one is rather pretty ' ; hynna 
ba:x o amsar daxi y gad?, ' is that all the time you get ? ' ; amsar 
Kin hynna, ' a time before that '. 

hunnu, fern, honno, no, neut. and pi. h9nny, ny, ni. (Sometimes 
hunu, etc., when not emphatic, e. g. 3 "wraighono, ' that woman '.) 
hwnnw, D., ' that ' (of a person or thing not within sight, hearing, 
or the senses generally, except fanny, which is used of things within 
sight, etc. or not), (i) adj. : ' that ' : fy:d na bobol zn aru 9 durnod 
hunnu, ' there will be a great many people that day ' ; k: ma: r 
'brus hunu /*, ' where's that brush ? ' ; 9 'pren hunu sy y kadu 9 treif'a 
rhag kravy oxor 9 Kefyl, ' that piece of wood which keeps the traces 
from chafing the side of the horse ' ; 9 van honno, ' that place ' ; r 
amsar honno., r amsar no, r amsar hunnu, pry:t h9nny, * that time ' ; 



huntro hursan 2 1 5 

rhei ni, ' those ' (= y rhai hynny). (2) pron., ' that one, that ' : mi 
r o:b &ini hi garjad, ag mi vria hunnu n du:ad i gwelt i, ' she had 
a lover, and he used to come and see her ' ; dim ont hunnu ?, 
' nothing but that ? ' ; fanny ba:\ !, ' is that all ! ' ; mi gadwiB htnny 
vo y gmnas, ' that will keep him warm ' ; fanny sy if'o o stisnag, 
' all the English needful ' ; di:ol\ byB am htnny /, ' thank Heaven 
for that ! ' ; mynd fanny vedar o, ' to go as fast as he can ' ; du i uBi 
fanny vedra i, ' I am at it as hard as I can ' ; Kin fanny, ' before 
that ' ; erbyn fanny, ' by that time ' ; ar o:l fanny, ' after that ' ; ta 
ny n rubaB, ta ny riu ods, ' if that is anything, for the matter of 
that'. 

huntrO) v., cf. hwndro, M.F., 'to lose one's bearings entirely' 
(through stormy weather or darkness), J.J. = fundro. 

huntu, s.m., cf. hwyntwyr (pi.), G.O. ii. 125. 6, " South Walian " : 
may hunna ty hu:ynt i huniu ag may huntu ty hu:ynt i r hBral, ' he 
is worse than a " South Walian ", and a " South Walian " is worse 
than the devil '. 

hunma, pron., fern, honma ; also n*na, nona ; hwnnyna, G.R. 
[121]. 7, 'that (person or thing) in sight or hearing': pu:y di 
hunma ?, l who is that ? ' 

hu:r, s.f., hwr, W.S. [a Hore], ' whore '. 

hurax (more rarely urax), huyrax, adv., nid hwyrach, D., s.v. 
1 forte ' ; ' perhaps ' : hura\ miba:u igodiat apnaun, ' perhaps it will 
clear up by the afternoon '. Ans. na: hurax, ' perhaps '. 

hurdgo ; urdgo (O.H.), v., Eng. urge, * to push goods ' (for sale) : 
hurdgo i dattus ; may o n hurdgo n aru. 

hurd, s.f., pi. farbja, hwrdd, D., 'a short and sharp spell of 
briskness ' : hur o ol\i, ' a spell of washing ' ; 'gweitju\i, mi ro: i 
hurb i x* meun mynyd, 'wait, I will give you a turn (i.e. a helping 
hand) in a minute ' ; r o:d na hur vaur in 3 varxnad, l the market 
was very brisk ' ; may farbja arno vo, ' he does things by fits and 
starts ' ; hur mammad, ' a short brisk period of work which a 
mother makes the best of while the baby is asleep ', so a farmer 
might say to his men : dwima riu he:n hurb mammaB i xi J (O.H.). 

hurgi, hurjur, s.m., ' fornicator '. 

hurjo, v., hwrio, T.N. 13. 32, ' to fornicate '. 

-hurli'burli, s., Eng. hurly-burly : r o:d o meun 'hurli'burli, ' he 
was in a state of agitation '. 

hurlyd, adj., ' given to fornication ' : bmgi hurfyd. 

hu-ro:, s.m., Eng. (Dial.) hoo-roo [a hubbub, noise, tumult], 
Yks., Lan., Chs., Der., War. : vy:d na hu'ro: maur ; mi neiB riu 
hu-ro: am rubaB, ' he will make a fuss about a thing '. 

hursan, s.f., ' whore '. 



2 1 6 hurBjo hu:yr 

hurBjo, v., ' to push ' : hur&jo 3 plant oruB 3 bur$ = guBjo. 

husgip, s. (i) ' a toss up ' (of coins) : mi ro: i husgip i weld ^di 
o y giy ta brits, ' I will toss up to see whether it is heads or tails '. 
(2) 'scramble ' (see below). 

husgipjo, v. (i) ' to toss up ' (a coin). (2) 'to throw things for 
children to scramble for '. 

husmon, s.m., pi. husmyn, hwsmon, D.G. cxcvii. 2 2 ; D., ' farm- 
bailiff, chief servant on a farm '. 

hutjo, v., hwttio, D., ' exibilare, explodere ' ; 'to hoot at ; to 
drive off by shouting, etc., to shout at '. 

huBjo \_gur &jo\. 

hu:yl, s.f., pi. huilja, hwyl, D. (i) ' sail ' : ku:x huilja, ' sailing- 
boat ' ; toy a huilja, ' sailing-ships '. (2) ' spirit, animation, " go " ', 
Fr. ' entrain ' : da\i y ka:yl hu:yl ar ?x gwaiB heityu ?, ' do you feel 
in good trim for your work to-day ? ', 'do you feel " fit ", " in good 
form" ' ; may o meun hu:yl, (and more emphatic) may o n i huilja 
gora, ' he is in his best form ' ; mi geiO o hu:yl u6 deyd zr hanas, 
' he will enjoy telling the story ' ; / ydu i dim wedi ka:l hu:yl ar 
Parian barbonjaB, ' I never found any pleasure in reading poetry ' ; 
syt hu:yl -gu:soxi ? faf'un hu:yl 'geyQoxi /, ' how did you get on ? ' ; 
so, in preaching, etc., kayl hu:yl, 'to become warmed in one's 
subject, to be carried away ', hence (3) ' a peculiar kind of musical 
intonation used in Welsh preaching ' : ma o dippin i be:B mi a:B 
9 pwgeBur i r hu:yl. (4) ' liveliness, funniness, wittiness ': may na 
hu:yl garu hevo vo t ' he is very funny, lively '. (5) ' fun ' : gneyt 
hu:yl am 9 mhenni, ' to make fun of me ' ; ge:s i lawar jaun o hu:yl 
hevo vo, ' I got a great deal of fun out of him '. (6) ' temper ' : 
ma:y hu:yl da: arno vo, ' he is good tempered ' ; may hi alan o i 
hu:yl, ' she is in a bad temper '. 

huylys ; hoylys (O.H.), adj., hwylus, D. (i) ' convenient ': 
9 noson huylysa (= muya huylys], ' the most convenient night ' ; / o.yd 
hi dim 9n huylys i mi vynd, ' it was not convenient for me to go ' ; 
hmny 'vedranu vynd a vo: n huylys heb goli dim, ' as much as they 
could conveniently carry without dropping any ' ; may f on m huylys 
m 9 no:s, ' a stick is convenient in the night '. (2) ' easy', e. g. of 
a key turning in a lock. See also ex. under huiljo. 

hu:ynt, adv., hwnt, D., s.v. 'trans'; hwynt, D.P.O. 30. 29 : ty 
hu:ynt, ' beyond '. See ex. under huntu. 

hu:yr, s., hwyr, D., s.v. ' vesper ' ; ' evening ' not generally in 
use = gid a r no:s, but the word occurs in the exp. hu.yr a bora, 
' morning and evening '. 

hu:yr, adj., hwyr, D., ' late ' (of time or persons, etc.) : da\i wedi 
kodin o hu:yr bora ma, you have got up rather late this morning ' ; 



hy: hy:d 217 

vy:b hi bim mor huyr arna i htno ag oyb hi niiiQjur, ' I shan't be 80 
late to-night as I was last night ' : gwel hu:yr na huyra\, * better 
late than never ' ; may n hu:yr fain i, 1 1 long ', e. g. may n huyr 
gin i gwelt i n mendjo, ' I long to see her get better '. 

hy:, adj., h, D., comp. hwa\, ' bold ' : o b It: daxi n du:ad (gan 
mod i) mor hy: a govyn ?, where do you come from, if I may be 
so bold as to ask ? ' Also ' impudent, forward '. 

hy:d t s., pi. h*da t hyd, D., ' length ' : 9ry:n hy:d a r ym led, l as 
broad as long ' ; hy:d 3 dor6, ' the length of the loaf, a whole round 
of bread ' ; mi doris i V9 hy:d ar dair arvod, ' I cut my length (of 
grass) in three strokes (of the scythe) ' ; m buy la:6 o hy:d, ' two 
yards in length ' ; ar i hy:d, ' at full length ' ; strQjo ar ihy.dilaur, 
' to fall full length ' ; more emphatically ar i hy:d gy:d, ' at full 
length ' ; * from one end to the other ' (cf. D., s.v. ' porrigo ') : 
gorvab ar i hy:d gy:d ; wedi kayl i drawo nes may o ar i hy:d gy:d 
ar laur ; kovjo r bregaB ar i hy:d gy:d, ' to remember the sermon 
from one end to the other ' ; of a length of time : am riu hy:d, ' for 
some time ' ; */ ydanu dim ?y kayl byu am bigon o hy:d. PI. toda, 
hsdob, hdjon, in such phrases as am fodjon, cr s hzdjm, ' for a long 
time ' : / oy:s dim by:dm myndtru ibylo vo, may oar s fodjon tygneyd 
t wai6 (O.H.), * he has been at it for a long time, but there is nothing 
to show for it ' ; also in the phrase a fan o todob (foda, fodjori), 
' out of all proportion, all reason '. hyd^no.-d, hydno:d y hyd nod, hyt 
ynn oet, L.A. 34. 24, now written hyd yn oed, hyd yn nod, hyd y nod, 
hyd yn od [see note to above passage, p. 254], adv. ' even '. As 
preposition (i) for ar hy:d (see below). With pronouns hyda i, 
etc., ' along ' : hy:d 9 klauft, ' along the wall, hedge ' ; twy hy:d 
3 for 8, ' to grow along the road '. (2) ' as far as, to ' : do:s hy:d 
9 hBral, 'go to the devil'. (3) of time, 'until' (generally 
expressed by fan) as conjunction ' as long as ' : mi geu\i aros m 
9\ gwely hy:d 3 'leikjuxi very, ' you can stop in bed as long as you 
like to-morrow '. 

ar hy:d, r hy:d (of time or place), ' along, the length of, all 
through ' : mynd ar hy:d 9 /orb, ' to go along the road ' ; ar hy:d 
pen 3 wal, ' along the top of the wall ' ; may telaQa n rhedag ar 
hy:d 9 ru:m a tr0ustja ar le:d, l " tylathau " run the length of a room 
and " trawstiau " across ' ; ar hy:d ag ar draus, ' in all directions, 
anyhow ' ; ar hy:d 9 dy:b, ' all day long '. 

o hy:d, ' continually, without intermission, all the time ' : byu 
meun gobaiB o hy:d, l to live continually in hope ' ; ma: r klok yy kolj. 
o hy:d, ' the clock keeps losing ' ; may hi n farad o hy:d, ' she is 
always talking ' ; du:ad o hy:d i, ' to find '. 

hy:d at (often d at) : d at i glistja, d at gorn i ubu, ' up to his 
ears, his neck ' ; d at hyn, ' so far, up till now ' ; du:ad hy:d at, ' to 
find ' ; mi 'beyBonu hy:d atto rusyt, ' they found out somehow '. 

hy:d i, ' up to ', esp. in kayl hy:d i, * to find ' : gavob o hy:d ibo 



218 hydo hynt 

vo />, ' did he find it ? ' ; du i wedi ka:l hy:d i r dru:g, ' I have found 
out what is the matter ' ; \e:s i mo r hy:d ido vo, ' I did not find it '. 

hydo, v., hudo, D., 'to entice ' : hydo ru:in ir mmy, ' to entice 
some one to the mountain ' ; hydo i bre:s o, ' to do him out of his 
money '. 

hy:, s.m., hydd, D., 'hart'. Only in the plant-name tavod ar 
hy:8, ' hart's tongue ' (Scolopendrium vulgare). 

hydo, v., huddaw, O.P., in the exp. hybo r ta:n, ' to cover the 
fire ', i.e. by covering the peat with ashes for the night. 

hygan, s.f., hugan, D., 'a covering', e.g. a sack, old garment, 
etc., for want of something better, put over the shoulders in cold or 
rainy weather (J.J.; O.H.) : tavl riu hem hygan drostat (J.J.). As 
term of reproach : ta:u r he:n hygan gsBral I (O.H.). 

hylax, s.m., cf. hulach, M.F., ' a soft-headed fellow' (J.J.; O.H) : 
dim 9no n solat, dim 9no i gi:d, m deyd riu be&a gwirjon, m huiljo 
paub (O.H.); may o n he:n hylax di'gon digri ; ta:u 9r he:n hylax 
gwirjon ! 

hylbost, s.m., a fool' (I.W.). 
hylpyn \holpyn\. 

hylyn, s.m. (fern, hylan), 'a fool': r he:n hylyn gwirjon! ; 
r he:n hylan I = r he:n gzbolan ! (O.H.). 

hyl (sometimes hylt\ adj., pi. tofton, comp. Max, hyll, D., 'ugly ' : 
he:n by.n hyl, ' an ugly old man ' ; geirja faf/on, ' bad language ' ; 
y peB hzla gin i ddi gweld pobol dy Kerbad 9 dre:, ' there is nothing I 
hate more than seeing people pacing up and down the town ; ' of 
weather : may n edrax an hyl jaun heity'u, ' it looks very stormy 
to-day '. 

hy:n, s., hun, D., ' self : ko:d d9 hy:n, ' get up ' ; troi 9 du:r at i 
velin i fy.-n, ' to turn matters to one's own advantage ' ; koli arno 
i hy:n, ' to lose one's head' ; ar iben ihy:n, ' alone, all by himself ; 
le: -a'nivir ar i ben i hy:n, ' an unpleasant, lonely place ' ; tonny peQ 
m i ben i hy:n, * to bring down something on one's own head ' ; 
pam nad euxi X hy :n a ^ vo A ' wnv don't you go to him yourself ? ' ; 
o honyn i hy:n, ' of their own accord '. 

hy:n, s., hun, D., 'sleep', only in the phrase tru: (= dru:) i hy:n, 
' in one's sleep ' : may o n Jar ad tru: i hy:n, ' he talks in his sleep ' : 
8ary xi ri'o:yd godi dru: x hy:n ?, ' did you ever walk in your sleep ? ' 

hynan, s., pi. hynain, hunan, W.B., col. 2. 8, ' self (rarer than 
hy:ri) ; idi o i hynan /, ' is he by himself ? ' 

hynla, s.f., hunlle, D., 'nightmare '. As term of reproach : rhe:n 
hynla /, ' the old bore ! ' 

hynt, s., hynt, D., iter : rhuyb hynl i x*', ' a pleasant journey to 
you ' (Bangor). Cf. hsnt. 



hyrt hmjan 219 

hyrt, adj., hurt, D., ' silly, stupid, dazed, weak in the head ' : >n 
he:n ag yn Ayr/, ' old and foolish '. 

hyrtyn, s.m., hurtyn, D., s.v. ' blennus ', ' idiota ', ' morio ' ; ' a 
fool ' : hyrtyn penxwiban^ ' a whimsical fool '. 

hyrtys, adj., hurtus, 4 in one's dotage '. 

hy:sb, adj., fern. he:sb, pi. hxbjon, hesbjon, hpsp, D., 'dry, not 
giving milk ' (of cattle): byux hy:sb (hi:sb); gwarOag hsbjon (hesbjon). 

hytlax, s.m.f., cf. hudlach, M.F., 'an idle, good-for-nothing 
person ' : hem hytlax lonyl ; he:n hytlax vanu (O.H.). 
hyu, fyus, ' Hugh, Hughes '. 

hyukyn, Huwcyn (dim. of hyu] : ail tdi hyukyn i fsntkyn, Mike 
father, like son ' ; hyukyn m 9 fygad, ' sleepy feeling in the eyes ', 
" dusty miller " ; may hyukyn lonyb m du:ad y said of a baby who is 
just going to sleep. 

hyuan, s.m., hufen, D., ' cream '. 

hyvenny, v., hufennu, D., ' to cream '. 

hyvr, s.m., hyfr, D., s.v. 'caper '; hyfrod (pi.), G.O. i. 105. 2 ; 
Eng. (Dial.) haiver, Sc., Cum. ; hever, Cum. [a he-goat after he has 
been gelded] ; O.E. hsever [' buck, he-goat '] : ' a gelded he-goat '. 

hyvr an, s.f., term of reproach for a woman : tam r he:n hyvr an 
grtrall 

fabjan, fobjo, v., 'to improve in health ' : may o n hbjan m reil 
8a: ; may o n hsbjo i vmy njaun. 

hdar, s., hyder, D., 'fiducia, confidentia, audacia' : in phr. 
ar i hadar, ' on the off-chance ' : mi a: i ar V9 hdar i dri:o> e. g. dym 
ifo peQ ag m medul bod o 'gmoxi ar werQ (O.H.). Cf. G.O. ii. 
115. 28. 

fafis, s., cf. hyffis, M.F., ' a long narrow purse formerly used by 
women ' : it had five or six partitions made of linen or silk (J.J.). 

faxjan, wjan, v., hychian, O.P., ' to grunt ' (of a pig). Also of 
human beings : ' to quarrel, snap at one another ' : ma: nu n foxjan 
ar i giliS. 

hslau, adj., hylaw, D., * generous, kind, obliging '. 

h^lod, s., hylldod, B.C. 150. 13. (i) 'ugliness'. (2) 'practical 
jokes, nonsense ' : may o n [aun hyjtod ; m v? h^tod dary mi teyt 
hmny, said e.g. when excusing oneself for having given offence 
(O.H.). Cf. avjaB. (3) pi. h^toda, foftodod, 'quantity', in the 
phrase h^toda o be&a. 

fom, s., ' hint' : roifi hm tto vo, xrfi Mm h* (W.H). 

fomfost, s.f., * a rough untidy girl ' (I.W.). Cf. honfyst* 

famjan> v. : hmjan kany t ' to hum '. 



22O hmod *' 



) adj., hynod, D., 'remarkable, strange, extraordinary': 
/ ddi o 8im an edra\ sn hynod jaun, ' he does not look very re- 
markable ' ; hmod o vaur, ' extraordinarily large '. 

hmt, s., hynt, D. (influenced by Eng. hunt (?)), in phrases : pen 
vyS: 9r hmt arna i, ' when I feel inclined ' ; mi eif i ar V9 font, ' I 
happened to go ' ; mi welis i him a hun ar vz font, ' I saw such and 
such a one by chance '. Cf. hynt. 

hmtjo, v., 'to hunt ' = hela. 

torbjo, hurbjo, v., hyrddio, D. (i) c to butt ' (of a ram). (2) ' to be 
changeable ' (now brisk, now slack) : ma: r varxnad dn htrbjo ; 
forftjo u6 weiSjo ; hurty'o mynd = mynd am sbel a ravy (O.H.). 

torbjog, adj., hyrddiog, c changeable ' (now brisk, now slack) : 
ma: r varxnad 9n forty'og ; mynd dn torbjog dn le: mynd 9n wastad 
= mynd am hur a stopjo mynd (O.H). 

has, hys, R. ; G.O. i. 217. 2, said to a dog to make it drive 
sheep. In quasi-verbal sense fos hevo r Ki: a tos hevo r ga:B: (O.H.). 
Cf. hu:i. 

h9sbjo, v., ' to become dry ', esp. of cattle which have ceased 
giving milk : os na 'odru\ir vyux zn la:n mi hzsbiO hi ; ma rfmnon 
wedt fosbjo, ' the spring has dried up '. Also trans, tosbjo fyux, l to 
cease milking a cow for about two months before calving, to dry 
a cow '. 

toslay, s.pl., sing, hislan, hislau, sing, hisleuen, D., ' sheep-lice '. 

fyfii hafjo, v., hysio, D., s.v. ' exibilo ', hyssio, s.v. ' incite ', * to 
set on a dog ' ; also hzf'o dy:n i gufjo, ' to incite a man to fight '. 
Cf. annos. 

hzlraus, ' aslant ', in phr. ar hdtraus. 

hztrav (so O.H. always) ; fodrav, s., Hydref, D., ' October '. 
h9vdra, s., hyfdra, Phil. 8, ' boldness ' ; kdmmyd zr hsvdra (ar 
neyd rubaQ), ' to have the effrontery to, to make so bold as to '. 

hwryd, adj., hyfryd, D., ' pleasant, delightful ' : nt ddi m bra:v ! 
o:, may n hmryd /, ' Isn't it fine ! Oh, it's delightful ! ' 



i (sometimes i: when stressed), prep., i, D. With pronouns : 
S. i. i mt(:), 2. z /?'(:), 3. 180 vo(:), do vo, 3 vo, z'8o ; 281 fa\:), t'8i. 
PI. i.tm'(:), 2. i'xi(-'), 3- yfynu, ytynhu: (tf. udunt, W.B., col. 161. 
7, 22, 24 ; so always in Mid. Welsh). With pronominal adjectives : 
S. i. i V9 t 2. i ds, 3. t u, i: (cf. W.B., col. 179. i). PI. i. in, 2. i'x, 
3. i u, i:. Takes the vocalic mutation except in the case of mt(:), 
//(:), tiBa, dz, and sometimes meun (mjaun). 



/ 221 

I. with the general idea of direction, (i) motion towards, 
' to '. (a) of a material object : mynd i r dre:, ' to go to the town ' ; 
mynd i vaygor, ' to go to Bangor ; mynd i r knebrun, l to go to the 
funeral ' ; driyo i vri:g 9 goydan, ' to climb to the top of the tree ' ; 
ma: r fanu n du:ad i r Ian, ' the tide is coming in ' ; or y:n van 
i r lag, ' from one place to another ' ; o r nai[ dy: i r [aL ' from 
one side to the other'; verb omitted, d)mma r bobol i gi:d i ben 
9 klotya, 'up went all the people on to the top of the walls'. 
(b) where the object is more or less abstract : du:ad i drevn, * to 
get into order ' ; mynd i r &e:, i r xwM, ' to go to the right, the 



left * ; dirwin i ben, ' to come to an end ' ; mynd i tolad, l to get 
into debt ' ; du:ad i r golug, ' to come into sight ' ; mynd i dippin 

b'ydran, ' to be getting on in life ' ; mynd i -an'obai'6, l to despair ' ; 
du:ad i ry:n van, ' to come to the same thing ' ; o dippin i be:0, 
' gradually '. (2) as distinguished from at, /'implies motion towards 
a place or object into which entrance is made (cf. Rowlands, 
Welsh Grammar, p. 213, 736) : mynd ir Kgol, ' to go to school ' 
or ' into the school ', but mynd at ?r ngol, ' to go to the school ' 
(for other examples see at) ; mynd i r mo:r, ' to go to sea ' or ' into 
the sea ' ; mynd i r gadar, ' to get into the chair ' ; sarQjo i r du:r, 
' to fall into the water ' ; mynd am dro: i r wla:d, ' to go for a walk 
into the country '; a:nu ibo vo /, 'will they get into it?' (e.g. of 
papers into a box) ; d eu\i byQ i V9 s&idja i, ' you will never get 
into my shoes'; Hefyl 3n mynd i r drol, 'a horse going into the 
shafts'; o r badalfri:o i r tarn, 'from the frying-pan into the 
fire ' ; elliptically (without a verb of motion) maly bara i guppan 
de:, * to crumble bread into a tea-cup ' ; du i n disgul hi i r ty:, 

1 1 am expecting her home '. (3) implying an object or purpose : 
gzry monvyn i negas, ' to send a maid on an errand ' ; gwa:& iginjo, 
1 an invitation to dinner '. (4) expressing the direction which 
a person or thing faces : fenast anfrantjo i r lo:n, ' a window facing 
the high road ' ; also fenast i r lo:n ; similarly may r h: n amlug 
i r gwynt, 'the place is exposed to the wind'. (5) denoting the 
exact coincidence of an action with a point of time : r o:d hi i r 
mynyd hevo po:b pe:Q, ' she was punctual (to the minute) with 
everything ' ; du:ad i r mynyd, ' to come to the minute '. (6) 
denoting extent to which : -meBadis i r karn, ' a Methodist to the 
backbone'; dzna vo: i r dim, 'that's he exactly'. (7) /' meun 
(veun, mjaun, vjaun], adv. ' in ' : d0u\ a vo: i mjaun, ' bring it in ' ; 
ft'Xj'o nu i meun, ' to throw them in ' ; also of rest : 9di o i veun ?, 
' is he in ? ' (see meun). (8) i vmy, i laur, (a) adv. gorvab i laur, 
' lie down ' ; 9nyu\ i vmy, higher up ' ; ista i laur, ' to sit down ' ; 
also of rest, i vmy, i laur 3 grifa, ' upstairs, downstairs '. (b) 
prep, mynd i vmy, i laur 9 grifa, ' to go upstairs, downstairs ' ; 
/' vmy, i laur zr a:U, ' up, down the hill ' (see laur, vmy). (9) 
ifur(), ' away ' : ifur a vo: I, ' off he goes ! ' ; mynd i furb, ' to 
go away ' (see/wr). (10) after verbs of motion before an infinitive : 






222 2 

(a) where the idea of motion or arrival at a certain state is pre- 
dominant : mi 0uxi i farad 9n jaun, ' you will get to speak pro- 
perly ' ; hurax mi 8a:u i godi at 9 pnaun, ' perhaps it will clear up 
by the afternoon ' ; may r teKal wedi myndielun, ' the kettle runs ' ; 
paid a mynd i xwara <b riks ru:an, ' none of your tricks now '. 

(b) where the idea of purpose is more or less implied : troi i galyn 
po:b awal o wynt, ' to be fickle, variable, to turn with every wind ' ; 
du:ad i glirjo r burd, ' to come and clear the table ' ; mynd i edrax 
am dani hi, { to go and see her ' ; d0ux i veun zn 9 van ma i ista, 
1 come in here and sit down ' ; mi eif i x^arvot hi, ' I went to 
meet her '. 

II. denoting purpose. 1. before an infinitive, (i) after verbs : 
(a) with active meaning, ' in order to ' : mi a:Q dan d goydan imoxal 
9 g!a:u, ( he went under the tree to shelter from the rain ' ; rhaid 
i mi dri:o darvod an vy:an i gad du:ad hevo x*, 1 1 must try and get 
finished soon so as to be able to come with you ' ; may if f o gla:u 
i bxy ^ deyar dippin, ' rain is wanted to wet the ground a little ' ; 
ma: nu n manteif'o ar bo:b pe6 i neyd pre:s, ' they take advantage of 
everything to make money ' ; ddi r boks ma am ga:yl i dori i bexra 
ta:n ?, ' is this box to be broken up for lighting fires ? ' ; similarly 
* as a reason for ' : os na by: dim axes zy kodi i alu 9 hyor 9y 
gynt, ' if no cause arises to convene the council earlier '. (b) with 
passive meaning : mynd a dilad i Inay, ' to take clothes to be 
cleaned'. (2) after nouns: (a) denoting an object for which 
something is designed : lu:y i droi ryud, ' a spoon for stirring the 
porridge ' ; peQ i godi bar a, l something to make bread rise ' ; lexi 
i doi tai, ' roofing slates ' ; le: i gadu bu:yd, ' a place for keeping 
food '. (b) expressing an object for which something is fitted or 
adapted : le bra:v i ista ) ' a nice place to sit ' ; lyvr divir i Parian, 
' an interesting book ' ; le jaun i luynog lexy, ' a good place for 
a fox to lurk in ' ; mi veBis a x<2.7 dy:n i neyd o, ' I couldn't get 
a man to do it '. With passive meaning : netB hon i vytta ?, ' is 
this good to eat ? ' ; -vedruxi dim ka:yl dr avol i xwara a:g i vytta, 
'you cannot have the apple to play with and to eat', i.e. 'you 
cannot eat your cake and have it*, (c) expressing an object 
which conduces towards a certain purpose : rubaG i godixkalon xt, 
'something to cheer you up'; may na buy for i neyd po:b pe:6, 
1 there are two ways of doing everything ' ; / o:ys na dim digon o 
wynt i asguyd 3 briga, * there is not enough wind to shake, the 
branches ' ; *" aros, i weitjad, ' meanwhile ; until, to last until ' : 
brextan i aros pry:d> ' a piece of bread and butter to last until 
a meal ' ; an lodgo i aros ka:yl ty:, ' taking lodgings until one can 
find a house ' ; i dexra, ' to begin with '. (3) after adjectives : 
denoting adaptability for a certain purpose : may gwarQag dy.on 
dy gletlax i 8al 2 d0wyd, ' black cattle are hardier for standing the 
weather ' ; mi vy: sn de:g i vynd i r kappal, l it will be fine for 
going to chapel ' ; may hi n haus i dreiljo, * it is easier to digest ' ; 



huylys i gar jo r y:d, ' convenient for carrying the corn ' ; ma: 
r dre: m we[ i vyu, ' the town is better to live in ' : mi vasa kavod 
m nobl i 9stun 9 {u:x, { a shower would be splendid for laying the 
dust ' ; especially with rhy: : may n rhy: o:yr i vynd 9m bennoQ a[an, 
' it is too cold to go out bareheaded ' ; du i n rhy: vlt:r i vynd 
alan, ' I am too untidy to go out ' ; ma: nu n ghy: lartf i farad 
hm'ra:ig t ' they are too proud to speak Welsh '. 2. before nouns : 
(a) 'for the purpose of: dim amsar i Mm, 'no time for any- 
thing ' ; i be: may hmny n da: />, ' what is the good of this ? ' ; d idi 

n da: i dim, ' he is good for nothing '. 

III. before an infinitive, after adjectives and nouns of various 
other senses such as those of skill, capacity, habitual inclination, 
desire, etc., generally expressed in English by ' at ' : deffa i neyd 
pe:6, ' skilful in doing a tiling ' ; y:n da: j nun 9di o i n'eyd kampja, 
' he is good at all sorts of tricks ' ; y:n sa:l i vytta, ' one who is 
very bad at eating ' ; 'a 'niban jaun i n'eyd i gwaiQ, ' very slow at 
doing their work ' ; da\i n y:n garu jaun i wisgo x sgidja, ' you 
are very bad at wearing out your boots ' ; awyt i weiQjo, ' a desire 
to work '. 

IV. before an infinitive dependent upon another verb, as dal 

1 vytta, ' to continue to eat ' ; krevy ar ru:in i 6u:ad, ' to beg 
some one to come'; luybo i n'eyd rubaB, 'to succeed in doing 
something ' ; para'toi i vynd, ' to prepare to go ', etc. 

V. before an infinitive of passive meaning, denoting poten- 
tiality : ma: kro:yn zr o:yn a kro:yn 9 davad i welad mor ammal 
a i giltb 9n 9 var\nad (prov.), ' the lamb's skin and the sheep's 
skin are to be seen equally often in the market ' ; 9 may lippin 

hu:yl i ga:yl, ' there is a bit of fun to be got '. 

VI. before an infinitive of passive meaning, denoting necessity, 
expediency, etc. : nid 9 bobol sy i veio, ' it is not the people who 
are to be blamed ' ; similarly with bo:d : may gwraig i vod myvyt 

1 u gu:r, * a wife should be obedient to her husband ' ; may hiivo:d 
m wastad) ' it should be, it is supposed to be flat ' (but is e. g. 
warped) ; ma na dri: i vo:d, ' there ought to be three '. 

VII. between two nouns, denoting the relationship of one 
person or object to another as regards position : ty n o:l i xi, 
' behind you ' ; drost 9 forb i r ty:, ' on the opposite side of the 
road to the house ' ; 9 ty: kletta i r klaub, ' the sheltered side of 
the wall ' ; ar o\or aral i r avon, ' the other side of the river ' ; 
meun rhiu viUir i abar, ' within a mile or so of Aber '. 

VIII. denoting possession : cido i vi: 3di o, ' it is my property ' ; 
esp. as regards debts : may arna i du.y geinjog i \i:, ' I owe you 
twopence '. Similarly, denoting kinship : mer\ i u mha:p i, ' her 
son's daughter '. 

IX. denoting the complement required to complete a certain 
number : he:n wraig 9n dair blu:y& i gant o:yd, ' an old woman 
ninety-seven years old ' ; meun fair i bedwar igjan> t seventy-seven ' ; 



22 4 * 

so, of the time of day : vaint ddi i \we:x ?, ' how long is it till 
six o'clock ' ; igjan mynyd iy:n or 8e:g, ' twenty minutes to eleven ' ; 
xvuartar i bymp, ' a quarter to five '. 

X. denoting some point in past or future time, considered in 
its relation to some other point of time : tair usnos i heity'u, ' three 
weeks to-day '. 

XI. after adjectives or adverbs denoting likeness, proximity, 
etc. (i) ' likeness ' : may nu n debig i u gilib, 'they are like one 
another '. (2) ' proximity ' : dn agos i bymp, ' nearly five o'clock ' ; 
dn agos i r ta:n^ ' near the fire '. (3) ' an attitude of mind towards ' : 
dn drdmp i giliS, 'true, loyal to one another ', etc. 

XII. after nouns, adjectives, and adverbs with the main 
idea of advantage or disadvantage, expediency, possibility, or 
necessity generally represented in English by 'for', (i) nouns : 
by: hunna m be:6 meyQyn i mi, ' that will be a treat for me ' ; 
ply.an i x gu:r ddi o, 'it is a feather in your husband's cap ' ; 
hurax gna:nu elu go 8a: i x*\ 'perhaps they will bring you in 
a good deal of profit ' ; may y golad i xi, 'it is a loss for you ' ; 
may m bry:d i xi vynd i x gw*ly, 'it is time for you to go to 
bed ' ; dim posib i ne:b vynd i veun, ' nobody can get in ' ; rhaid 
i xi weibi, ' you must call ' ; heb raid nag axos i xi neyd o, * without 
any cause or necessity for you to do it'. (2) adjectives and 
adverbs : ddi hi n du:ad dn dstuyB i xi ru:an ?, ' is it getting 
easier for you now ? ' ; basa n werB i xi gweld nu, ' it would be 
worth while for you to see them ' ; wel i mi\ ' I had better ' ; wayB 
i mi, ' I might as well '. 

XIII. the so-called " ethic dative " (extremely common) : may 
nfu:r i xi, ' certainly ' ; ma: r a:lt ma n drom jaun i xi, ' this hill 
is very steep ' ; ddna^ i xi 'an'luk /, ' that's very unlucky ! ' ; by:o n 
way I jaun i xi, ' he was very ill '. 

XIV. to bring a person or thing into relation with a statement 
made concerning them, (i) in adjectival phrases : ty: ag y:n dru:s 
z'8o vo, ' a house with one door '. (2) in a simple statement : may 

y:n la:u dn vu:y na r lal z'8z hi, ' one of her hands is bigger than 
the other ' ; bluyfyn vy:d pa:r o sgidja dm para i nha:d, ' my father's 
boots last a year '. 

XV. ' for, on behalf of ' : kqy 9 dru:s z'do vo, ' to shut the door 
for him ' ; dui wedi grieyd kamp i xi heno, ' I have done something 
difficult for you to-night which you could not ' ; na: i Inay nu i xi 
' I will clean them for you '. 

XVI. /followed by a noun or pronoun and infinitive, (i) in 
a subject phrase, with the verb ' to be ' : 0:8 dru:g i mi gay hun ?, 
' was I wrong in shutting this ? ' (' was my shutting this wrong ? '). 
(2) when in a sentence of the form may o y gobeiOjo du:ad i\\e action 
of the verb is transferred to a person or thing other than the 
subject, e.g. may o y gobeiBjo ibo vo 8u:ad, 'he hopes that he 
will come'; may hi ifo (i.e. 'mae ami hi eisieu', equivalent to 



235 

' raae hi yn dymuno 'j /' \i vytta hunna, l she wants you to cat 
that ' ; may r doktor ij*o ibo vo gayl tippin o stibjant, ' the doctor 
wants him to have a little rest*. (3) in sentences of the form: 
preposition + '-f noun (pronoun) + infinitive: di:ol\ am i \i tityd 
bo:d . . ., ' thank you for saying that . . .'. (4) in sentences of the 
form : preposition + ;' + noun (pronoun) + infinitive where the 
whole has the force of : conjunction + subject + finite verb, e.g. 
er ido vynd, ' in spite of his going ' = ' though he went ' : ar o:l 
i \i or/an gweiBjo, ' when you have finished working ' ; kodi sa\ad 
ar ben klaub erbyn i drol baf'o> 'to put a sack on the top of a wall 
to wait for a cart to pass ' ; du i wedi gntyd 9 ta:n er muyn i r du:r 
dummo, ' I have lit the fire to heat the water (for the water to 
\\ arm) ' ; mi vy:& dtgon o bobol heb Hi hi: vynd t ' there will be plenty 
of people without her going ' ; heb Ho ubod, ' without him knowing ' 
(but heb ubod t'8o, ' unconsciously ') ; Kin i r gla.-u bu:ad, ' before 
the rain comes ' ; rhag Ho don, * for fear of it breaking ' ; rhak 
ovn idi vuru, ' for fear it rains ' ; )r y\a y:n ar 9 fork uB i \i 
rynd i bentir, ' the highest one on the road when you go to Pentir ' ; 
miltir wedi i \iadal {yn ogwan, ' a mile after you leave Llyn Ogwen '. 
(5) in sentences of the same type as (4) where *' stands for er 
muyn ;'or rhag i d0u\ a wduyb a eda i (= er muyn i) mi rot 
boilum arno vo, ' bring me a needle and thread for me to put 
a button on it ' ; 'lendju\i ssrOjo, for ' tendiwch (rhag) i chwi 
syrthio ', ' take care you don't fall '. (6) where a conjunction takes 
the place of the preposition before *'. (a) gayl (used as a con- 
junction for i gayl, cf. II. i): rhaid i \i ' gy\uyn Kin hannar aur 
wedi uyB gad i x* vo:d m fu:r o i weld o, ' you must start before 
half-past eight so as to be sure of seeing him ' ; pitti na vasun i: yn 
myndsno gayl i mi gayl gu:r, ' what a pity I'm not going there so as 
to get a husband '. (b) nes nes ybynu 8u:ad zn i hola, * until they 
come back '. (c) ond dani wedi klu:ad pe6a da jaun ond i ni bal 
arnynu a gneyd nu t ' we have heard some very good things if we 
only give heed to them and do them '. 




venQig honna, * lend me that ' ; mi ro:Q gora i r ver\, ' he gave up 
the girl ' ; elliptically : dymma vi a de:r ido vo nes 0:6 o y kany, 
* I gave him a blow which made him sing out ' ; gosod 9 ty: ibo vo, 
' to let the house to him ' ; kmnig buyd i ru:in, ' to offer some one 
food ' ; ma&a ido, f to forgive him ', etc., etc. 

XVIII. after nouns expressing a wish, thanks, etc. (verb 
understood) : bluybyn newyb Has i x* A ' a Happy New Year to 
you ! ' ; dy:b da: i xi, * good day '. 

XIX. after verbs of causal meaning : rvo: na:B i mi 
4 it was he who made me laugh ' ; may fanny m peri i mi 
' that makes me laugh '. 

U32 Q 



226 /* idau 

XX. after ambal and ammal as ambal i dy:n, c here and there 
a man'; ammal i gnok dyr garag (prov.), 'dropping water wears 
away a stone '. 

i: (unstressed i), pron., i, '!'. (i) as subject to a verb and 
following it : d un i dim, ' I do not know ' ; mi dydi's (dydif) i, 
1 1 said ' ; mi gwela i o, 'I see him '. (2) as object after an infini- 
tive ending in a consonant: dary o yweld t, 'he saw me'; but 
not after a finite verb as kovjux v* at 3 X mam, ' remember me to 
your mother'; migwtlobvi; mi gwelson vi ; or when a subject 
ending in a consonant follows the verb, e.g. mi gripjob 9 ga:B vi 
hevo i fawan, ' the cat scratched me ' ; mi vaglod dfeynan vi, 
' I tripped over a bramble '. (3) as complement to va t 9, ' my ' ; 
vi never occurs in this connection except after vowels, and even 
then rarely. See also mi:, vi:. 

t, adj., ei, D., but always i (y) before Salesbury, and still written 
'i' in 'i gyd', 'his'; i , i, 'to his'. Takes the vocalic 
mutation, the complement being o(:) or vo(-) ; i dad = ' pater 
suus ' ; i da:d o = ' pater ejus '. i is often omitted before an 
infinitive, leaving only the vocalic mutation, as dary o weld o, ' he 
saw him ' ; be daxi n deyd />, ' what do you say ? ' This is, of 
course, especially the case after a word ending in i, e.g. dani wedi 
weld o, ' we have seen him ' ; dary ni weld o, ' we saw him '. For 
' a'i ' before a verb see a (rel.). 

i, adj., ei, D. (but cf. above), ' her ' ; i u, t, ' to her '. Takes the 
spirant mutation : m becomes mh, n becomes nh, as i mha:p i, ' her 
son ' ; i nhain hi, ' her grandmother '. Words beginning with 
a vowel take h, as i hewyrB, 'her uncle'. For i preceding an 
infinitive cf. i (' his '). Examples are 8ary o Baro hi, dary niQaro hi, 
dani wedi Baro hi. For ' a'i ' before a verb see a (rel.). 

i, adj., eu, D. In Mid. Welsh eu and i(y), 'their'; i u, i, 'to 
their'. Takes the radical, but m becomes mh, n becomes nh, and 
words beginning with a vowel take h, as i mham, 'their mother '; 
i nhain, ' their grandmother ' ; i hewyrQ, ' their uncle '. The com- 
plement is nu (emphatic nhu:}. Often omitted before an infinitive, 
as dary o hattab nu, dary o gweld nu, dani wedi gweld nu. For 
' a'u ' before a verb see a (rel.). 

i for e in na:K i, nag 6, D., for Mid. Welsh nac ef, ' no '. 

i:a, adv., ie, D., ' yes ', ' it is so ' : i r dre: -'eyBoxi ? 0, ' (is it) to 
the town you went ? ' Ans. ' it is so ', i. e. ' did you go to the town ? ' 
' Yes ' ; t#wy maur, t e: ? i:a wi:r, ' rough weather, isn't it ? ' 
Ans. ' Yes ' ; ty: bra:v 9di hunna. i:a, nt e: ?, l this is a fine house '. 
Ans. ' Yes, isn't it ? ' 

idauy s.m., pi. zdewon, Iddew, rectius luddew, D. (but Iddew 
always before Salesbury. Cf. B.B.C. 102. 2 ; G.C. 144. 23; L.A. 



t9au injon 227 

19. 4; 136. 4; C.Ch. 5. 3; Rom. ii. 9, 10, 17), 'Jew ': ta:n &,iu. 
iddwf, tan iddwf, D., ' erysipelas '. 

ibau, s.m., eiddew, D., ' ivy '. Cf. also irugl,jorug t jurttg,jut 
murigl, murugl, njurigl, urogl. 

igam-ogam, 'miga'moga, -iga'moga, adv., igam ogam, ' zigzag, in 
a jagged fashion' : paid a i dori o -miga-moga (E.J.), 'do not cut 
it in a jagged fashion ' ; agor ghe.-s >n 'iga'moga (O.H.), ' to dig 
a furrow (e.g. for potatoes) crooked, zigzag*. 

i&einvad, adj., ugeinfed, D., s.v. 'vicesimus'; igieinfed, C.C.M. 
i. 3 ; ' twentieth'. 

igjan, s. and adj., pi. &tinja, ugain, D. ; igien, C.C.M. 3. i : 
vgian, 5. 1 2 ; ' twenty ' : y:n ar higjan, ' .?i ' ; xwe.-\ igjan, ' 1 20 ' 
(= kant a igjan) ; saiQ igjan, ' 140 ' ; y:n igjan ar &e:g a fedwar, 
' 224 ' ; ptmQag igjan, ' 300 ' ; meun fair i bedwar igjan, ' 77 (years 
old) ' ; er s dros igjan mlmab, ' for over twenty years ' ; /ttnja v 
weiBja, ' scores of times ' ; fceinja o vilob, ' scores of thousands ' ; 
igjan durnod, ' twenty days ' ; igjan o devoid, ' twenty sheep '. Cf. 
deigjan, xweigjan, trigjan. 

if, pron., ill, D., 'they' (before numerals, of two or three 
persons) : if day, ' they two '. Also transferred to the first or 
second person plural : rni: il tri:ob, ' we three '. 

impin (J.J.), nimpin (O.H.), s.m., impin, W.S. [An impe] ; 
impyn, D., s.v. surculus ' ; ' a shoot for grafting '. 

impjad (J.J.), nimpjad (O.H.), s., impiad, D.G. clxii. 22 ; D., s.v. 
' emphyteusis '. (i ) ' shooting ' (of leaves) : nimpjad 3 dail (O.K.). 
(2) 'grafting ' (by inserting shoots). 

impjo (}.])> w'mfifo(QM\ v., impio, W.S. [Graffe] ; Rom. xi. 23 ; 
D.P.O. 295. 14. (i) 'to shoot' (of trees or leaves) : may r goydan 
yn impjo reit net's (J.J.) ; may r dail m nimpjo (O.H.). (2) 'to 
graft by inserting snoots into a stock '. 

indja, ' India ' : eli r indja, ' zinc ointment '. 

indgan, s.f., pi. indgans, ' engine, machine ' : indgan maly gwair, 
* hay-chopping machine ' ; indgan 8?rny, ' threshing machine ' ; 
indgan dam, ' fire-engine ' ; indgan wni:o, ' sewing machine '. 

inig, adj., unig, D., ' alone ' ; m inig, only '. 

injon, adj., union, D., s.v. ' rectus '. (i) ' straight ' : Kin injonad 
a hayl dru:y dul ; Kin injonad a sa:y6, ' as straight as a die, as an 
arrow ' ; tinny ku:ys injon, ' to make a straight furrow ' ; ar *\ injon, 
'straight on'. (2) 'just, exactly': r y: va:6 m injon, 'just the 
same ' ; dma \i' n injon, ' just so ' ; xwe-'X o r glo:\ *n injon, ' six 
o'clock exactly ' ; m injon o 'danani, * just below us ' ; may o n 
aktjo vo n injon, ' he takes him off exactly ' ; also m injon de:g+ 

Q a 



22% injoni if'o 

(3) * presently ' (esp. in the form m injon de:g) : mi gaun i 
o la:u n injon, ' we shall have more rain presently '. 

injoni \njon{\. 

inna y pron., inneu, Rev. Hi. 21 (cf. inheu, W.B. col. 2. 19; 
innheu, col. 3. 2). Conjunctive form of z>, ' I, me ' : du inna n 
mynd alan, ' I am going out too ' ; Keru'xi: dna y gmta, mi do: inna 
ma tok, ' you go there first ; I'll come presently ' ; trawa di: vi:, mi 
irawa inna di&a, ' you strike me, and I'll strike you ' ; wela inna 
m ono vo, ' I don't see it either '. 

ink, s.m., ingc, D.G. cxciii. 12; Jer. xxxvi. 18, 'ink'. 
iykum, s.m., inkwm, W.S., ' income '. 

i:og, s., eog, D. This word seems to occur in dra:yn z>0g-(O.H.), 
' bass ' (Morone labrax). This fish is, however, called dreynog at 
Bangor. Cf. W.S., ' draenoc pysc ' [base] cf. also si:l 9 go:g. 
The word for ' salmon ' is sammon. 

z'rad, adj., iraidd, D., * of succulent growth ' ; ' full of vigour ' ; 
' supple ' : kb'ydan, dy:n, hogan, Kefyl irad ; sidja astuyQ zra8. 

irdrug, s., ir and trwngc (?), cf. irdrw'c, M.F., ' urine kept 
formerly for various purposes, such as dyeing, fulling cloth, etc.' 
Also used formerly for dipping beans and wheat before sowing, 
with the intention of making them unpalatable to mice, birds, etc. 
(J.J.). C(.gol x . 

iro \hiro\ 

irugl, s.m., eiddiorwg, D., s.v. 'eiddew'; iorwg, R., ' ivy '. Cf. idau. 

t:s, is, D., only in i:s la:u, prep., ' beneath ' : i:s la:u syhi, 
i beneath notice '. 

tsal, adj., comp. t:s, eq. isad, sup. z'sa, tsela, isel, D., { low' : may 
r ta:n wedi mynd m z'sal, ' the fire is low '; tippin i:s ilaur, ' a little 
lower down ' ; may n btgon isal arno vo, ' he is in rather low water, 
rather badly off ' ; ?r e:n z'sa, ' the lower jaw ' ; may o n isal i zsbryd, 
i he is low-spirited ' ; jaiQ tsal, ' low, unseemly language '. 

iseldar, s., iselder, D., ' lowness ' : iseldar asbryd, ' lowness of 
spirits, dejection'. 

ista, v., eistedd, D. ; cf. eiste, W.B. col. 16. 35; 226. 32; iste 
occurs in B.B.C. 59. 7. Pret. S. i. sfedis, 3. stedod. PI. 3. s/edson. 
Imperative ista, s/eda ; s/e8ux, ' to sit ' ; used substantively : kodi 
ar i ista, ' to sit up ' (cf. Fr. ' sur son se'ant '). 

if'o, s., eisiau, D. (i) 'want, destitution', Fr. 'misere': d/o8a 
if'O) ( to suffer want 3 . (2) ' want, need ', Fr. 'besoin', followed by 
the preposition ar when the pronoun is expressed: ma na i if'o 
buyd, ' J am hungry ' ; ma na i if'o di:od, ' I am thirsty ' ; be s ant 
if'o? (i.e. beth sydd arnat ti ei eisieu?), ' what dost thou want ? ' ; 



229 

be s a\i if'o />, be s no\i ifo ?, 4 what do you want ? ' ; ma na \ 
if'o i \i vynd, ' 1 want you to go ' ; hura\ mat ifo du:r sy arnn 
vo, ' perhaps it wants water ' ; mi 60:6 o adra ag ifo buiyd </ 
' he came home hungry ' ; when the noun is expressed ar is often 
omitted : may d* vam d ifo di, ' your mother wants you ' ; used 
absolutely : da:u dim by:d pe vy:& ifo vo (i. e. ' pan fydd ei eisieu '), 
' nothing comes when it is wanted ' ; hynny sy ifo a scysnag (i. e. 
* sydd ei eisieu '), * all the English necessary ' ; / o:s na Mm ifo vo 
ru:an, ' it is not wanted now ' ; used in a kind of appositive sense : 
;/// eifi fop a sfcidja ifo i tufo> ' I went into a shop with some 
boots which wanted mending' ; y:n bur etto ifo i glirjo, 'one more 
table that wants clearing'; from such expressions as be s axi ifo />, 
the transition is easy to be da\i if'o? Thus instances like the 
following are frequent : du i Mm ifo vo, ' 1 don't want it ' ; 'cyka\i 
ifo vo /, ' did you want it ? ' The original form, however, always 
occurs in answers to questions, e. g. da\i ifo hun />, ' do you want 
this ? ' Ans. o.ys, ' yes '. Cf. the use of ovn. The verb ' to be ' is 
often omitted in quick speech, e.g.: ifo nod o a{an, 'I want to 
fetch it out ' ; ifo karBy kut ) varlan, ' I want to clean out the pony 
shed ' ; ifo taly ?, ' do you want to pay ? ' 

ift, interj., ust, D. ; ist, B.C. 33. 29, 'hush*. 
iu, s.f., yw, D., ' yew' : koydan tu, ko.yd iu. 

tus, s., ' use ' : dim ius aros M 3 ty:, ' it is no use stopping in the 
house ' ; vasa dim ius i mi vedul mynd Kim be\ad, ' it would be no 
use for me to think of going so far ' ; lummy d rubaQ er mu:yn ka:yl 
ius 9 yhorf, * to take an aperient '. 

iufo, v., iwsio, C.L.C. ii. 22. 3, ' to use'. 

ivan, Ifan, ' John ' : gu:yl ivan, ' Midsummer's Day ' : bfa ivan, 
1 mugwort ' (Artemisia vulgaris). 

ivans, ' Evans '. 

ivayk, adj., comp. veyax (rarely j'eyax), eq. veyad, sup. veya, pi. 
wiyk, ieuangc, D. ; cf. ifangk, K.H. 19. 27, 'young': rvi: ydi 
r vcya, * I am the youngest ' ; pobol ivayk, iviyk, ' young people ' ; 
gwarQag ivayk, ' young cattle '. 



a: 

ja:d \a:d\. 

jai6, s.f., p\.jti0o&, iaith, D. (i) ' language ', Fr. Mangue': may gin 
i bedar jaid, ' I know four languages ' ; tr jaiB vain, ' English '. 
(2) 'language', Fr. 'langage': jat'6 &ru:g, jaiB isal, etc., 'bad 
language, low language, etc.' 

Ja.-x, adj., comp. ja\ax, iach, D. (i) 'healthy': Kin ja\ad a 



230 janto jay 

\rieyan, ja:\ vel z geirxan, "as right as a trivet", " as sound as 
a bell " ; os byu ag ja:\, ' D.V. ' (2) ' healthy, conducive to health ' : 
le: ja:x jaun sdt baygor, ' Bangor is a very healthy place'. (3) 
' wholesome '. 

janto, pet name for ' Ifan '. 

jayy, v., ehengu, D. ; cf. iangwr pro eangwr, D. ; ianged 
(= changed), C.C. 102. 21, 'to extend, to widen': jayy w 
smjada (E.J.), ' to widen your ideas ' ; jayy 3 ti:r ; jayy ka:y, gard 
(O.K.). 

ja:r, s.f., p\.jeir, iar, D., ' hen ' : magy jeir, ' to rear poultry ' ; 
may r ja:r ay gori, ' the hen is sitting ' ; may rjeir zy kluydo, ' the 
hens are roosting ' (cf. also kokjan, /rest) ; kut jeir, ' hen-coop ' ; 
mynd vel ja:r i 0duy, ' to go like a hen to lay', i.e. 'to go off 
suddenly ' ; r u:ti velja:r ar 9 gla:u, ' you run off like a hen when 
rain comes ' ; an mynd velja:r 2y Kerbad ar varwor ta:n, ' treading 
gingerly' (cf. B.C. 6. 21); velja:r dan badal 'glum, disconsolate'; 
also ' disproportionate ', e. g. of a hat too big for the head ; r he:n 
ja:r /, term of contempt for a man, ' a busybody ' ; mugud 9r jeir, 
' blind man's buff ' ; ja:r du:r, ' moor-hen ' (Gallinula chloropus) ; 
ja:r 9 mwjyd, l grouse ' (all species) ; ja:r vo:r, ' lump-sucker ' (Cyclo- 
pterus lumpus) ; also a kind of shell-fish (Aporrhais pes-pelicani). 

jard, s.f., pi. jerdyft, ' yard '. 

ja:s, s.m., \>\.jasa; af'a (O.H.), ias, D. (i) 'shiver': af'aoirjon 
truybo vo i gi:d, 'cold shivers all over'. (2) 'a touch of cold or 
heat ' : may ja:s digon o:yr hetty'u, ' there is rather a cold touch in 
the air to-day ' ; may eira n du:ad. syt da\i y gubod ? du i n 
teimlo ja:s m 9 rhu:yn i, ' snow is coming. How do you know ? I 
feel the cold in my nose ' (O.H.) ; d0ru^ja:s o veru arno vo, ' give 
it a touch of boiling '. 

ja:B, s.f., iaeth, D., ' glacialitas ' ; ' frosty, still, snowy weather ' : 
may ja:B o:yr jaun heno, may hi n rhewi ; may n ja:6 drom (JJ.) 
O.H. hasya: may r ja: ma n o:yr. 

jaun, iawn, D. Adjective : ' right, suitable, good ' : sr amsar 
jaun, ' the right time ' ; zr enujaun, ' the right name ' ; wedi kayl 
<> dru:g ma njaun, ' having got that evil righted ' ; famro jaun zdi o, 
' he is a good Welshman ' ; er s meitin jaun, ' since a good long 
time'; also in various intensive senses: may hi m buru n jaun 
o hy:d, ' it keeps on raining hard ' ; may hi y gweifti n jaun, ' she is 
shouting loud '. Adverb : ' very ' : maur jaun. 

jaun, s., iawn, D., ' compensation ' : kadjaun ; gneydjaun am 
9 kam, ' to atone for the wrong '. 

jay, lau, D., s.v. 'difiau', dyw ieu, L.A. 130. 5, in dy:b jau, 
' Thursday ' = divja. 

jay, s.m., afu, au, D., ' liver ' : da: vel jay, tori vel jay is said of 
slates easily split. 



jqykadax 3i 

jay, s.f., pljfya, iau, D., 'yoke ' ; also, ' yoke over the shoulders 
for carrying milk, etc.' 

je\id y s.m., iechyd, D., * health ' : ar k:s dje\id, ' for the good of 
your health ' ; jexid da /, ' your good health 1 ' ; jexid i x kalon */'/, 
expression of approval nearly equivalent to ' bravo ! ' 

jex>durjaQ, s.f., iechyd wriaeth, D., s.v. ' iachawdwriaeth ' ; Psalm 

lii. 2, etc., ' salvation '. 

jeyktid, s., ieuengctid, D., s.v. ' iuuentus ' ; ieungctid, C.C. 105. i ; 
1 06. 14, 'youth '. 

jeyo, v., ieuo, D., ' to yoke '. 

jogyn (J.J.) ; okkyn (O.H.), s., ogyn, ' a turn with a harrow ' : bata 
n we rhoi jogyn droslo etto (J. J.). 

jonaur, s., lonawr, K.H. 38. 35, ' January '. 

jurx, s., iwrch, D., ' caprea mas' [roebuck], (i) known as name 
of an animal (O.H.). Cf. the place-name pant >r jur\. (2) as term 
of reproach : he:njur\ o he:n ty:n 9dihun a hun>brunt^parodir9u 
(O.H). 

jurugl (I.W.) \jurug (I.W. ; O.H.) \jorug (O.H.), s.m., eiddiorwg, 
D., s.v. ' eiddew ' ; iorwg, R., ivy '. Cf. itau. 



kabalatfo, v., cf. calarlatsio, C.F. 1890, p. 31 4. i, 'to talk nonsense ' 
(I.W.) farad ar draus pen a klistja (O.K.). 

kaban, s.m.,caban, D. (i) ' small cottage, cabin ' : r u:li wedi gneyd 
kaban reit gly:d ; kaban krubi was formerly the name of a small 
cottage at Llanfairfechan (O.H.). Not in general use in this sense. 
(2) ' cabin ' (of a ship). (3) ' eating-shed ' (in quarries). 

kabarbiljo, v., cabarddulio, T.N. 295. 24, 'to talk nonsense' 
(I.W.). 

kabatf, kabaitf, s.pl., sing, kabatfan, f. f cabets, T.N. 173. 10, 
' cabbages ' : kabatfkoxjon, ' red cabbages ' ; kabatf gunjon, ' green 
cabbages' (for the sake of distinction); kabaitj 't four (}.}.), ' broad- 
leaved plantain ' (Plantago major) = dail lorjaid. 

kabatfo, v., ' to cabbage, to crib ' (W.H.) : kabatfo po:b pt:B arna 
j r 0: ; kabatfo kluyta klatfo kluyba (O.H.). 

kablur, s.m., cablwr, i Tim. i. 13, 'blasphemer'. 

kably, v., cablu, D., ' to blaspheme ' : kably dyu ; kably a rhegi, 
' to curse and swear '. 

kadax, s.m., pi. kada\a, cadach, D., ' a cloth ' : kadax gfcn (in 
slate quarries), ' knee-rag, fastened round the knee with a buckle, to 



2 3 2 kadar kadu 

protect the clothes when trimming slates ' ; kadax gubu, ' neck- 
cloth ' ; kadax laur, ' floor-cloth' ; kadax lestri, 'dish-cloth'; kadax 
pokkad, 'handkerchief (seldom used = haykatf pokkad) ; kadax 
gwlanan, ' a flannel '. 

kadar, s.f., pi. kadeirja, cadair, D., ' chair ' : kadar vrei'xja, ' arm- 
chair ' ; kadar sigh, ' rocking-chair ' ; tro:yd kadar, ' leg oif a chair'. 

kadarn, adj., pi. Kedyrn, cadarn, D., ' solid, firm ' : dy:n kadarn ar 
i garn (O.H.), ' a man of his word ' ; dy:n kadarn ar i vargan 
(O.H.), ' a man who sticks to a bargain ' ; may r walm rhy: simsan, 
if'o grieyt i y gadarn. 

kadi, Cadi, D.G. cxcix. i; T.N. 5. n, pet name for 'Catherine' 
= katrin ; he:n gadi (of men), ' an old woman ; one who is con- 
tinually meddling with other people's business and finding fault 
with everything and everybody ' kadi genod, ' a boy who goes 
after girls '. 

kadlas, s.f., pi. kadleif'a (?), cadlais and cadlas, D., 'rick-yard': 
may gwa:s zy ka:yl i nabod uQ i gadlas (prov.). 

kadu, v., cadw, D. Fut. S. 2 kadwi, 3. kadwiQ, kadiB \keidu\. 
Pret. S. i. kadwis, 3. kadwoti. PI. 3. kadson. Pres. Subj. \katto\. 
Imperative kadu ; kadux, ' to keep '. (i) Transitive (a) ' to keep, 
maintain ' : kadu gwa:s, Hi:, fop, ' to keep a servant, dog, shop '. 
(b) ' to keep, preserve (in a particular place) ' : le: i gadu gwair, 
'a place for keeping hay', (c) 'to keep' as opposed to throwing 
away, squandering, etc. : os na xadwidi dim vy:dgm ti dim. (d) ' to 
keep, reserve ' (for a particular purpose) : kadu ka:y an wair, ' to 
keep a field for hay '. (e) ' to keep ' (in the memory) : kadu kmni 
vaintvy: o bo:b y:n, ' to keep count how many there are of each ' ; 
kadu i g2mra:ig, ' to keep up one's Welsh '. (f) * to keep, keep 
safe, protect ' : may rhubaB m ay kadu ni b lau klo: a \likjad, 
4 something keeps us safe besides lock and latch ' ; nid in hi:r z 
Keidu r djaul i wa:s ; dru:g 9 K'tidu r djaul i wa:s (prov.), ' the devil 
does not long preserve his dupe ' ; katto paub ! ; dyu katto (gatto) 
paub / excl. of astonishment, ' good gracious ! ', i.e. ' God preserve 
us all' (not common = gwarxod ni: ! gwarxod paub /). (g) with 
rhag. ' to keep from ' : 3 pren hunu sy y kadu 3 treif'a rhag kravy 
oxor 9 Kefyl, ' that piece of wood which keeps the traces Irom 
chafing the side of the horse '. (h) * to keep, maintain (in a 
certain state or position) ' ; kadu 3 du:r 3y gsnnas, ' to keep 
the water warm ' ; kadu 9 hvruy n sad, ' to keep the saddle 
firm ' ; kadu ta:n, ' to keep a fire (alight) ' ; kadu meun trevn, ' to 
keep in order '. (i) ' to keep (waiting) ' : ma na i ovn mod i n 
t\ kadu 3mma, ' I am afraid I am keeping you waiting here '. 
(j) 'to keep, hold fast to ' : kadu atiewid, ' to keep a promise '. 
( (k) ' to go to, keep up one's attendance ' : may hi y kadu i 
f&sgol, ' she goes to school '. (1) ' to keep a secret ' : neiO o 8im 



i kaktnas 233 

kadu dim by:d, ' he can't keep a secret, he won't keep anything 
to himself '. (m) ' to put away ' (Anglo- Welsh keep ') : ntuxi gadu 
? lyvr ma ?, ' will you put away this book ? ' ; mynd i yhadu, ' to go 
to bed '. (n) Phrases : kadu i ben, ' to keep quiet about somct 
not to say a word ' ; kadu ri:at, su:n, luru, ' to make a noise '. (2) 
Intransitive : (a) to keep, remain in a certain position ' : kadu dra:u, 
4 to keep off '. (b) ' to keep ' (of provisions, etc.), not to go bad '. 

kadumrgei, s.m., ' money-box '. Also boks kadumi'ge'i. 

kaf, s.m., caff, S.E., 'a grasp ', esp. in the expression ka/giva:g. 
i. e. 'a reaching out of the hand to catch hold of something and 
failing', e.g. in the dark, or 'to catch hold of something which 
gives way ', e. g. in rock-climbing. 

Kaf, s., caff, S.E., Eng. (Dial.) caff [a hoe, instrument for hoeing 
and earthing up potatoes], Wor., Shr., 4 a three-pronged iron rake 
used e.g. for unloading manure from carts '. 

kaf jo, v., caphio, D., s.v. ' abripere '. (i) ' to snatch ' : kafjo arjan 
m -ayrvreiBlon. (2) 'to grope ' : kafjo m 9 tufcx. (3) ' to guess ' : 
da\i ivedi kafjo n o le:u, ond daxt Mm mjaun. 

Kafjo, v., ' to use a Kaf'. 

kaib, s.f., pi. Keibja, caib, D., ' mattock ' : kaib gro:ys, * road-side 
pick ' ; troyd kaib, ' handle of a mattock '. 

kaiyk, s.f., pi. Keiykja, caingc, D. (i) ' main branch of a tree '. 
(2) * knot ' (in wood). (3) ' one of the strands of a thread or rope ' : 
eda dair kaiyk. (4) with kany : kany katyk ru:in = kany klyl ru:in, 
1 to decry some one '. 

kais, s.m., pi. Keifada, cais, D., ' thing sought after, aim ' : dma 
vy: i gais o, ag 9 may wedi ga:yl o. 

kakka, s., caca, S.E., ' dung' (childish word). 

kakkan, s.f., pi. kalienna, Kenna, caccen, D., ' cake ' : kakkan 
brjodas, ' wedding-cake ' ; kakkan dattus, ' potato cake ' ; kakkan 
berfro, ' a kind of small scalloped cake, made of an equal weight 
of flour, sugar, and butter ', cf. krogan berfro ; kakkan go:x, a kind 
of gingerbread. 

kakKi'mukKi, s.m., cacamwcci, D. ; caccymwcci, G.O. ii. 49. 20, 

* burdock' (Arctium Lappa and kindred species) = Kedor 3r wra:\. 

kakkun, s.pl. and s.m.; sing, also kakman, f, caccwn, D M 

* bumble-bee ', but also used indiscriminately for any insect which 
buzzes : mi vy:b o ar ny:B kakkun, ' he will be on a hornets' nest ' ; 
sunjan vel kakkun meun 6)-:s ko.'x, ' to buzz like a bumble-bee in A 
foxglove ', said ot some one who is always grumbling ; kakkun meirx 
= gwenyn meirx, * wasps ' ; kakkun kut, a facetious name for a pig. 

kahnas, s.f., cacynes, S.E., fern, of kakkun, a term of reproach 
for a woman : ta:u ?r hem gahnas grtral ! 






234 kaxgi kalpjo 

kaxgi, s.m., cachgi, O.P., ' a submissive, cowardly fellow 'gwel 
gmo vo g9mmyd kam na gneyd kam i aral;jaxa kro:yn kro:yn 
kaxgi (prov.), O.K. 

kaxy, v., cachu, D., 'cacare'. 

kal, s.f., caly, D., ' penis '. 

kalad, adj., pi. kledjon, comp. klettax, caled, D. ; sup. clettaf, 
G.R. 52.6. (i) ' hard ' : Kiy gletlad a \raig ^ a xnrag / vel heyarn 
sba:yn o galad, ' as hard as Spanish steel ' ; berwi wy:a y galad, * to 
boil eggs hard '. (2) ' hardy ' : ma: r gwarQag dy:on dy glettax i fal 
<> derwy, ' black cattle stand the weather belter '. (3) ' hard, harsh ' 
(of persons) = to:st : kalad u& 9 tlaud. (4) ' determined ' = pender- 
vmoL (5) ' fast, quick ' : mynd 3y glettax. 

kalan, s., calan, D., ' calends ' : no:s galan, ' New Year's Eve ' ; 
calan Mai (May 13) becomes klamma; calan gaeaf (Nov. 13) 
becomes klaygeya. 

kalan, s.f., pi. kleni, agalen, D. (i) 'whetstone' = kalan hogi. 
(2) ' bar ' of salt or soap : kalan o halan, kalan o sebon. 

kalap, s., ' gallop ' : mynd ar galap, esp. in fig. sense : ' to go 
with zest, to go swimmingly ' : may hi n mynd ar galap 9mma heno 
= mynd 9n huiljog, gbvar (O.H.). 

kalkjo, v., kalkio, W.S. [Calke], ' to caulk' : kalkjo loy. 

kalx, s.m., calch, D., ' lime ' : odyngalx, ' lime-kiln ' ; karag galx, 
' limestone ' ; kalx po:yQ> ' quicklime '. 

kalxan, s.f., calchen, " a stone or lump of unslaked lime ", S.E. : 
Kin luyttad (wynnad] a xa/X<zn, ' as pale as a sheet '. 

kalon, s.f., pi. klonna, klanna^ callon, W.B. col. 416. i. 2, etc.; 
Yny Ihyvyr hwnn [25] 3; G.R. (4) 14 ; calon, D., 'heart'; also 
' heart ' of timber, etc. : pul kalon, ' the pit of the stomach ' ; tori (t) 
galon, ' to break one's heart ', also, in much milder sense : ' to be 
down-hearted ' ; may o wedi tori galon m la:n loyu, ' he has utterly 
broken his heart ' ; also, ' he has entirely lost heart ' ; kodi x kalon, 
1 to cheer you up ' ; o fa'vri kalon, ' really, seriously, deeply ' : daxi n 
mynd o divri kalon f t ( are you really going ? ' ; kary o 8ivri kalon, 
' to love deeply ' ; o weylod kalon, o weylod 9 ghalpn, ' from the 
bottom of my heart ' ; mi dau o pen glu:i6 o ar i gallon, ' he will come 
when he feels inclined ' ; vel baba in teimlo ar ^ nhalon, ' as I happen 
to be minded ' ; dim zy kany o x kalon ond 9y kany i !a:8 w asbryd, 
1 not singing out of the fullness of one's heart, but singing to hide 
one's emotion ' ; may o n la:n i galon, ' he is a straightforward man ', 
' there is no deceit in him ' ; eli ghalon, plesar vhalon, ' the delight 
of my heart ' ; ma n da: gin dy klonna bo:d . . ., c we are delighted 
that . . .' As endearing expression : yhalon ba:x i- f , yhafan annuyl 
i!, ghalpn ayr i I 

kalpjo, v., ' to gallop '. 



ka^yn kambran 235 

kalyn, v., calyn, D., corrupte pro canlyn ; D.G. cxlvi. 1 2 ; clxxi. 
->4 -,i ; W.LI. ix. 28; Ivii. 38; G.R. 52. \\ ; O.K. [vi] 12; [xii] 
2 1, etc.; 3.0.48.7; callyn, G.R. [132]. 15; [136]. 8. Imperative 
kbnu\. (i) ' to follow ' : ma: r Ki: y kalyn ar >* o:l */', ' the dog is 
following you ' ; Iroi i gajyn po:b awal o wynt, ' to trim one's sails 
to every breeze ' ; kalyn Kefyl a Brol, ' to follow the occupation of 
a carter '. (2) sometimes used where in English to come off with, 
go with ', etc., would be more usually employed : may r plum *y 
ka^yn 9 prokkar, ' the lead comes off with the (red-hot) poker ' ; may 
r y:d m mynd i fur i gatyn y gwynl, 'the chaff goes off with the 
wind' (in winnowing). (3) the expression i gatyn (i u gajyn) has 
sometimes the sense of ' also ', ' with him ', etc. : basun >n ttikjo too 
vo du:ad ymma a r (yvr i gatyn, ' I should like him to come here and 
bring the book with him ' ; may vanta y gricyd r y:n pt:6 i u gatyn, 
' he does the same thing too '. (4) " to follow ", " to keep company 
with " : du i y kalyn hunna. 

kal, adj., call, D., ' sensible, wise, intelligent' : may hi y ga^jaun, 
' she is very sensible ' (e. g. of a baby) ; Kiy ga^ad a sarf, * as wise 
as a serpent ' ; hannar gat'r i ga (prov.), ' a word to the wise ' ; ptn 
gyl? ka^ ve gy^ 9 mhe (prov.), ' corruptio optimi pessima'; / 9di 
o 8im yy ga = (a) ' he is not in his right senses, not right in his 
head ' ; (b) ' he is lacking in practical common sense '. 

kalinab y s., callineb, D., s.v. ' prudentia ' ; ' sense, intelligence ' : 
ktilinab Hi:, Ktfyl, etc. 

katino, v., ' to become sensible, wise ' : may n huyr gla:s i ti 
galino, ' it is high time for you to become wise '. 

kam, s.m., pi. kamma, cam, D., ' step ' : ogam igam, ' step by step' ; 
lorn bo:st bo:b kam, ' a high road all the way ' ; hub, kam a neid, ' hop, 
skip and jump ' ; kamma breif'on, ' large steps ' (cf. brasgammy) ; 
3 kam hnta ddi r kam gora, l the beginning is half the battle '. 

kam, s.m., cam, D., ' wrong' : gricyd kam a ru:in, 'to do some 
one a wrong ' ; / o:d 9 $hly:st dim wedi grieyd kam a vi:, ' my ears 
did not deceive me ' ; may o wedi ka:l kam, ' he has been unjustly 
treated', e.g. in not being awarded the prize; ar gam, ' unjustly ' ; 
a\yb i gam, 'to defend oneself; gweyQa kam kam gidar (prov.), 
' the worst wrong is the wrong of a thief, i. e. * a known delinquent 
is always exposed to suspicion '. 

kam, adj., pi. Keimjon, cam, D., ' crooked, bent ' : Kiy gammad a 
\nmman, ' as bent as a sickle ' (referring to a bent back) ; ?y gam 
vel piso moyyn ; may o y gam, ' his back is bent ' ; klobja Keimjon, 
' crooked walls '. 

kambran, s.m., pi. kambrenna, cambren, S.E., ' a piece of wood 
placed between the sinews of the hind-feet of a slaughtered animal 
to hang it up and expand the legs'. Cf. Eng. (Dial.) cambrel, 
camerel, etc. 



236 kam dm kamp 

kamdra, s.m., camdra, S.E., 'crookedness*. 

-kam-dreiljad, s.m., camdreuliad, S.E., 'indigestion* = difig 
treiljad. 

-kam'drinjaQ, s.m., camdriniaeth, S.E., ' bad or wrong treatment ' ; 
' abuse '. 

kam'dro:, s., camdro, S.E., ' crookedness in dealing ' : welts i im 
-kam-dro: arno vo rro:yd, ' he is perfectly straight in his dealings '. 
kamba, s.f., pi. kam'Say, camfa, D., * stile '. 

, v., cam-ddywedyd, Psalm cvi. 33, ' to say wrong '. 

i s.m., pi. 'karngtmer-jada, camgymmeriad, D., s.v. 

* error ' ; * mistake ' : dzna vu:y o 'gamgrmerjad na 'neysoni 9ri'o:yd, 
4 this is the biggest mistake we ever made ' ; 9 mzmryn leia o 
gamgrmerjad, ' the slightest mistake '. 

'kamgrmeryd, v., camgymmeryd, D., s.v. ' allucinor ', * oblucinor ' ; 
' to mistake, make a mistake ' : may hi wedi -kamgrmeryd xi hevo 
ru:in aral, ' she mistook you for some one else '. 

kammab, s., cammedd, D., s.v. ' poples ' ; in the expression 
kammaS 9 gar, cammedd garr, D., in human beings ' the ham or 
inner angle of the joint which unites the thigh and the leg ' in 
animals ' the hough ' ; and when slaughtered the angle above the 
hoof on the hind-legs, by which carcasses are hung up in butchers' 
shops, called in some parts ' camerel-houghs '. I have heard the 
following variations: kamma gar (O.K.); hmmay gar, hmman 
3 8 ar (]]-) 5 fomma gar (Bangor). mi drawob rubaQ 9 gfomman 
i ar (J.J.), ' something struck him on the bend of the knee ' ; linin 
kamma gar, ' hamstring '. 

kammog, s,, pi. kamoga, cammeg, i Kings vii. 33 : cammog, 
G.O. i. 233. 3 ; ' felloe of a wheel '. 

kammol) v., canmol, D., s.v. ' laudo ' ; camol, W.LI. xcii. 59, ' to 
speak well of ', ' commend '. 

kammur, s.m., camwr, S.E., * one who takes long strides ' : os 
by: gavl dy:n m hi:r may o y gammur maur. 

kammy, v., kamy, W.S., t to step ' : kammy dros garag. 

kamrny, v., cammu, D., ( to bend ' : kammy i ben, ' to bend his 
head'; kammy sgidja, 'to tread down shoes on one side'; mi 
gammoS honna in le mynd i veun, ' that (nail) bent instead of 
going in '. 

kamoljaO, s.m., canmoliaeth, D., s.v. ' laus ' ; ' praise '. 

kamp, s.f., pi. kampja, camp, D. (i) ' pre-eminence, excellence ' : 
k: by: kamp by: rhemp (prov.), ' where there is excellence there 
will be defect'; kamp ar dy:n 9di bo:d 3n eirwir, ' it is a fine thing 
for a man to be truthful ' ; dan gamp, ' splendid ', e.g. pa:r o s&idja 



kampjo kanfciQ 237 



dan gamp. (2) ' feat, achievement ' : / >di hunna Mm tygampgaru, 
4 that is not much of an achievement' ; / o:ys dim kamp iti /; 
m we^ ' it is nothing for her to be proud of that she is super; 
dayos i gampja, 'to show off'; kamp i li Uyd be s &in i '/, 
can't guess what I have here ! ' ; du i wedi gntyd kamp i */ 
heno, ' I have done something for you to-night which you could 
not have done yourself. (3) ' boisterousness, high spirits shown 
by bodily action ' : bo:d yy glonnog, gntyd kampja. (4) * tricks. 
mischief : y:n da: j aim ?di o t ntyd kampja, ' he is up to all kinds 
of tricks ' ; m \aun kampja dru:g, ' full of mischief ; ilola igampja, 
' his humbug and mischievous tricks'. 

kampjo, v., campio, T.N. 134. 15, ' to cut capers, to frisk about ' : 
m neidjo ag sy kampjo ; Kefyl ?y kampjo a golug maurckog arno vo % 
ond m mynd dim gwerQ, l a frisky horse of imposing appearance 
but a slow goer ' (O.H.). 

kampys, adj., campus, I.G. 169 [47], ' splendid': may r dmoyb 
ma y gampys. 

'kamweiQjOy v., camweithio, S.E., ' to work awry '. 

'kam'9styn t 'kam'estyn, s.m., camystum, S.E., ' a cramped 
position ' : riu orvad meun 'kam'estyn dary mi. 

kan, adj., cann, D., white ' in bara kan, ' white bread '. 

kan, adj., can, W.B. col. 2. 38, 'a hundred': kan la:6, *a 
hundred yards ' ; kan durnod (iiurnod^ njurnod), ' a hundred days ' ; 
kan waiB, ' a hundred times ' ; de:y mluyd kan mluyb Ki: (prov.), 
' ten years are as a hundred years for a dog ' ; kan kgqyso, * a 
hundred welcomes '. Cf. kant. 

Kan, s.m., pi. Kans, Kanja, ' can ' = pisar. 

ka:n, s.f., pi. kaneyon, cdn, D., ' song ' : ma: nu wedi gneyd ka:n 
arno vo, ' they have made a song about him ' ; /// o ga:n et/o, ' a bit 
of song more ' ; r y:n ga:n gron o hy:d, said when some one 
continually harps on the same string ; r o:n i y gubod be vasa 
diwad 9 ga:n digjo a fry:o, ' I knew what would be the end of 
it anger and quarrelling ' ; rvo: o:& )r yu\a i ga:n t ' he was the 
loudest '. 

kanan, s.f., canon, B.C. 107. 10 ; canan, B., ' cannon'. 

kanjad, s.m., caniad, D.G. c. 2, ' the sounding of a horn or the 
ringing of a bell as a signal to cease work ' : hyd ganjad, ' till the 
bell goes '. 

kanja-ta:d, s.m., caniattad, D., ' permission '. 

kanja'tay, v., caniattau, D. Imp. kanja'tcu\. Pret. Pass. 
kanja'iatid, 'to permit', followed by the prep, i: a \anja*ta:y 
bo:d . . . , ' granting that . . .'. 

kanlaO, s., canllath, ' a hundred yards '. 



238 kanlau kanur 

kanlau, s.m., pi. kanlauja, canllaw, D., kanlau 9 grif'a, 'banisters'; 
kanlau pont, ' the parapet of a bridge '. 

kannuyl, s.f., pi. knula, canwyll, D. ; cannwyll, W.LI. vi. 60; 
cannwll, R.B. 198. 9, 'candle': gola r gannuyl, 'to light the 
candle ' ; hevo kannuyl, ' by candle light ' ; kannuyl wen, ' tallow 
candle ' ; kannuyl vru:yn (vruynan), ' rush-light ' ; kannuyl Kerpyn 
(liprin), ' a candle made with a piece of calico, etc., and tallow ' 
(J.J.) ; heyarn knula, ' snuffers ' ; kannuyl korf, ' a light supposed 
to be seen in the direction of a churchyard, prognosticating death'; 
also ' glow-worm ' (J.J.) = kannuyl ba:x la:s (O.H.) ; kannuylsbgad, 
' pupil of the eye ' ; may kannuyl i bgad o wedi di/bd, ' he has 
become blind '. 

kanny, v., cannu, D., ' to bleach ' : rhoi dilad alan i r hayl 
i ganny. 

kanol, s.m., canol, D., ' middle ' : zy nhanol zr avol, ' in the 
middle of the apple ' ; kanol jonaur, ( the middle of January ' ; 

ganolfi:r vo:n t ' from the middle of Anglesey ' ; ma ponkan m 

1 ganol, ' there is a hump in the middle of it (the field) ' ; ar ganol 
bytta, ( in the middle of eating ' ; ar ganol i bregaQ, ' in the middle 
of his sermon ' ; also adjectively : 9 goydan ganol. The pronun- 
ciation kmol is also said to be heard at Bangor. 

kansan, s.f. (i) ' a cane '. (2) ' a fine, well-set-up young 
woman ' : ftansan dal. 

kanf, s., cant, D., ' the hoop of a wheel ' : kant o/wyn, kant tro:yl. 

kant, s.m., pi. kantob, kannoft, cant, D. (For pi. cf. cantoedd, 
B.C. 14. 6; 89. 5.) (i) 'a hundred': kant o lexi (in quarries), 
'128 slates'; kant o benwaig (among fishermen), '126 herrings ' ; 
may o drost i hannar kant^ ' he is over fifty ' ; riu gant a hannar ?n 
o:l, ' about a hundred and fifty years ago ' ; y:n kant ar bamQag, 
' 1600'; day gant, ' 200'; kantob o vbwbob an o\l, 'hundreds of 
years ago ' ; kannoS ar gannod, ' hundreds and hundreds ' ; rhiu 
gant a mid o be6a, ' no end of things '. (2) ' a hundredweight ' : 
kant o lo:, Cf. kan. 

kantal, s.f., kantel, W.S. [A cantelll (i) 'border, brim ' : kantal 
het, ' the brim of a hat \ (2) ' ledge (of rock, etc.), O.H. 

kantoras, s.f., cantores, Eccles. ii. 8, ' singer '. 
kantrag, s.f., cantwraig, S.E., ' singer '. 

kantur, s.m., pi. kantorjon, s.m. cantwr, S.E., 'singer : pen 
kantur, ' leader of the singing ' (in a chapel). 

kan&rig, s., canthrig, 'wheat-flour and oatmeal mixed': only 
in bara kanBrig = bara k3mmysg. 

kanur \ s.m., canwr, T.N. 129. 31, 'singer': kanur smala, 
' comic singer '. 



kanwaB kar 339 

kanwae, s. and adv., canwaith, D., s.v. ' centies'; 'a hundred times'. 

kanwyn, adj., * white, bleached by being exposed to the sun' 
(O.K.). 



kany, v., canu, D. Fut. S. 3. kaniQ \ha.-n\. PI. 2. 
Imperative ka:n, kana. (i) to sing ' : Ian gany a gwc*i:o, ' singing 
and praying ' ; ka:n di: bcnni^ mu:yn i 6 nain, mi gam ds nain i //,/ 
(prov.), ' one good turn deserves another ' ; mi gnaun i o tan gany. 
4 1 could do it easily ' ; mynd adra tan gany, to go home full of 
jollity' ; kany n i \orn, l to grumble' ; metaph. "to sing out" : 
d)mma vi a de:r ibo vo nes o& o y kany, ' I gave him a blow which 
made him sing out '. (2) of various animals, such as ' to crow ' (of 
a cock), ' to chirp ' (of a cricket), ' to purr ' (of a cat). (3) ' to ring ' 
(of a bell) : / 9di r glo:\ ma Mm ty kany, ' this bell doesn't ri: 
da\i wedi kany ?, ' did you ring ? ' (4) ' to sound ' (of a horn). 
(5) ' to play ' (an instrument) : kany r pjano, kany r organ. 

kayan, s.f., pi. kayhenna, cangen, D. (T) 'a small branch 
growing out of a main branch ' (kaiyk). (2) ' a strip of a girl' : 
kayan o hogan heini. Cf. D.G. Ixxxvi. 5 ; G.O. i. 7. i ; T.N. 265. 
32. (3) in bad sense : ' jade ' (I.W.). 

kaykar, s., cangcr, D., s.v. 'carcinoma', 'gangraena'; cancar, 
C.C.M. 103. 16; cancr, B.C. 31. n. (i) 'canker: a disease 
peculiar to trees, and especially common in apple-trees, which 
causes the bark to rot and drop off'. (2) 'canker: a kind of 
ulcer in the mouth ' : kaykar ar davod. (3) expletive : m>y kaykar /, 
mzy kaykar ko:x!, be: gaykar sy 'arna\i ?\ similarly kaykar o bt:B /, 
' wretched thing ! ' 

kaykro, v., cancro, S.E. (i) 'to have the canker '. Cf. kaykar (i). 
(2) 'to be eaten away by rust' : may o wedi kaykro. 

kap, s.m., pi. kapja, cap, D.G. xcv. 38 ; G.R. 49. 8 ; D. ; IU'. 
66. 23, ' cap ' : rh0u\ 9\ kap am ?x pen* * put your cap on ' ; ro: i 
m o nhap i laur i ne:b> ' I am not inferior to any one ' ; kap afi:g, 
1 a peaked cap ' ; kap ledar, ' ? stonechat ' (Pratincola rubicula). 

kapjo, v., capio, B.C.* 29. 8, 'to take off the hat, to cap '. Also 
fig. ' to cringe ' : peidjux a kapjo i$o vo, ' do not cringe to him '. 

kappa!, s.m., pi. kapeh\ kapelyti, cappel, D., 'chapel', i.e. a 
Nonconformist place of worship ; kappal Kerig, 'Capel Curig'. 

Kaplan, s.m., pi. Kapteinjad, capten, 2 Kings xviii. 24, ' captain ' : 
Kaplan lay, ' a ship captain '. 

kar, s.m., pi. Keir, carr, D., ' car ' : (oi kar, ' to hire a car ' ; kar 
po:sl, 'mail-car'; dy:n a i gar ar i gevn, 'a man who has lost his 
temper' (O.H.); in slate quarries: 'a wagon used for carrying 
rubble to the lomman ' :y:n mcdrys o r agor i r kar [agor\ ; kar 
lysg, carr HQsg, D., s.v. ' traha ', ' a mountain sledge for carrying 
hay, etc.' ; kar Ia:d, ' a wooden table, hollowed out in the middle, 



240 ka:r kardjo 

for killing sheep upon' (J.J.); kar ar 9 bladyr, 'cradle', i.e. 
' a light frame of wood put over a scythe to preserve the corn and 
lay it more evenly in the swathe '. 

ka:r, s.m., car, D. (i) 'relative ' (seldom used): may o n dippin 
o ga:r i mi. (2) a mode of affectionate address : he:n ga:r, ' old 
fellow'. Not used at Llanfairfechan (= he:n frind), but common 
at Bethesda (O.K.). 

kara, s.f., pi. kreia, carrai, D., ' lace ' (for boots, etc.) ; kara wen, 
( a kind of cord made from the skin of pigs ' ( JJ.) ; kara is also 
used for the middle-band of a flail (O.H.) ; kara e:n, ' throat-strap ' 
(of harness) ; kara mo:r, a kind of sea- weed (Chorda filum) ; 
mi fanna i o ay greia, ' I'll pull him into shreds ' (O.H.). 

kara, s., a sheep's ear-mark, so called : karay.n torjad, a curved 
cut made with one stroke of the knife ; kara day dor j ad, a rect- 
angular cut made with two strokes of the knife \no:d\ 

karad, s.m., pi. kareidja, carraid, D., 'car-load*. 

karag, s.f., pi. Kerig, carreg, D. (i) ' stone ' : U\jo Kerig, pledy 
(hevo or #) Kerig, 'to throw stones'; kokkyn, sup, tomman, tumpaQ 
Kerig (o gerig], ' heap of stones ' ; gwal gerig, ' stone wall ' ; karag 
attab, ' echo' ; karag da:n, ' flint ' ; karag galx, ' limestone ' ; karag 
la:s, ' sulphate of iron ' used for curing proud flesh in sores (cf. also 
below); karag rubjo, 'rubbing stone'; karagvarx, * mounting stone' 
(O.H.) ; rh0uxgarag arno vo, ' forget it ', ' let bygones be bygones ' ; 
in restricted sense, ' slate ', also karag la:s, pi. Kerig gleifon ; 
karag dro:, ' a slate laid in a different position to the rest, to mark 
each hannar kant (= 64) of slates ' ; Kerig melin, ' blocks which go 
to the mill to be sawn, and which are used for making tombstones, 
etc/ ; karag na:d, ' slate pencil '. (2) ' stone ' (of fruit). (3) in pi. 
' testicles '. 

karatf, karaitf^ s.pl., sing, kratfan (from which a new plural 
kratfis is sometimes formed), carets, T.N. 173. 12, 'carrots': tori 
y gratfan, ' to snap like a carrot ' ; karatf gwiljjon, * wild carrots ' 
(Daucus Carota). 

Karatf, Karadg, s.f., pi. 'Karadgis, ' carriage '. 

karban, s., carbin, S.E., only in karban o geluy^ ' an evident lie ' : 
r u:yti n deyd karban o eluy. 

karbul, adj., carbwl, S.E. ; cf. carnbyled, G.O. ii. 168. 20. (i) 
of things, ' clumsy, poor ' : adrobjad karbul (= ble:r, 'dtrSimjaun), 
' a poor recitation '. (2) of persons, ' doddering, fumbling ' : may 
n xwi:0 gueld zr he:n 8y:n na } may o wedi mynd m reit garbul ; 
nt 0:8 o y garbul uBi hi ?, ' wasn't it a wretched performance ? ' (e.g. 
of a speech). (3) of persons 'clumsy': karbul!, 'clumsy!'; as 
subst. ta:u r he:n garbul gwirj on ! 

kardjo, v., ' to card ' (wool) : gwey a xardjo a xodi maun was 
formerly regarded as women's work (O.H.). Cf. gardjo. 



kardotla karlammy 241 

kardotta, v., cardotta, D., ' to beg '. 

kardottas, s.f., cardotes, S.E., c beggar '. 

kardottyn, s.m., cardottyn, D., s.v. ' mendicus ' ; 4 beggar '. 

kardyn, s.m., pi. kardja, kard, W.S. ; cardieu (pi.), B.C. 23. 16, 

' card ' (of any description). 

karedig, adj., caredig, D., ' kind ' : -v^u\i mor garedig a . . . />, 
' will you be so kind as to ...?'; &airja htb vo:d ty garedig, 
' unkind words '. 



s.m., caredigrwydd, D., s.v. ' beneficium ', 'gratitude'; 
1 kindness ' : di:o/x m vaur am ?x kantdigruyb, thank you very 
much for your kindness'; gurBod kartdigruyk, 'to refuse a 

kindness '. 

Kariktor, s.m., 'character'; esp. of persons, e.g. a worthless 
' character '. 

karjad, s.m., pi. krjada, cariad, D., s.v. 'amor', (i) Move'. 
(2) ' darling ' : yharjad ba:\ i. (3) * lover ' : T tdani n hcngrjada. 

karjadys, kyadys, adj., cariadus, 2 Sam. i. 23, Moving*. 

karjo, v., kario, W.S. ; cario, Sion Tudur in G.R. 380. 5. Put. 
S. 3. kari6. Pret. S. 3. karjo&. PI. 3. karson. Imperative karja, 
karjux, ' to carry ' : /orb gar jo maun, ' a road for carrying peat ' ; 
karjo rubaB ?y gewlad, ' to carry something in the arms as a bundle ' ; 
mi garson be& ovnaduy o gerigmo, * they carried an immense amount 
of stones there ' ; karjo gwair, ' to carry hay ' ; karjo stry.on, ' to 
tell tales' ; also expressed by karjo alone : karjo po:b pe:6 iru:in ; 
os 9di hi y karjo i vjaun, may hi y karjo alan, ' if she brings tales 
into the house she is sure to take them out '. 

karjur, s.m., cariwr, T.N. 17. 29, 'carrier'; also applied to 
horses : 9di r Kefyl 9-y garjur da: />, ' is the horse a good carrier ? ' 

karkas, s., 'carcass ' ; used opprobriously : hel d) garkas a fur 
a ti: I 

karkud, s.m., cf. carcwd, M.F. : ta:u r he:n garkud by\an /, said 
to a child who wants to be master over everybody (O.H.). 

karxar, s.m., pi. kar\ara, carchar, D., ' impediment, fetter ', esp. 
' a cord of hay, etc., attaching the fore-leg of an animal to the 
neck ' : may hi n dippin o gar\ar arna /", ' it is rather a tie for me ' ; 
karxar X'ry.'d, said of tight boots. 

kar\ary, hrxary, v., carcharu, Acts xxii. 19, 'to fetter with 
a karxar '. 

karlam, s.m., pi. karlamma, carlam, Judges v. 22, * gallop': 
mynd ar garlam, ' to gallop, to go full speed '. 

karlammy, v., carlammu, C.C.M. 154. 13, 'to gallop ' ; *to go 
full speed '. 



342 karlum kartra 

karlum, s.m., carlvvm, D., ' ermine ' : Kin wmnad a r karlum ; 
mynd vel d karlum, ' to go like a flash ' ; as term of reproach : 
ta:u r he\n garlum gwirjon (garlum lum), O.H. 

karluyd, adj., ' faded ' : he:nfrog,/o:lgarluyd (Bangor). 
karjyd, adj., carllyd, S.E., ' amorous '. 

karn, s.m., pi. karna, earn, D. (i) hoof ' (of a horse not used 
of cattle = ewiri) : mynd nerB 2 karna, ' to go full speed ' ; dail karn 
r ebol, * colt's foot ' (Tussilago Farfara). (2) < hilt, handle ' : karn 
hlaB, karn ebil ; fig. i r karn, ' thorough, to the backbone ' : 
meBadis i r karn ; sevyl an i garn, ' to adhere to what one has 
said'; troi n i garn, 'to prevaricate'; dy:n dn s0und m i garn, 
1 a trustworthy man '. 

karnab, s.f., pi. karnetii, carnedd, D., s.v. ' lithotogema ' ; ' heap 
of stones ' (in general sense), but only in phrases such as the 
following: : o:ys 'gmoxiar (garden) 8a: ? na:g o.ys, may hi y garnaft 

erig (JJ.) ; 9 dre: wedi mynd i laur dy garnaft ylu (O.H.) ; (in 
particular sense) ' prehistoric heaps of stones, old burial-places, etc/ 
(O.H. frequently) ; 9 garnad, old name for the mountain now 
called 9 dr^sgol (Y Drosgol), O.H. Cf. Carnedd y Ddelw (Ordnance 
map). O.H. has a story about a gold cross found in the cairn 
there ; karna davyd, ' Carnedd Ddafydd '. 

karneujan, kneujan, v., cf. cyrnewian, M.F. ; Eng. (Dial.) carnv, 
carney [* to flatter, wheedle '], ' to whine ' = gneyd riu he:n nada, 
gneyd su:n kn:o : kneujan am vu:yd a dim if'o vo (O.H.) ; do:s o r 
van ma i garneujan I (Llanfairfechan). 

'karn'leidar , s.m., pi. 'karn'fadron, carnlleidr, D., s.v. * auto- 
lecythus ' ; ' an arrant thief '. 

karp, s.m., pi. karpja, carp, D., ' panniculus, pittacium'; 'a 
ragamuffin ' : r he:n garp. The original sense, ' rag ', is transferred 
to the diminutive Kerpyn, q.v. 

Karpad, s.m., pi. Karpedi, karpet, W.S. ; carbed, B.C. 34. 21, 
* carpet ' : tyro, knokjo Karpedi, ' to beat carpets '. 

karpan, s.f., term applied to a woman of a miserable, sickly 
appearance : r he:n garpan dlaud ! also to sheep : he:n garpan 
sad o davod (6.H.). 

karpjog, adj., carpiog, D., s.v. 'pannosus'. (i) 'ragged'. (2) 
' in a broken manner ' : farad zy garpjog ; gweiBjo y garpjog, ' to 
work in an untidy, slovenly, irregular manner '. (3) ' sickly, 
decrepid, all to pieces ' : karpjog jaun zdi pobol wedi mynd an hem ; 

1 hfexid wedi mynd 9y garpjog. 

karf'un^ s.pl., garsiwn, W.S. [Garison] ; karsiwn, W.LI. Iv. 70 ; 
cf. L.G.C. 64 [120], he:n garf'un = hen havlig, he:n dakla. 

kartra, s.m., pi. kartrevi^ cartref, D., ' home ' : obi kartra, ' away 
from home ' ; bre&yn kartra, ' homespun '. [adra, gartra\ 



kartgevol ka:s 243 

kartrevol, adj., cartrefol, D., s.v. ' domesticus '. (i) ' home-like '. 
(2) ' home-staying '. (3) ' warm-hearted ' : y:n kart^evol jaun 9di o. 
(4) 'on familiar terms, unconstrained': mynd *n hofpl gartp/ol 
hevo vo ; may o wedi mynd 9y garigcvol akku ru:an. 

kartrevy, v., cartrefu, 2 Cor. v. 8, 'to make one's home ': fcmay 
o y kartrevy ?, ' where is his home ? ' 

karB, s.m., earth, D. (i) 'tow, cotton waste, etc., uch as is 
used for cleaning purposes ' : r u:ti vd ta:n i r karB (meun karB). 
said of some one who is ready to take part in any disturbance (nn 
barod i vynd at bo:b helynt), O.H. (2) ' mist ' : gla.ni ma:n, karB 
a m'ul, also karB niul. Apparently a confusion with larB, but 
O.H. has both forms. 

karBan, s.f., earthen, D. (i) ' winnowing-sheet ', made usually 
of hemp (O.H.) : m sy:\ vel 9 garBan, ' as dry as a bone '. (This 
phrase is the only instance in which the word now occurs in 
ordinary speech, and its meaning is generally forgotten.) (2) ' a 
sheet placed upon the ground by gleaners to thresh their corn ' : 
teyny r garBan ar laur (O.H.). (3) ' a quilt for a bed, made of 
\vool or other substance ' (O.H.). (4) ' a kind of cloak ' (?) : kodi i 
\arQan a fur a hi: (O.H.). Cf. C.C. 461. 7, Nawr gwae finne 
na bae Garthan, Neu hws CeflFyl am fy nghefen. 

karBy, v., carthu, D., ' to cleanse, clean out ' : karBy r beydy, 
karBy kut 3 varlan ; kuttar karBy ^ ' a drain behind cows in a cow- 
house ' ; (fig.) mi da garBa di alan, ' I'll turn you out ' (O.H.). 

&aru, s.m., pi. Kciru, carw, D., ' stag ' : korn karu, ' stag-horned 
moss '. 

-karudan, s.f., carwden, D. xc. 7, ' the chain which passes over 
the saddle of a draught-harness and supports the shafts, backhand '. 

karur, s.m., carwr, D.G. Ixxxiii. 39, ' lover '. 

karvan, s.f., pi. karvanna, carfan, D. (i) 'one of the sides 
which form the frame of a cart ' (O.H.) : ar 9 garvan may r hesban 
syndal) Keyadm s0und (O.H.). (2) [' a strand of rope ' Anglesey, 
hence] niynd 9n 8u.y garvan, ' to split into two parties '. 

kary, v., caru, D. Fut. S. i. kara, 2. kari, 3. kariB. Pret. PI. 3. 
dary nu gary (not karson, cf. karjo). Imperative ka:r ; karvx* 
4 to love '. 

ka:s, s.m., cas, D., 'hatred': rubaB da\i wedi rhoid 9\ ka:s arno 
vo, ' something you have taken a dislike to '. 

ka:s, s.m., pi. kasys. (i) 'case': ka:s pilo, gobennyb, rasa/. 
sbektol, klok y also ' the cover of a book '. (2) ' frame ' (of an 
animal) : may ka.ys gu:ebol ami hi. (Cf. kasol.) 

ka:s, adj., c^s, D., 'hateful, disagreeable, nasty, tiresome, un- 
pleasant ' : turn ka:s, ' an unpleasant noise ' ; ka:s ar gly:st, 
'unpleasant to the ear'; he.-n waiB ka:s 9di fevjo, 'shaving is a 

R 2 



244 kasa g kaf f 



disagreeable business ' ; pe:6 ka:s jaun zdi koU rubad vel na, it is 
very tiresome losing a thing like that ' ; pobol ga:s, ' disagreeable 
people ' ; may y ga:s jaun -arnoxi, ' it is very nasty for you ' ; may 
y g a:s g z > ' I nate ' 

kasag, s.f., pi. Kesig, caseg, D., ' mare ' : kasag m drom o giu, 
1 a mare in foal ', opp. to kasag wa:g ; kasag vagy, ' a brood 
mare ' ; Kiu kasag, ' a foal before being weaned ' ; kasag eira, 
'a (rolled) snowball', cf. B.C. 59. 5; kasag z brtkXm, 'fieldfare' 
(Turdus pilaris). 

ka'say, v., cassau, D., ' to hate '. 
kasgal, s.m., casgl, D., ' gathering' (on a ringer, etc.). 
kasgan, s.f., pi. kasgja, casgen, T.N. 355. 34, ' cask'. 
kasgjad, s., pi. kasgetdja, ' caskful'. 

kasgljad, s.m., pi. kasgljada, cascliad, Gen. i. 10. (i) ' a gathering ' 
e.g. on the finger. (2) ' a collection ' (at a place of worship). Cf. 
hel, knokka, ofrum, ofrzmmy. 

kasgly, v., casglu, D. Imperative kasgla ; kasglux, l to gather'. 

kasol, adj., ' plump ' ; cf. Eng. ' in good case ' : may o y gasol 
fit trt>ut/ar(O.H.) A somewhat stronger word than bvndeu (O.H.). 

kast> s.m., pi. kastja, cast, C.C.M. 56. 13 ; G.O. i. 229. 4, 'trick, 
antic ' : 9n \wara po:b ma:6 o gastja, ' playing all sorts of tricks ' ; 
riu he:n gastja dru:g, l mischief ' ; anod tmny kast o he:n gefyl 
(prov.), ' it is hard to cure an old horse of a trick '. 

kast, s.m., Eng. cast, ' a piece of knowledge possessed by some 
one to the detriment of another ' : may gwo vo gast arno, ' he 
knows something to his detriment ' (W.H.) ; ma na ovn arno rhag 
tdo vo deyd 9 kast (O.H.). 

kastal) s.m., pi. Kestyl, kastela, kasteli, castell, D., ' castle '. 
kastjog, adj., castiawg, O.P., ' tricky '. 

kaf'o, v., Eng. case, ' to bind (a book) ', * to put a cover on 
(a book)'. 

Hat, s., Eng. cat, in x^^ra Kat \xwara~\ ; also the piece of wood 
used in the game so called. 

katjad, s.f., cataid, S.E., ' a pipeful ' (of tobacco). Cf. Ketfyn. 
katrin^ Kattrin, W.L. xxiii. 51, 'Catherine*. 
katris, s.f., ' cartridge '. 

katf, s.m., pi. katfis, kaits, W.S. (i) ' cage ' : katf deryn /fig. 
r 0:8 pobol es talum meun katf- dim arjan, dim dokior na dim by:d 
(O.H.), ' in old days people had no option they had no money, 
no doctor nor anything '. (2) katfis devaid, ' sheep-pens at a fair ' 
(O.H). (3) facetiously for ' stomach ' : o:s na di'gon m da gatf di ? 



kattal kavn 245 

kattal, s.pl., kattel, W.S. [Cattell] ; catal, T.N. 327. 42, 'cattle' 
(seldom used = gwarBag) : pfntga kattal, old place-name at Llan- 
fairfechan, where cattle were shod (O.H.). 

ka:B, s.f., pi. kaBod, cath, D., ' cat ' : ka:B vre:x, ka:B driliu, ' tabby 
cat' ; na:u />yu ka:6 y ' a cat has nine lives' ; may r kaBod m djeuljo 
ag m rhegi, ' the cats are spitting and swearing ' (cf. herwa) ; fhefi 
vel ka:6, ' to curse like a trooper ' ; ka:6 >y kodi xry.-x (= gwr*xyn\ 
' a cat arching her back' ; cf. also mny'an, kanyt'xrfudi, kany ixru:0; 
mynd vel ka:6 i gsQral, * to go like mad ' ; myndvel ka:B am UvriB, 
4 to go (as eagerly) as a cat after milk ' ; ppnny ka:B meun ku:d (sa.-x), 
1 to buy a pig in a poke ' ; kadu kaBod mtun ku:d, 4 to let sleeping 
dogs lie ' ; bliyo r ga:B d at i \umfon, ' to spend to the utmost ' 
fleece ' ; xwipjo r ga:6, to go about tailoring from house to house ' ; 
gweld vel ka:6, ' to have sharp eyes ' ; ma na riu ga:B ?y nhuppur 
paub, ' every one has a skeleton in his cupboard ' ; may n d/gon o:yr 
irewi ka&od, ' it is intensely cold '; <r:0=also a kind of 4 boa' worn 
round the neck by women, ka:B vo:r, pi. kaBod y mo:r, 4 common 
blue skate ' (Raia batis) ; ka:Bvo:r stods, ' thornback ' (Raia clavata) ; 
ka:B vo:r btgog, ' starry ray ' (Raia radiata). Cf. also morgaB ; 
u:y ka:6 vo:r, f skate's egg ', " mermaid's purse ". 

kaug, s.m., pi. Jwugja, cawg, D., 'milk-pail' (obsolete). 

kaujo, v., bancawio, D, ' redimire ; tenui filo effractum vincire ' ; 
W.LI. (Voc.) gosod bach wrth : kaujo ba:\, 4 to fasten a fish-hook 
to the gut '. 

kaun, s.pl., sing, twunan, cawn, D., ' thin, straggling grass': riu 
he:n gaun m tsvy ar di:r sa:l ; / o:ys na dim ond kaun m 9 ka:y, 
t zdi o dim m iverB i dori. Also applied to a kind of mistiness 
coming over the sun (O.H.). Cf. W.M.M. cwmwle cawn. 

kaur y s.m., pi. touri, cawr, D., ' giant ' : kaur o dy:n, ' a powerful, 
courageous man ' (morally) ; r o:d o y gaur fond i difad ond ru:an 
may i ditad 9n lak arno, * he was a big strapping fellow, but now 
his clothes hang loosely on him '. [For pi. cf. cawri, D., s.v. 
' gigantomachia ' ; Gen. vi. 4; cowri, W.LI. ix. 68; D.F. [7] i ; 
D.P.O. 263. 35.] 

kaus, s.m., caws, D., ' cheese ' (in the aggregate). Cf. kosyn. 
bara \aus (kaus), ' bread and cheese ' ; pe bay r wy&va y gaus mi 
vtda n haus kayl kosyn (prov.), ' if " ifs " and " an's " were pots and 
pans there'd be no trade for tinkers ' ; kaus *sgau, ' elder pith ' ; 
kaus bfani, ' toad-stools '. 

kavank, s.m., term of reproach : he:n gavayk garu *di o. I have 
heard this word more than once from O.H., but on closer inquiry 
he confuses it with kgavayk, and it must therefore be regarded as 
doubtful. Cf. W.M.M. habanc, 'a monster of a fellow'. 

kavn, s.m., pi. kavna, cafn, D., ' trough ' : kavn moxyn, ' pig's 
trough ' ; kavn buyd, ' trough for cattle where the food is placed in 



246 kavndra kayl 

front of the stall ' ; kavn 9 pei'lfur, used in bolting flour ; kavn pobi, 
1 kneading-trough '. Cf. havn. 

kavndra, s., cafndra, ' a hollow or place hollowed out ' (O.H.). 

kavnjo, v., cafnio, S.E., 'to hollow out': kavnjo m'eipan, 'to 
hollow out a turnip ' ; kavnjo pren, ' to hollow out a log ' (e. g. to 
make a boat) ; kavnjo tor 6. 

kavod, s.f., pi. kavodyb, cawad, cawod, cafod, D. (i) ' shower' : 
kavod o la:u, ' a shower of rain ' ; mi vasa kavod 9n nobl i zstuy 
^ lu:x, ' a shower would be a splendid thing to lay the dust ' ; rhuy 
kavod a xavod, ' between the showers '. (2) 9 gavod, ' a chill, generally 
with cold shivers running through one ' ; 9 gavod wynt, ' rash ' ; 
wedi tori alan r y: va:B a gavod wynt ; ka:l 3 gavod i r hgaid 
(O.K.). Cf. D., s.v. ' carbunculo ', ' fulguritassunt ', 'robiginosus ', 
' sideror '. 

kavodog, adj., cawodog, D., s.v. ' nimbosus ', ' showery '. 

kawal, s.m., pi. Kewyl, cawell, D. (i) ' a basket used by farmers 
for carrying small articles on their backs'. (2) ' fisherman's creel'. 

(3) 'pannier': baxy 2 Kewyl ar gyrn 3 strodyr hevo eyru (J.J.). 

(4) in the phrases: mi gesti gawal, 'you were disappointed; you 
drew a blank ' ; esp. ' to be jilted ' : mige:s igawa^gzni hi (O.H.) ; 
r o:d kawal gwa:g mo, ' it was a mare's nest '. 

kay, v., cau, D. Fut. S. 2. Heyi, 3. KeyiQ. Pret. S. i. %'eyis, 
3. Keyo. Imperative kay ; Keyux- (i) 'to shut': kay 3 dru:s, 
zfenast, z {yvr ; os ei di mi gey a i 9 dru:s 'arna/i, 'if you go, I'll 
shut the door upon you ' ; kay P dru:s zy glep, ' to bang the door ' ; 
kay ds &e:g, ' hold your tongue ' ; elliplically : may nu n medry kay 
ami hi pen 'leikjanu, 'they can keep their lips closed when they 
like '. (2) ' to enclose ' : kay kay hevo klauS, hevo poljon ar ipenna, 
'to enclose a field with a hedge, with palings'. (3) 'to fill up' 
(a gap) : kay klat&, ' to mend a hedge ' ; tu:yrx gleif'on i gay 
<> kri:b, ' sods to close the apex of a roof (in a thatched cottage). 
(4) 'to button up ' : kay ko:t, etc. ; * to lace up ' (of boots, etc.) : 
kay sgidja. 

kay, adj., cau, D., ' closed, shut, enclosed ' : le: kay, ' an enclosed 
place ', seldom used = le: wedi gay. 

kay^ v., naccau, D. Pret. S. i. kais, 3. ka:b, ka:s, 'to refuse' : 
may r teKal zy kay berwi, ' the kettle won't boil ' ; may r Udjart 9y 
kay kay, * the gate won't shut ' ; mi ga:s ag attab, ' he wouldn't 
answer ' ; mi gaif inna a mynd, ' I wouldn't go either ' ; 8ary nu 
gay, * they wouldn't ' ; may o y kay bod lonyb i mi, ' he is teasing 
me '. Cf. nakka. 

kay, s.m., pi. Keya, cae, D., ' field '. Fig. r u:ti meun kay ara^ 
wedi mynd i gay aral, ' you are entirely off the point '. 

kayl, s., caul, D., Eng. chyle, ' rennet '. 



kayl 147 

ka:yl (often shortened in quick speech to kayl, *j.7and **/),*., cael, 
I). Fut. S. i. ka.{v), 2. Kei, 3. Jfr*, #// PI. i . /,/*, Ai.-, 2. &w;<, 
3. X'tf:. Imp. S. i. X-aww, 2. &i:/, 3. *j/, &/;, ka.y (o). PI. i. &/., 
2. &7.% 3. Ja.Ti. Pret. S. i. fas, Mis, tUvis, 2. &:*/, fast, 3. ka:6, 
knvod. PI. i. ktruson, ku:son, KeyBon, Key son, 2. ksusox, ku:sox< Ke>B>x, 
Keysox* 3. kfruson, ku:son, KcyQon> Keyson. Plup. S. i. fousun, ku:son, 
tteyBun, 2. kmtsat, ku:sat, KeyBat, etc. Fut. Pass. Ketr. Pret. Pass. kaud. 
I. Transitive, with noun or infinitive as object, ' to get, obtain, 
have'. 1. in simple sense (i) before nouns (followed generally by 
o, oruB of things, gin of persons) : kayl buyd, brdnvast, Xinjo. ' to 
^et, have food, breakfast, dinner ' ; kayl annuyd, ' to catch cold ' 
kayl vanned, * to get toothache ' ; ka:yl dixryn, ' to have a fright ' 
kayl kodum, ' to have a fall ' ; kayl kwtir, ' to get a thrashing ' 
kayl zsgol, ' to get schooling ' ; kayl kanjata:d, ' to get permission ' 
kayl gaval, hdjad, ' to get hold ' ; kayl modal a, * to get rid of ' 
kayl gwayB, ' to get (something) worse ' ; kayl benBig, ' to get as 
a loan ' ; kayl ar lab, ' to get on credit ' ; kayl moytia, 4 to be spoilt ' 
kayl trevn ar, ' to keep in hand ' ; kayl Kip, ' to catch a glimpse ', 
etc. ; ar gayl, ' to be got, to be had ' ; no: i barman o pty go: i 
amsar, 'I will read it when I have time' ; ta:u ne mi gi'i di glyslan, 
' hold your tongue or I'll give you a box on the ears ' ; / 0:6 dim 
gair i gayl gmo vo, 'one could not get a word out of him '; pt 
ka:ti da fork \aun i dim, ' if you had your way, I should get 
nothing ' ; pe kay o if orb \aun i dim, ' if he had his way, I should get 
nothing ' ; morjo bo:b kwla gay o, ' to go on the sea whenever 
opportunity offered ' ; pe ka:ninfor& x<* : v dim, ' if we had our way, 
he would get nothing ' ; ka:n, pe ka:\i xforb, ' they would, if you 
had your way ' ; mi deydis i na x^-Xi Mm Kinjo heidju, ' I said you 
would not have any dinner to-day ' ; mi gostid r y: vaint i gwrjo 
vo a x<*:xiy:n newyd, ' it will cost as much to cover it (the umbrella) 
as if you got a new one'; rhi: ga:B &xryn!, 'she got a 
fright ! ' ; mi geyBun lawar o beBa am bedwar su:jt, ' I might have 
(should have) got many things for four shillings ' ; gin y gwirjon 
fair 9 gwi:r, ' from the innocent the truth is obtained '. (2) before 
infinitives (a) ' to get an opportunity of, obtain the means of : mi 
gaun weld eito, ' we shall see ' ; mi geiB o weld pen eiQ o ajan, * he 
will see when he goes out ' ; %haid i mi dri:o darvod m o vy:an 
i ga\l dti:ad hevo x*\ ' I must try and finish pretty soon so as to be 
able to come with you ' ; er muyn kayl gubod, ' in order to get to 
know ' ; xe-'s i dim 'ond -mytid, * it was all I could do to go ' (and 
nothing more), (b) * to cause, to get . . . to ' : may n anod kayl 
ydynu godi, ' it is difficult to get them to get up ' ; cf. also gayl for 
i gayl used in quasi -conjunctival sense ; see /' xvi. 6. (c) as peri- 
phrastic form of the passive : du i wedi kayl > nherulyd afan, * 1 have 
been turned out ' ; by:d ?n kayl i saBry, ' it will be trodden upon ' ; 
.)di r boks ma am gayl i dorif, 'is this box to be broken up?* 
2. 'to get' where permission is implied. In the future and im- 



248 ka:yl kayB 

perfect tenses the verb ka:yl often represents the Eng. ' I may ', ' I 
might' (Anglo- Welsh 'I shall', 'I should'), (i) before substantives : 
8ary mi ovyn gaun i ret o r bvra ond Ke:s 9 yurQod, ' I asked whether 
I might have some of the books but I was refused ' ; gweld 0:8 na 
8im gwaiQ gu:sa vo, ' to see whether there was not some work which 
he might have ' ; o:ys 'gmzxi stamp geyQim i tan vory />, ' have you 
a stamp I might have till to-morrow ? ' ; ga: i gupanad o de: /, ' may 
I have (Anglo- Welsh ' shall I have ') a cup of tea ? ' Ans. faux, 
1 yes '. (2) before infinitives : ga: i roit hun ar 2 our8 /, ' may I put 
this on the table ? ' ; mi do: i os ka: i Su:ad, ' I will come if I can ' 
(i.e. 'if I have permission'); the infinitive is often understood, 
e. g. mi 8a:u o os KeiB o gin i da:d, ' he will come if his father will 
let him '. 3. ' to find ' : do:s a vo: le Keisti o, ' take it back where 
you found it ' ; ge'isti o:yn ba:x i vwy ?, ' did you find a lamb up 
there ? ' ; kaud o wedi maru, ' he was found dead '. Cf. II. 4. ' to 
get, to make ' with adjective or adverb in apposition : ka:yl po:b 
pe:6 an wasfad, ' to get everything straight ' ; meQy ka:yl 9 Say pen 
linin at i gili, 'to be unable to make both ends meet'. 5. 'to get, 
to succeed in getting into a certain position', with a verb of motion 
implied : kayl i vy:s meun bru:as paub, ' to have a finger in every 
pie ' ; syt Ke:sti dz bi:g i veun />, < how did you get your nose in ? ' ; 
ka:yl i vayn i r wal, ' to achieve one's object '. 

II. Intransitive : ' to get ' (to a place) : ka:yl i le: gwayl, ' to 
get to an unsatisfactory place '. This appears to be an imitation 
of English usage, but cf. the common use of kayl with hy:d i to 
express 'to find', e.g. du i wedi kayl hy:d i r dru:g, 'I have found 
out what is the matter' ; dim fauns i xi g<*-'l hy:d 280 vo, ' no chance 
for you to find him '. In the negative, however, we have : xe-'$ t'8im 
mo r hy:d 280 vo, ' I have not found it '. 

ka:yr, s.f., pi. Keyra, caer, D. Generally used in the plural with 
the meaning ' fortifications, stronghold '. O.H. applies the term 
tteyra to the prehistoric fortifications on Penmaenmawr ; used of 
the sunset : r hayl m mynd dan geyra, ' the sun setting ' ; may hi 
dgesl m hayl 3 geyra (O.H.), ' it is just sunset ' . Cf. B.C. 5.12 ; 
kayr droia (druyd), 'a maze' (J.J. ; O.K.). Cf. D.P.O. 24. 18 
and Eng. (Dial.) ' Walls-of-Troy ', Abd. ; nant kayr droia (druya) 
was the old name for the house at Llanfairfechan now called Nant 
Dafydd or Nant Uchaf (O.H.). As place-name kayr is ' Chester ' : 
Kin kodi ku:n kayr, ' very early in the morning ' ; fi:r gayr, 
* Cheshire ' ; kayr gzbi, ' Holyhead '. 

kayQ, adj., caeth, D. (i) 'constrained, in a state of constraint ', 
e. g. when one is in the company of some one who does not speak 
a word: teimlo i hy:n ay gayQ- (2) 'confined': le: kayQ. (3) 
' uncomfortable ' : daxi n i xht-'at i y gay& zmma heno / (= dim ?y 
gasyrys). (4) ' breathing with difficulty ', applied to the chest : daxi 
n teimlo x brest zy gay 6 j>; may g3no vo vrestgayQ, ' he has asthma '. 



Kebyst Keg a 249 

(5) used of one who is an obstruction to himself, stands in his own 
light : may o y gay 6 ibo i hy:n, 3m ptidjo gwerty i be&a 9m mrhi:s j 
fair ag sy ka:l kofad wcdyn (O.I I.). 

Kebyst, s.m., cebystr, D. (i) 'part of a plough holding the 
different parts together ' ; 'the sheet or stilt of a plough ' (O.P.) : 
truyn ) Kebyst. (2) 'cap of a flail' (J.J.). (3) as expletive: m*y 
Kebyst/, m?y Kebyst wy^t !, m?y Kebystylul ; be fcebystl, be* fcebyst 
wy:(f/, ' what on earth ! ' 

Kedan, s.f., ceden, D., ' lachne, villus'; in phrase >n toy n 
gedan, ' growing close together '. 

Kedor, s., cedor, D., ' pubes ' : Kedor 3r wra:\ = -kakKi'mukKi, 
' burdock ' (Arctium Lappa and kindred species). 

Kefyl, s.m., pi. hfola, ceffyl, D., ' horse ' : Kefyl gla:s, ' grey horse ' ; 
Kefyl gwina, ' bay horse ' ; Kefyl ko:\, ' brown horse ' ; Kefyl melyn, 
' chestnut horse ' ; Kefyl (iu [ayQ a \uru = o bay liu (J.J.), ' piebald 
horse ' ; Kefyl bakf'og, l a horse with thick hair round the hoofs '. 
Of three horses tandem the foremost is Kefyl blayn, the middle 
Kefyl pen, and the last Kefyl bo:n. The two horses ploughing are 
called Kefyl m 9 guys and Kefyl ar 9 Kevn. dal Kefyl, tori Ktfyl (i 
veun), tori Kefyl i /aur, ' to break in a horse ' : Kefyl gwy:[t, l a horse 
which has not been broken in'; gwe:d o gzfila, *a pair (team) of 
horses ' ; ar gevn Kefyl (pi. ar gevna hfola), ' on horseback ' ; may 
o ar &evn i &efyl, l he is very pleased with himself ' ; lri:n Kefyl, 
'to groom a horse'; tri:n Kefyl pobol eri[, ' to mind other people's 
business ' ; rhoi 3 drol o vlayn 3 Kefyl, ' to put the cart before the 
horse ' ; Kefyl da: zdi utys, 4 where there's a will there's a way '. 

Ke:g, s.f., pi. Kcga, ceg, D., ' mouth ' : agor Ke:g, ' to gape ' ; kay 
da geg, ' hold your tongue ' ; may gyno vo davod lond i ge:g, may o y 
ge:g i gi:d, ' he is very talkative ' ; mi folj 



na Qoda menyn m i \e:k 

i, ' you would think that butter would not melt in her mouth ' ; 
rh0ux ?X by:s m i eg o i edrax oys gzno vo dannad, applied to some 
one wrongly supposed to be harmless and innocent ; gneyd Ke:g 
hy[, ' to pull a face by contorting the mouth ' fig. (i) of one who 
cannot keep a secret : g- hem ge:g I (2) ' mouth, entrance of any- 
thing ' : Ke:g 3 bont, 3 tu^, 9 sa:x, etc. yy ghcg 3r hay I, ' right in the 
sun ' = 3n bgad 3r hay I. 

Kega> v., cega. (i) 'to come to words' (as the prelude of a 
quarrel) : pen vy& day &y:n wedi mynd i &ega y tawad 3 kafa (O.H.), 
1 when two men have come to words, let the wiser keep silent '. 
(2) 'to talk glibly': Kega am rubaB. Cf. Pe gwelsech chwi'r 
gwaeddi " Beef Nefyn " (i.e. herrings), Roedd Robyn, a'r hen fules 
frech, Wrth ochr y castell yn cega * Dowch yma cewch ugain am 
chwech ". C. ' Marchnad Ca'rnarfon '. (3) ' to tell tales, gossip ' : 
paid a mynd i &ega am dana tor nail dy: i r M (O.H.) ; 9 vtruyn 
9n mynd adra a \ega po:b pe:6 vy& m 3 ty: (O.H.). 



250 Kegid Keifo 

Kegid, s.pl., cegid, D., ' hemlock ' (Conium maculatum), called 
also for the sake of distinction Kegid ti:r sy:\ \ Kegid du:r, ( water 
hemlock ' (QEnanthe crocata). 

Kegin, s.f., pi. Kegtna, cegin, D., ' kitchen ' : Kegin gevn, Kegin ba:x 
1 back-kitchen '. 

Kegjad, s.f., cegaid, S.E. ' mouthful ' (of a liquid) : mige:s idammad 
o vara a xegjad o bu:r. 



, adj., cegog, S.E. (i) < loquacious, glib-tongued ': 9 rhei 
rnuya Kegog sy n Kodi slreiks (O.H.). (2) ' apt to tell tales ' : dyn 
Kegog (O.H.). 

fogor, adj., cegoer, G.O. ii. 145. 22, "cold-mouthed" \Jtelan}. 

Kegum, s., cegwm, S.E. (i) 'an empty talker': he:n gegum 
gwirjon. (2) ' one who cannot keep a secret '. 

Kegus, s., ceg and gwst. 'gaping' (Llanllechid, I.W.). 

Kei, s.m., ' quay ' : luyBo lay m 2 Kei. 

KeibjO) v., ceibio, D., ' to use a kaib> to hoe '. 

Keiljog, s.m., pi. kljogod, ceiliog, D. (i) 'cock': kgi:b t tagal, 
sbardyn Keiljog, ' the comb, wattle, spur of a cock ' ; kufjo kljogod, 
' cock-fight ' ; pit kljogod, ' cock-pit ' ; Keiljog xwiadan, ' drake ' ; 
Keiljog dandt, ' bantam cock '. (2) transferred uses: 'the top of 
the plough-beam ' (I.W.) ; Keiljog gwynt, ' weather-cock ' ; karjo 
y gokkyn Keiljog, ' to carry (some one) on the shoulders with one 
Jeg on each side of the neck ' (JJ. ; O.H.). 

Keiljogas, s.f., 'a masterful woman' (I.W.). 

K'e'Uja, s.pl., ceilliau, D., s.v. 'scrotum'; 'scrotum'. 

Keinjog, s.f., pi. Keinjoga, ceiniog, D., ' penny ' : may n edrax ?n 
bgad 9 getnjog, f he weighs every penny carefully'; wa:yB i x* 
geinjog "sbarjuxi na Keinjog 'niluxi, ' a penny saved is a penny 
gained ' ; di?n y:n geinjog go:x, ' not a single penny ' (Keinjog is 
fiequently omitted after a numeral v&gwerQ du.y, 'two pennyworth'); 
pisin x^e:x, ' sixpenny piece ' ; su:(f a 6atr, ' one (shilling) and 
three(pence) ' ; -^jo'iigjan^ ' ten shillings ' ; ' fourpence ' is always 
gro:t. 

Keirx; Keix (E.J.) ; Kerx (JJ.) s - m -' ceirch, D., 'oats': bara 
Keirx, ' oat-cake ' ; blaud Ke'irx, " oatmeal ' ; bru:as Keirx \bru:as]. 

Keirxan, s.f., ceirchen, S.E., ' a grain of oats ' : an ja:x vel ? 
geirxan. 

Keif'o, v., ceisio, D. Pret. s. i. Keif is, 3. Keifob. Imperative kais, 
Keif a ; Keifux. (i) 'to fetch, seek ' : kais da vagla a fur a ti i r 
/an, O.H. (said facetiously to a man on board ship). (2) ' to try' : 
mi geifis i gzno vo rieyd, 'I tried to get him to (do something)'; 
mi geififi 9 yora gmo vo beidjo gneyd dru:g> ' I tried my best to get 



KeiQiwad Kelvi 251 

him not to do wrong*. (3) ' to mean, to do on purpose' : kary o 
bim Keifo, * he didn't mean to do it ', i. e. ' it was by accident '. 

KeiBiwad, s.m., caethiwed, D., 'captivitas, servitus* ; cf. keithiwct, 
L.A. 121. 27; G.C. 130. ii, 'asthma' = KcyQdra (ar 9 gwynt\ 

KeiQiwis, adj., caethiwus, M.LI. ii. 37, 29, ' causing constraint or 
discomfort ' : may y geiQiwis i x* (O.H.). 

KeiQiwo, v., caethiwo, D., to keep in confinement, to keep a 
strict hand over ' : dy:n 9y KeiQiwo i wtiBjurs, i wraig, i t/lant, 
i.e. not letting them go out, etc. (O.H.). 

Kekry, fakran, v., ceccru, D., ' to wrangle, brawl ' : may r buy 
snima yy Kekranfry.o o hy:d (O.H.). 

Kekryn, s.m., cecryn, B.C. 70. 29, ' a contentious fellow, a brawler ' : 
he:n &ekryn ka:s. 

Kekrys, adj., ceccrus, D., s.v. ' contentiosus ', ' controuersus ', 
* cmissarius ' ; ' contentious '. 
Ke:l, Ke:han, s., ' keel '. 

Kelaitf, &elaitf, s.pl., gellhesg, D., 'flags' (Iris Pseudacorus). 
O.H. has dgelaitf. This plant is called delasg at Red Wharf Bay, 
Anglesea ; 1 have also heard delaks at Bangor. [Some of these 
forms suggest some connexion or confusion with ' delysc ', W.B. 
col. 96. i.J 

Kelan, s.f., celain, D., ' corpse ', only in the expressions Kelan varu 
and Kelan &egor : mi jadoS o y gelan varu, equivalent to * he killed 
him on the spot ' ; mi welis i 3 Ki: pen 0:8 on? iysnas o la:& devaid 
ag mi seiQis o tan o:d o y gelan gegor (O.H.). 

Kelbryn, s.m., ' a worthless, good-for-nothing fellow ' : r he:n 
gelbryn gwirjon /, he:n &elbryn bydyr I (O.H.). 

Kelfyn, s.m., a term of reproach : he:n gelfyn brunt /, he:n fcdfyn 
gwirjon ! (O.H.). 

Kelk, s.m., celc. D., ' a hidden store of money ' : may g?no vo gdk 
m rula ; also pre:s Kelk. 

Kelkjo, Kdkjan^ v., cf. celcu, D. (i) 'to keep a secret store of 
money', e.g. a wife from her husband. (2) ' to embezzle'. 

Kelog, s.f., celog, ' coal-fish ' (Gadus virens) = xz0/'/// gla:s. 

Kelpan, s.f., celpan, ' a slap on the face '. 

Kelpjo, v., celpio, ' to slap on the face '. 

Kelpjo, v., ' to gallop ' = kalpjo. 

KeluyS, Kelwyb, s.m., pi. kluyba, celwydd, D., ' lie* : deyd kluy&a, 
1 to tell lies ' ; also kabatfo, klatfo, finjo kluyta \-paly Keluy^ ' to 
concoct a lie ' ; Keluyb no:y&, ' a bare-faced he ' ; Keluyb m d3 Sannad, 
' I give you the lie direct '. 

Kelvi, s.pl., celfi, R., ' tools ' ; ' odds and ends '. 



252 Kelyn Key log 

Kelyn, s.pl., sing. Kebnan, f., celyn, D., 'holly-tree'; 'holly'; 
Kelyn 9 mo:r, 'sea-holly* (Eryngium maritimum). 

Kel, s.f., pi. Kelob, cell, D., ' cell ' (in a prison). 

Kelwar, v., cellwair, D., ' to scoff ', ' to jest ' (in a bad sense, 
e. g. of religious matters) : 'folaxi im Kelwar vel na. 

Kelwerys, adj., cellweirus, D., s.v. ' iocularis ' ; 'jocular, jesting* 
(see above). 

Kemfro, s.f., ' beach, edge of the sea-shore ' (very often used by 
O.H., and heard also from another inhabitant of Llanfairfechan) : 
morlo (seal) 9y gorvad ar 9 gemfro ; ar 9 gemfro, glan 9 mo:r ; 
i ben 3 gemfro ; r 0:8 9 gemfro, glan 9 mo:r 9y go:yd i gi:d (after 
a wreck) ; Kemfro graval a tu:od ; gatja n mynd i r gemfro, glan 
9 mo:r ; gneyd ty: ar 9 gemfro. (All O.H.). Apparently not used 
at Bangor. 

Ken, Kem, s.m., cenn, D. (i) 'film* : magy Ken, 'to grow a film, 
to become mouldy ' ; may barig 9y gen gwyn ar 9 %'e'yar, ' hoar-frost 
is a white film on the ground ' ; 9n y:n gen gwyrb drosto, ' a green 
film all over it ' (speaking of a pond) ; dilad 911 y:n gen o va:u. 
(2) ' scales ' (offish). (3) ' lichen' : Ken Kerig. 

Kena, s.m., pi. knavon, cenaw & cenau, pi. cenawon & imperite 
cenafon, D., ' rascal ' : he:n gena / ; Kena di:og ; Kena gla:s, ' arrant 
rascal ' ; peidjux kadu ri:at, knavon ba:x /, ' don't make a noise, you 
young rascals ' ; also fern. : knavon ovnaduy 9di mamma 9y yh9vra6 
(O.H.), ' stepmothers are terrible creatures '. 

Kenaduri, s.f., cennadwri, D., ' commission, instructions': du i y 
gneyd 9n o:l i genaduri, 'I am acting according to the instructions 
I received from him ' ; d9na r genaduri du i wedi xa:yl> ' those are 
the instructions I received '. 

Kenedl, s.f., pi. Kenhedlob, cenedl, D., ' nation '. 

Kenfysg, Kenslys, s.pl., cenllysg, D., * hail ' : buru Kenslys (Kenjysg], 
' to hail '. 

Kennad, cennad, D. (i) s.m.f. ' messenger '. (2) s.f. ' permission ' : 
du i wedi kay I Kennad i vynd ; gida x Kennad, ' by your leave '. 

Kenvigenlyd, adj., cenfigenllyd, S.E., ' envious ' (O.H.). Cf. 
hnvigan. 

Keyal, s.f., pi. Keyla, cengl, D. (i) ' girth ' of a saddle. (2) in 
pi. ' the girth of a yarn-winder ' \kogurti\. (3) ' skein ' : Keyal o 
davaS ; dal Keyal, ' to hold a skein while it is being wound '. (4) 
m. or f. applied to a thin person or animal : rhiu eyal main 9di o ; 
hem geyal o ludun ( = hi:r t main, ky:t]. 

Key log, adj., cenglog, S.E. (i) ' thin, lean, skinny ' : dy:n Keylog. 
(2) byu\ geylog, ' a cow with a white band round it ', ' belted cow '. 



Keyly Kert 253 

t V M cenglu, D. (i) 'to girth '(a horse). (2) 'to make 
wool into skeins '. 

far, s.f., ker, W.S. [Gere], cSr, B.C. 57. 18; cf. D.G. Ixiv. 26, 
' gear, tools '; Ke:r me'inar, Ke:r go:. Cf. ge:r, &i \n. 

Kerad, Kerbad, v., cerdded, D. Imperative Ker ; Kerux. (i) 'to 
walk (as opposed to riding): Kerbad 9 buy ford, 'to walk both 
ways '. (2) 'to walk ' (in general) : du i torn jy gubod pa: mor vy:an 
da\i y Kerbad, ' I don't know how fast you walk ' ; forbad u6 ivagla, 
1 to walk on crutches ' ; plentyn ba:\ bim m medry Kerbad, ' a small 
child unable to walk ' ; Kerad vesyl day, ' to walk two and two '. 
(3) ' to go ' : Kerux fur, ' go away ' (Kerux is much commoner than 
eux in this sense) ; Kerux m ?x bla:yn, 'go on ' ; Kerux i no:! glo: 
i mi, ' go and fetch me some coal ' ; Kerux a glo: i vmy r grifa, 
1 take some coal upstairs '. (4) of the motion of ships : ma na 
/erdad da: ami hi. (5) in quasi- transitive sense : mi gerkid ) ka:y 
i gi:d os KeiQ o lonyb, 'it (tnarxwag) will spread all over the field if 
it is left alone' (O.H.); Kerbad 3 dre:, 'to pace up and down the 
town '. (6) used of a creeping sensation : may rubaB m 3 nherbad i, 
' I shudder ', ' something makes me creep ' ; in reflexive sense : 
Kerbad gwa:yd 3 yhalon, ' to be filled with awe '. 

Kerbyd, s.m., pi. Kerbada, cerbyd, D., ' carriage '. 

Kerdod> s., cardod, D., but cf. pi. cerdodau, s.v. ' eleemosynarius ' ; 
cerdodeu, S.G. 167. 25; cerdawd, M.A. i. 196 a. 24; W.LI. xlv. 
57; cerdod, C.C.M. 29. 5; T.N. 298. 12, 'alms'. 



) s.pl., ' ragamuffins ' (I.W.). The Bangor equivalent 
is "karidryms. 

Xer&edjad, s.m., cerddediad, D., s.v. ' incessus ' ; ' walk, gait ' : 
may na herk m i gerbedjad, ' he walks with a limp '. 

Kerbur, s.m., cerddwr, O.P., 'walker ' : flatfur o gerbur, 'one who 
splashes as he walks '. 

Kerjax, s.pl., ceriach, D., s.v. 'gerrae'. (i) ' rubbish': rhiu he:n 
gerjax; hel dj gerjax o: na!, said e.g. to a dismissed servant. 
(2) 'wretches'. 

Kerlyn, s.m., cerlyn, B.C. 140. 25, 'a miserly, cross-grained 
fellow ' : r hem gerlyn hfablyd. 

Kern, s., pi. Kerna, cern, D., * mala, maxilla ' only in ble:u y Kerna, 
' whiskers '. 

Kernan, s., ' a blow on the side of the head '. 

Kerpyn, s., pi. karpja, cirpyn (sic), D., s.v. ' pittacium ', cerpyn, R. ; 
G.O. ii. 247. ii. (i)' rag ' : tmny po:b Kerpyn o:b am dano vo, ' to 
take off every shred of clothing '. (2) applied to a man of a miser- 
able, sickly appearance : r hc:n Cerpyn /laud. Cf. karpan. 

Kert, s.f., pi. Kertja, kert, W.S. [A carte], (i) ' cart' (rare = trot). 
(2) ? mi ro: i slap w d? gert (O.H.). 



254 Kertar Kevn 

Kerlar; Kertjur (J.J.), s.m., certiwr, S.E., ' carter '. 
Kertmon, s.m., pi. Kertmyn, ' carter '. 

Kervjo, Kevrjo, v., cerfio, D., s.v. ' caelo, sculpo ', Eng. kerve 
(15-17 cent.), 'to carve' (e.g. a name on a tree). 

KeryS, s.m., pi. Kerrion, cerydd, D., ' reproof : rhoi Keryft ar ru:in ; 
derbyn 9 KeryS a sarBjo ar i vat, ' to receive the reproof and acknow- 
ledge one's fault '. 

Keryn, s.m., ceryn, D., s.v. ' instrumentum ' ; dim. of far, ge:r. 

) 'tool, implement'. (2) 'any portion of a horse's harness'. 

) ' shred ' ; in phr. tmny po:b Keryn 0:8 am dano vo, ' to take off 
every shred of clothing '. (4) (perhaps from ka:r), ' a tough 
customer ' : he:n geryn blim, hem geryn dru:g. Cf. G.O. ii. 178. 21 ; 
T.N. 182. 9. 

Keryn, s., ' a kind of wild duck'. Mentioned in the ' Clorianydd ' 
for Feb. 22, 1912, among the birds of Anglesey, where it is 
described as the largest of the wild ducks. Used at Bangor. 
Perhaps ' sheldrake '. 

Kesal, s.f., pi. foseilja, cessail, D. (i) ' arm-pit ' : o dan i gesal, 
' under his arm '; rhaid i r vrayx we't'Bjo o r esal, * we must work 
hard ' ; Kesal vorBuyd, ' hollow of the thigh '. (2) ' a small inlet ' : 
Kesal m mynd i veun o r fanal (O.H.). 

Ketlan, s.f., dim. of Kettal; bara dan getlan (W.H.) = bara dan 
booty ' pan bread '. 

Kettal, s.f., ' hanging kettle, pot, or pan ' differs from kro\on in 
the sides being straight: torB o dan 3 &ettal (O.H.), 'pan-loaf; 
Kettal bre:s, etc. Cf. tekKal. 

Kettog, s.f., pi. Ketoga, cettog, D., s.v. 'corbis'. (i) ' box' in 
Kettog halan, ' salt-box ' ; Kettog luya ( ]. J.) ' box for keeping spoons '. 
(2) ' belly ' : gesti lond dz gettog / (3) = dy:n boljog : hem gettog o 
hem 8y:n (O.H.). 

Kettyn, s.m., pi. katja, cettyn, R. [a piece of something] ; G.O. ii. 
237. 32, 'tobacco-pipe' =. pibal\ gola, tanjo Kettyn, 'to light a 
pipe ' ; luyBo, lenwi Kettyn, ' to fill a pipe ' ; pen Kettyn, ' bowl of 
a pipe ' ; ko:ys Kettyn, ( pipe-stem ' : 0:8 9 du:r m du:ad i laur vel 
kbysa katja (6.H., speaking of heavy rain). 

KeBin, adj.,cethin, D., 'hard'; 'unyielding' : dy:n, Kerig, koydKeBin ; 
e l*g KeBin, ' a worthless kind of pear ' (O.H.) ; rhewi y geBtn, 311 
o:yrge6in (O.H.) ; gadt geBin, 'a steep hill', i.e.hard to ascend: 
may hi y geBin jaun drino i vzny hon ; ma: y geBin jaun arna i 
1 it is very hard upon me '. 

Kevn, s.m., pi. Kevna, cefn, D., ' back ' : r 0:8 3 gwynt 3n 3 yhevn, 
' the wind was behind me ' ; ar gevn Kefyl, ' on horseback ', pi. ar 
gevna ksfsla ; gorvaft ar wastad i gevn, ' to lie on one's back ' ; 3n 



Kcvnan Ke'yad 

uysg t'gevn, 'backwards'; s>r6jo dros i fcvn, ' to fall over back- 
wards ', e.g. in " catching a crab " ; farad m tou:g nj jhevn ru:in, 
1 to speak evil of some one behind his back ' ; kayl i gevn atio vo, 
1 to get over it, recover himself ; 9 geya n du:ad ar >x Kevn */, 
winter descending upon you before you are aware of it '. In vai 
transferred senses : Kevn la:u, ' back of the hand ' ; Kevn tr 
4 instep ' ; Kevn es&id, * uppers ', cf. D. s.v. ' semiploti.i ' ; Kevn 3 />:, 
4 back of the house ' ; dru:s 9 Kevn, ' back door '.; Kt&in &evn, ' back 
kiichen ' (= Ke&in 6a:x) ', may * paradty &evn ilo vo, ' the wall forms 
a back for it ', e. . a book-case ; %hoi rubaB ar i evn, * to put 
something on its back ' ; (of slates) 4 to put them on their sides = 
ar i ho\ra ; Kevn o di:r = drym, a 4 ridge ' ; also Keim 3 ti:r ; ar > 
Kevn ti:r ; hence in farming, a " land ", i.e. ' one of the strips into 
which a ploughed field is divided by water-furrows (jrh9\a} ' also 
the first furrow turned in ploughing : agor Kevn, 4 to open the 
furrow ' ; kanol Kevn = drym, 4 the top or centre of the " l.i 
(cf. D. s.v. ' lira ') ; in slate quarries, Kevn = 4 a joint ', i.e. * a kind 
of more or less vertical crack or fissure intersecting the rock ' 
(cf. troyd] \&evn no:s, &evn trtmbab no:s, ' in the middle of the 
night ' : mi godoS o gevn no:s ; evn dj>:& go/a, gevn kanol dy& 
gola, ' in the middle of the day ' ; Kevn is also used in the sense of 
* protection ', cf. -dirgevn, 4 defenceless '. also ' surety ' : mi a:6 
ay gevn tdo vo. 

Kevnan, s.f., cefnen, D., s.v. 4 dorsum ' ; ' brow of a hill, ridge ' 
(= drym). 

Kevndar, s.m., pi. Kevndryd, cefnderw, D., ' first cousin' : may 
y gevndar a mi:, ' he is my first cousin ' ; Kevndar a \niQar o:& i 
nhaid a nain, ' my grandfather and grandmother were first cousins '. 

Kevndras, s., ' the chain which passes over the cart-saddle of a 
horse, backhand'. 

Kevngor, s.m., cefngor, ' the head of the stall in a cow-house ' 
(cf. ko:r, Llanuwchllyn = beydy) : %hoid buyd i r gwarBag dros > 
gevngor i r fotrum (O.H.). 

Kevnog, adj., cefnog, D., s.v. ' animosus ' ; ' well off ' : dy.*n &- 
1 a man in easy circumstances '. Cf. G.O ii. 19. 12. 

Kevny, v., cefnu, D., 4 vincere, superare'. (i) 'to get over' (i.e. 
so as to have at one's back, behind one) : du i wedi \evny hi n o 
serund, ' I have got over it pretty well '. (2) ' to turn one's back ' : 
Kevny ar ru:in. 

Kevrjo \Kerv jo\. 

Keyad, s.m., caead, D., ' lid ' (of a kettle, can, etc.) : mi ro: i 
gey ad ar i bisar o, ' I will make him hold his tongue*. Also ' the 
tail board of a cart '. 

Keyad, adj., caead, cauad, D. (i) 'closed': i \e:k i n dyn >y 



256 Keyedig Kibin 

gey ad, ' her mouth tightly closed '. (2) ' fenced ' : ?di r van ?y 
geyedig ? sdi, may hi 'ay 'gey ad, vy: na dim lawar o wai'B i ti. 

Keyedig, adj., cauedic, Cant. iv. 12, 'closed'; 'fenced'. See 
above. 

Keylan, s.f., pi. Keylanna, ceulan, D., ' fibra, ripa ' ; ' bank of a 
river ' : may r avon wedi livo dros i x'eylanna, ' the river has over- 
flowed its banks ' ; hiybyr ar hy:d 9 geylan i vdny ; gwynt an 
XuBy dros 9 geylan ; ar 9 geylan dmmyl, ' on the very edge '. 

Keylo, v., ceulo, D., ' to curdle '. 

Keylys, s.pl. Cf. ceilys M.F. ; Eng. (Dial.) kails ; ' ninepins ' : 
Xwara Keylys. 

Keynan, s.f., caenen, D., ' a thin layer ' : Keynan o ei'ra. Also 
used of a poor crop : zdi r haib wedi gino n 8a: ? na:g sdi, wi:r. riu 
geynan go dena ddi o (O.H.). 

HeyBdra y s.m., caethdra, S.E. (i) 'confinement' (cf. KeiBiwo\ 
(2) 'asthma' (W.H.; O.H.) = KeiBiwad (ar 9 gwynt). 

Hi:, s.m., pi. ku:n, ci, D., 'dog': Hi: devaid, 'sheep-dog'; Hi: 
hela, ' hound ' ; Hi: gwa:yd, ' bloodhound ' ; kun 'ba:x, ' puppies ' ; 
'ga:st a xun, ' biich and puppies ' ; Hi: a i gumfon m i avl, Hi: swat, 
' a dog with his tail between his legs ' ; edrax vel Hi: wedi tori gumfon, 
' to look cowed ' ; kadu Hi: a x^arQ V9 hynan, ' to keep a servant 
and do my own work ' ; Hi: he:n zdi Ki: morgan (prov.), ' old birds 
cannot be caught with chaff ' ; boljad Ki: beriB dridja (prov.), ' a 
dog's fill lasts three days ' ; 3 Hi: gerdo (gerbiff) geiB (prov.), ' he 
who goes far will prosper ' ; gormod o budin dagiB gi: (prov.), ' one 
can have too much of a good thing ' ; byu vel ku:n a mo:x, ' to lead 
a cat and dog life ' ; drtja r ku:n, l dog-days ', cf. D., s.v. * etesiae ' ; 
Ki: mo:r, ' dog-fish ' (Scyllium canicula) ; Hi: drskKin, ' a partial 
rainbow ' = riu aruityon o la:u an vr awyr ( J.J.). Cf. Peacock, ' The 
Glossary of the Hundred of Lonsdale ' : " Dog, ' a partial rainbow '." 

Ki:ab, adj., ciaidd, D., s.v. 'cynicus'; D.P.O. 77. 12; 80. 5; 
99. 2, ' cruel, brutal '. 

Rtba, s.pl., cibau, D., ' husks ' : syt gerx 'gu:soxi ? dru:gjaun, may 
o n laun o giba ( J.J.). [Not known to O.H. except as scriptural 
word. Cf. St. Luke xv. 16.] 

adj., cibddall, B.C. 58. 14, 'dull of comprehension' 



Kibin, s.m., pi. Kibmna, cibyn, D., s.v. ' testa' ; ' a round wooden 
vessel with two handles, used especially for measuring corn '. Also 
the amount contained in a Kibin = so^lbs. (of corn) ; pedwar xwart 
(maur) y:n Kibin ; pedwar Kibin =y:n storad \_hbmnad] ; may 
i benno vel Kibin, wedi yyjoy^o vel Kibin, said of a swollen face 
(W.H.). 



Kixjo 257 

Xttogt adj., cibog, D., s.v. 'silus'; 'frowning, disagreeable- 
looking '. 

#idi{, s.f., cidyll, cidyll coch, D., ' tinnunculus ' ; Kidi^ go:\ } 
' a kind of hawk ' (O.H.), ' kestrel ', Forrest (Falco tinnunculus), 
cC/mi/ijwx. Only in current use in the expression wedi gwiltjo 
y /;</,{ (O.H.). 

Xtty'o, Ki^jad, v., cuddio, D. ; cf. ciddio C.C.M. 167. 14. Imperf. 
K&jun. Pret. S. i. Ufa's, 3. #id/ot, ' to hide '. 

Ki:g, s.m., cig, D. (i) * meat ' : fag mo:\, ' bacon ' = bakkun, 
bekn; Ki:g Kiu t 'chicken'; ba:\Ki:g, * meat-hook'. (2) in certain 
locutions, ' flesh ' : fag a gwa:yd> ' flesh and blood ' ; fag maru, 
'proud flesh'; fag no:y6, 'raw flesh ', i.e. with the outer skin 
rubbed off : ?y forbad nes o:yb o y gi:g no:y6. 

Kigeftdra, s., cieieddtra (sic), W.S. [Doggednes] ; cieidd-dra, 
S.E., * an act of cruelty ' : wedi gneyd Kigeftdra m i wirjondab (i 
wiltinab), i.e. in a moment of passion (O.H.). 

Kt'geyftlyd, KigaWyd, adj., ' cruel, harsh, savage ' ; may hi n rhy: 
gtgeySlyd o lawar hevo r plant na ; hem gena Kigeyblyd brunt ! 
(O.H.). 

Kiglid, adj., ciglyd, D.G. xix. 10, 'cruel, harsh, savage': r he:n 
gena Kiglid! (O.K.) 

KignoB, adj., cignoeth, T.N. 237. 14. (i) 'raw' of flesh with 
the outer skin rubbed off: yy Kerbad nes o:yb o n gignoQ (= gi:g 
twyff). (2) 'of biting speech', said of one who does not mince 
matters : fadur KignoQ. 

Kigog, adj., cigog, D., ' fleshy ', 

Higvran, s.f., pi. Kigvranod, cigfran, D., ' raven ' (Corvus corax) : 
mi a:B i ei&o rhuy 9 igvran a r ku:n, ' his property went to the 
dogs ', e. g. through a disputed will (J.J.). 

Kigwan, s., cigwen and cigwain, D., ' a sort of fork, like a 
toasting-fork, used for lifting puddings boiled in cloths out of 
saucepans, or for turning meat in a saucepan ; flesh-hook '. 

Kik, s.f., pi. Kikja, 'kick'. 



Oj v., cicio, T.N. 13. 24, 'to kick': Kikjo pe:l dro:yd, 
' football '. 

Kiks, s., in playing marbles, ' another go ' : bara Kiks, ' another 
go is forbidden ' (I.W.). 

Kixja, s.pl., cuchiau, pi. of cuwch, D., ' sulky looks ' : dra\u\ ar 
* gixja vo /, ' look at his sulky looks ' ; gulun i gixja, ' to let one's 
face fall ' ; dayos i gixja n erbyn pe:0, ' to show one's displeasure at 
something '. 

&XJo, v., cuchio, D. ; cf. cichio, C.C.M. 194. 21, 'to frown': 
peidjux a Kixjo x &'{/& arna t\ ' don't frown at me '. 

1132 S 



256 Keyedig Kibin 

gey ad, l her mouth tightly closed '. (2) ' fenced ' : sdi r van ay 
geyedig ? adz, may hi '^y 'geyad, V}':8 na dim lawar o waiB i ti. 

Keyedig, adj., cauedic, Cant. iv. 12, 'closed'; 'fenced'. See 
above. 

Keylan, s.f., pi. Keylanna, ceulan, D., ' fibra, ripa ' ; ' bank of a 
river ' : may r avon wedi livo dros i x'eylanna, ' the river has over- 
flowed its banks ' ; luybyr ar hy:d 9 geylan i vany ; gwynt an 
XU&y dros 9 geylan ; ar 9 geylan ^mrnyl, ' on the very edge '. 

Keylo, v., ceulo, D., * to curdle '. 

Keylys, s.pl. Cf. ceilys M.F. ; Eng. (Dial.) kails ; ' ninepins ' : 
Xwara Jleylys. 

Keynan, s.f., caenen, D., ' a thin layer ' : Keynan o ei'ra. Also 
used of a poor crop : 9di r haib wedi gino n da: ? na:g adi, wi:r. riu 
geynan go dena adi o (O.H.). 

KeyBdra, s.m., caethdra, S.E. (i) 'confinement' (cf. KeiBiwo\ 
(2) ' asthma ' (W.H.; O.H.) = KeiQiwad (ar 9 gwynf). 

Ki:, s.m., pi. ku:n t ci, D., 'dog': Hi: devaid, 'sheep-dog'; Hi: 
hela, ' hound ' ; Ki: gwayd, ' bloodhound ' ; kun 'ba:x, ' puppies ' ; 
'ga:st a xun, ' bitch and puppies ' ; Hi: a i gum/on dn i avl, Ki: swat^ 
' a dog with his tail between his legs ' ; edrax vel Ki: wedi tori gumf on , 
' to look cowed ' ; kadu Ki: a xwarB v? hynan, ' to keep a servant 
and do my own work ' ; Ki: he:n adi Ki: morgan (prov.), ' old birds 
cannot be caught with chaff ' ; boljad Ki: ben'B dridja (prov.), ' a 
dog's fill lasts three days ' ; 3 Ki: gerdo (gerbiff) geiB (prov.), ' he 
who goes far will prosper' ; gormod o budin dagiB gi: (prov.), 'one 
can have too much of a good thing ' ; byu vel ku:n a mo:x, ' to lead 
a cat and dog life ' ; drtja r ku:n> ' dog-days ', cf. D., s.v. ' etesiae ' ; 
Ki: mo:r, ' dog-fish ' (Scyllium canicula) ; Ki: drskKin, ' a partial 
rainbow ' = riu aruibjon o la:u in dr awyr ( J.J.). Cf. Peacock, ' The 
Glossary of the Hundred of Lonsdale ' : " Dog, ' a partial rainbow '." 



, adj., ciaidd, D., s.v. 'cynicus'; D.P.O. 77. 12; 80. 5; 
99. 2, ' cruel, brutal '. 

Mtba, s.pl., cibau, D., ' husks ' : syt gerx 'gu:soxi ? dru:gjaun, may 

n laun o giba (J.J.). [Not known to O.H. except as scriptural 
word. Cf. St. Luke xv. 16.] 

Kibal, adj., cibddall, B.C. 58. 14, 'dull of comprehension* 
(W.H.;O.H.). 

Kibin> s.m., pi. Kibmna, cibyn, D., s.v. ' testa' ; ' a round wooden 
vessel with two handles, used especially for measuring corn '. Also 
the amount contained in a Kibin sojlbs. (of corn) ; pedwar xwart 
(maur) y:n Kibin ; pedwar Kibin =y:n storad \k9bmnad\ ; may 

1 benno vel Kibin, wedi x^ybo vel Kibin, said of a swollen face 
(W.H.). 



Kixjo 257 

i adj., cibog, D., s.v. ' silus ' ; ' frowning, disagreeable- 
looking '. 



idi^ s.f., cidyll, cidyll coch, D., ' tinnunculus ' ',Kidi[ go:\, 
'a kind of hawk' (O.H.), 'kestrel', Forrest (Falco tinnunculus), 
Only in current use in the expression wedi gwiltjo 



fo'ty'o, K&jad, v., cuddio, D. ; cf. ciddio C.C.M. 167. 14. Imperf. 
K&jun. Pret. S. i. mis, 3. K&jo*, to hide '. 

fag, s.m., cig, D. (i) meat ' : fag mo:x, ' bacon ' = bakkun, 
bekn; fag Miu t 'chicken'; ba:\ Ki:g, 'meat-hook'. (2) in certain 
locutions, 'flesh': fag a gwayd, 'flesh and blood'; fag maru, 
'proud flesh'; fag no.y$, 'raw flesh ', i.e. with the outer skin 
i ubbed off : ?y forbad nes o:yb o y gi:g no:y6. 

^ Kigeibdra, s., cieieddtra (sic), W.S. [Doggednes] ; cieidd-dra, 
S.E., ' an act of cruelty ' : wedi gneyd Kigeibdra m i wirjondab (i 
wiltinab\ i.e. in a moment of passion (O.H.). 

KigeyWyd, Kigrtly <d, adj., ' cruel, harsh, savage ' ; may hi n rhy: 
gigeyftlyd o lawar hevo r plant na ; he:n gena Kig'eyblyd brunt I 
(O.H.). 

Kiglid, adj., ciglyd, D.G. xix. 10, 'cruel, harsh, savage': r he:n 
gena Kiglid! (O.K.) 

KignoQ, adj., cignoeth, T.N. 237. 14. (i) 'raw' of flesh with 
the outer skin rubbed off: 9y Kerbad nes o:y o n gignoB (= gi:g 
no:y&\ (2) 'of biting speech ', said of one who does not mince 
matters : fadur KignoQ. 

Kigog, adj., cigog, D., ' fleshy ', 

Kigvran, s.f., pi. Higvranod, cigfran, D., ' raven ' (Corvus corax) : 
mi a:B i et'8o rhuy 9 igvran a r ku:n, ' his property went to the 
dogs ', e. g. through a disputed will (J.J.). 

Kigwan, s., cigwen and cigwain, D., ' a sort of fork, like a 
toasting-fork, used for lifting puddings boiled in cloths out of 
saucepans, or for turning meat in a saucepan ; flesh-hook '. 

Kik, s.f., pi. Kikja, 'kick'. 

liikjo, v., cicio, T.N. 13. 24, 'to kick': Kikjo pe:l droyd, 
' football '. 

Kiks t s., in playing marbles, ' another go ' : bara Kiks, ' another 
go is forbidden ' (I.W.). 

Ki\ja, s.pl., cuchiau, pi. of cuwch, D., ' sulky looks ' : draxu\ ar 
i i\ja vo /, ' look at his sulky looks ' ; gulun i gi'xja, ' to let one's 
face fall ' ; danos i gi'xja n erbyn pe:0, * to show one's displeasure at 
something '. 

Kixjo, v., cuchio, D. ; cf. cichio, C.C.M. 194. 21, 'to frown': 
peidjux a Kixjo X WJ& arna t\ ' don't frown at me '. 



258 Ki\jog Kimmint 

Kixjog, adj., cuchiog, D., ' frowning, sulky ' : may o n edrax ?y 
gi\jogjaun. 

Kt:lj s.m., cil, D. (i) 'corner, recess, narrow opening': Kid 3 
hgad, ' corner of the eye ' ; dgo:y o vakko zy ffhid i vo:x, ' a plug of 
tobacco in his cheek ' ; Kid 3 pentan, ' the corner of the hearth ' ; 
djaul Ki:l pentan ag ayal pen forb \djaul\ ; Kid 9 durn, ' half-closed 
hollow of the hand ' ; rhoi Kid durn, ' to bribe ' (= hiro) ; degum 
Ki:l durn, ' the pay of a preacher ' ; Kid durn = also ' one who 
receives bribes ' ; gadux 3 dru:s dy gid gorad, ' leave the door ajar ' ; 
agor Kid dru:s, ' to open a door slightly ' ; edrax tru:y gid 2 dru:s, 
' to peep through a door when ajar'. (2) 'a receding, retiring' 
(of the sun and moon) : may n le: Kid hayl, ' the place does not get 
the sun, is sheltered from the sun ' ; o:s na gid hayl 3n nant 3 
velin ? o.ys, am bedwar mi:s, ' is Nant y Felin without sun any part 
of the year ? ' ' Yes, for four months ' ; Kid 2 leyad, ' the waning of 
the moon': o:ys na ley ad? o:ys t riu gid ley ad. (3) in phr. knoi 
Kid, ' to chew the cud '. 

Kilbost, s., cilbost, S.E., * the post on which a gate hangs '. Also 
Kilbost 9 dru:s. 

Kild9nny, v., kildynnu, W.S. [Draw a syde], ' not to pull together ' 
(in fig. sense), said e. g. of two persons in partnership or of a man 
and wife. 

Kildmnys, adj., ' refractory ' (W.H. ; O.H.). 

Kilbant, s., pi. Kilbanndb, Kid dannaS, cilddant, D., ' back tooth, 
molar ' : gweld i gid dannad,gweld Kid i dannad> ' to see the ugly 
side of him '. 

Kiljo, v., cilio, D. (i) 'to retreat, retire*. (2) 'to take one's 
departure ' : ma na lawar o dai gwe'igjon dmma ; may r bobol wedi 
Kiljo. (3) ' to go down ', e. g. of a swelling. (4) ' to stand back, 
make room ' : Kilja (= klofa) is said to a horse or cow to make it 
stand close to the wall in a stable or cow-house (O.K.) ; trans. 
' to draw back, to take out of the way ' : Kilja dy dra:yd, ' take your 
feet out of the way ' ; Kilja d? dra:yd 0:8 ar 9 mrfommis z\ r hem 
sort / (O.H.), ' clear out of my premises, you old vagabond ! ' 

KilKin, s.m., cilcyn, D., s.v. ' ramentum ' ; 'a small piece left ' : 
KtlKin tor&, ta:s (wair), KilKin o vara ; may hi wedi darvod, t o:ys 
na dim ond KilKin ba:x o honi hi ; may r kosyn wedi mynd ay gilKin. 
Also ' a small piece cut off a corner ' : tor gilKin o r garag vel hyn, 
mtvy:8 m haus iBori, ' cut a corner off the stone like this, it will be 
easier to cut it ' = la:d sglodyn, tori riu goyol (O.H.). 

Kilva\, s.f., pi. Kilvaxa, cilfach, D., ' a sheltered place behind a 
knoll or rock ; nook ' = le: ba:x koylog. 

Kimmint, Kimmin> s., adj., and adv., cymmaint and cymmain, D., 
cf. cimain, I.G. 540. 15; cimmaint, M.LI, ii, n. 25; cimin, 



klaguyb klaub 261 

klaguyb, s.m., pi. klagwibi, ceiliagftydd, D., s.v. ' anser ' : seviB o kirn 
mu:y na du:r ar ben klagub, cf. ' like water off a duck's back '. 

klai, s.m., clai, D.G. cxciv. 1 9 ; Gen. xi. 3 ; D., ' clay '. 

klais, s.m., pi. kleifa, clais, D., 'bruise ' : dan i gltif'a, ' bruised, 
black and blue '. 

klamma, s.m., calan Mai; calanmei, W.B. col. 31. 2, ' May 13 ' 
(hiring-time for farm servants). 

klamp, s.m., clamp, D., ' massa '. (i) ' lump ' : klamp o do:ys, ' a 
lump of dough '. (2) ' anything big ' : may o y glamp o ty:n maur, 
' he is a great big man ' ; mi rot/ i glamp o glystan ibo vo, ' I gave 
him a great box on the ears '. 

klampan, s.f. = klamp : klampan o ga:6 vaur. 

klandro, klondro, krandro, v., clandro, S.E. ; Eng. calendar, (i) ' to 
count ' (money). (2) 'to calculate, reckon up ' : klandrux o m \ 
Ttiedut. 

klaygeya, s.m., calan gaeaf ; cf. D.G. cxcii. 8, ' the winter calends ', 
i. e. November 1 3 (hiring-time for farm servants) ; no:s klay&eya, 
the eve of that day ; no:s 9r he:n glangeya, ' All-hallows Eve '. 

kfap, s.m., pi. klapja, clap, S.E.*, ' lump ' : klap o lo: t ' a lump of 
coal ' (= knap); trayd klapja^ ' club-feet '. Cf. knap. 

klap, s.m., cf. clappian, R. [to tattle, to tell tales], ' a sneak ' ; 
karjo klaps, ' to carry tales '. Cf. Eng. (Dial.) claps, ' tales, 
gossip '. 

klapjan, v. \knapjari\. 

klapjog, adj., clapiog, S.E., ' lumpy '. 

klark, s.m., pi. klarkod, clarc, B.C. 74. 15; pi. clarcod, 62. 19, 

' clerk '. 

klarkjO) v., ' to act as clerk '. 

klatf, adj., cf. Eng. (Dial.) clatch [any piece of mechanical work 
done in a careless way ; a clumsy article], Sc., in the exp. bara 
klatf, ' badly risen, sad, doughy, unwholesome bread '. 

klatf, s., ? Eng. (Dial.) clash [the sound made by a heavy 
clanking or a crushing blow, etc.], Sc., Nhb., Yks., gun klatf, 
' pop-gun ' ; wedi tori y glatf, ' broken clean in two '. (Cf. krat/.) 

klatf\_kratf\ 

klatfo, v., Eng. (Dial.) clatch [to tell tales of a person], Chs., ' to 
tell "lies ' : klatfo (= kabatfo) kluyba. 

klatfur, s.m., ' liar ' : he:n glatfur idi o. 

klaud, adj., tlawd, D., ' poor ' (rarely used = tlaud). 

klaub, s.m., pi. klobja, clawdd, D. (i) properly ' a mound made 
by piling up the earth dug out of two parallel trenches, and placed 



262 kla:v kleidir 

between them' the earth thus piled up forming the base of a 
hedge : may klauS o dan d gwry:x. (2) ' a boundary to a field or 
enclosure, or to a road, whether it be a wall or a hedge ' : klauS 
drain, ' a hedge ' as distinguished from a wall ; fo:s 9 klauft, ' ditch 
by the side of a hedge ' ; klaub tervyn, ' boundary wall ' ; tori pen 
klaub, ' to trim the top of a hedge ' ; tori gwymmad klau^ ' to trim 
the side of a hedge ' ; cf. also sgutfo, tokjo ; kay klaub, ' to mend 
a hedge ' ; phgy klauft, ' to bend a hedge ' ; tori klaub a i stufjo, ' to 
cut a hedge and fill the gaps with thorns ' ; r o:b o n mynd o glauft 
i glaub, 'he was staggering along from one side to another', e.g. 
of a drunken man. 

kla:Vj adj., pi. kle'ivjon, claf, D., ' sick, ill ' : klub kle'ivjon t ' sick 
club ' (except in this expression rarely used) = sa:l, gwayl. 

klavr, s., clafr, D., * scab ' (in sheep) ; also applied to persons : 
may medod wedi neyd o y glavr i gi:d. 

klebar, s., debar, T.N. 444. 7, ' chatter, idle conversation ' : deyd 
klebar. 

klebar, v., ' to jabber, chatter ' : paid a \lebar sn wirjon. 

klebran, s.m., clebran, S.E. (i) 'chatter, idle conversation'. 
(2) ' tell-tale ' : he:n glebran ddi o. 

klebsyn, corr. of klesbyn. 

kledar, s.f., pi. kledra, cledr, D., ' palm of the hand '. 

kledi, s.m., caledi, Prov. i. 27; cledi, B.C. 73. i, 'hardship, 
affliction ' : meun riu gledi maur. 

kledux, s., caledwch, D., s.v. ' duritas ' ; ' hardness ' (in all senses) : 
kledux my:ly ' stupidity '. 

kledy, v., caledu, D. ; cledu, M.LI. i. 170. 21. (i) Trans. 'to 
make hard, firm ' : kledy o dan 9 reds ar d domman, ' to harden the 
ground beneath the rails on the refuse heap of a slate-quarry ' ; 
kledy o gumpas po:st, ga:t, etc. (2) Intr. * to harden ' : may r menyn 
wedi kledy (= fery). Also applied e.g. to the settling down of hay 
in a hay-stack = gustun ; with <?, ' to set to in earnest ' : mynd 
911 ara de:g d durnod hnta ag dy kledy dni hi zr ail dy: (O.H. in 
speaking of setting out to walk for a long distance). 

kleba, s.m., pi. kb&wa, cleddyf, D.; cleddau, Rev. i. 16, ' sword' : 
ma na i ovn o vel gu:r a x/<?&z, ' I am terribly frightened of 
him ' (i. e. as of a man with a sword) ; / o:s na i ovn na dy:n na 
xlea (O.H.) ; kleba bkyn> cleddyf Bleddyn, D., s.v. ' splen ' ; 
' spleen '. 

klegar, v., clegr, D., s.v. 'glacito'; clegar, T.N. 322. 2. (i) ' to 
quack ' (of ducks). (2) 'to talk loudly, shout ' : day djy:n ?y klegar 
hevo i gilib; dy:n ay klegar penwaig. 

kle'idir, s.m., clei-dir, i Kings vii. 46, 'clayey land '. 



kltimjo klemjo 263 

kle'imjo, v., kleimio, W.S.; cleimio, B.C. 46. 23; cf. L.G.C., 
265. 7, 'to claim ' : mi kleimja i o. 

klanf'o, v., kleinsio pen hoel, W.S. [Clenche], 'to clinch': 
kleinfo hoy Ian -y:n m dal murBul ar ifen hi a r (a m i \leinfo hi. 
kle'iog, adj., cleiog, S.E., ' clayey '. 
kleirjax, s.m., cleiriach, D., ' an old decrepid person ' (I.W.) 

kleifo, v., cleisio, D., ' to bruise ' : may r knaud wedi gle'ifo ; may 
r avol wedi gleif'o. 

kle'ivis, s. Eng. (Dial.) clivvis, clevis; see also N.E.D., s.v. 
' clevis ', ' a piece of iron used for fastening a truck to a rope when 
going up or down the incline of a quarry '. Cf. kotgal. 

kick, s.f., clecc, D. ; Eng. (Dial.) clack, ' snap ' : rhoi kick ar 9 
maud, ' to snap my fingers ' ; a \lek ar 3 maud a fur a vi:, * off I 
went, snapping my fingers ' ; may r plant ?n tmny bisab koxjon ag 
yy gneyd klek hevo nu ; tori karag zy glek, ' to break a stone with 
a snap ' ; darvod yy glek, ' to finish all of a sudden '. Cf. klep. 

klekjan, v., cleccian, D.G. clviii. 48 ; B.C. 94. 20 ; Eng. (Dial.) 
clack ; M.E. clacken, * to rattle, clatter, etc/ : may r fenast nj 
klekjan, ' the window is rattling ' ; 'to crackle ' (of a fire) ; * to 
crack ' (of a whip) ; ' to clatter ' (of stones) ; ' to chatter ' (of 
teeth) ; pren zy klekjan uB i don ; Sary o farad nes o:d 3 kubul zy 
klekjan, ' he spoke till the whole place rang ' ; of things which 
crunch beneath the teeth, e. g. something burnt : klekjan dan Sannad ; 
klekjan i vaud, ' to snap the fingers '. Cf. klepjan. 

kle\or t s.m., cf. clechor, M.F. = dy:n stwnig, peygalad, laun o 
stimja dru:g (J.J.) ; dy:nf3rnig, Kin vrmtad a vedar o vo:d(O.H.). 
r he:n gle\or gwirjon ! (O.H.) 

klem, s.f., pi. klemja, clem, R. [a slice, a piece], a patch on the 
sole of a shoe '. 

klem, s.f., Eng. (Dial.) clam, clem [a slow starvation], ' state of 
starvation, destitution ' : may hi wedi mynd ay glem arno vo, ' things 
are in a bad state with him ' ; may o wedi gneyd i hy:n zy glem, said 
of one who has done for himself, e. g. by being turned off from his 
work through his own fault (O.H.) ; may o m byu ar letty r glem, 
' he fives from hand to mouth ' (W.H.). 

klemjo, v., clemio, C.F. 1890, 332. 33, 'to patch the soles of 
boots '. 

klemjo, v., clemio, C.F. 1889, 677. 22; Eng. (Dial.) clem [to 
starve for want of food], ' to starve, to be destitute ' ; dy:n ?y 
klemjo i hy:n (a digon o bre:s gmo vo) O.H. ; dy:n wedi ka:l i 
glenijo am i wai& i hy:n, ' a man who has brought himself to destitu- 
tion through his own fault ' (O.H.). 






264 klemman klerk 

klemman, s., ' a large piece ' (I.W.) ; klemman o vre\tan (= /aval, 
klmtan, kluf}. 

klemp, s.m., Eng. clamp, ' a piece of iron placed under the toe of 
a shoe '. 

klempan, s., ' a blow with the back of the hand ' (O.H.). 

kle:n, adj., sup.klenja, clen, T.N. 183. 5; Eng. clean; 'pleasant, 
nice, agreeable ' : dy:n kle:n, ' a nice fellow ' ; dy.n kle:n jaun i 
farad, l a pleasant-spoken man '. 

klennig, s.m., calennig, C.C.M, 52. 17; cylenig, I.G. 541. 4; 
celennig, D., s.v. ' strena ' ; ' a New Year's gift '. 

kleyk, s. ; ? Eng. (Dial.) clenk, form of clank [a sounding blow], 
w.Yks. For the sense development cf. kleut and kleutan. (i) ' any- 
thing flat ' (I.W.) : kleyk o vara = pisin maur go da: (O.H.). (2) 
* a fall ' (I.W.). (3) a shock to the body caused e. g. by making 
a false step ' : dy:n dy ka:l kleyk uQ gam gwa:g (O.K.) ; cf. klerk. 
(4) fig. ' a loss ' = koiad : mi gavoB o dippin o gleyk, e. g. through 
being deceived in a bargain, by the death of a horse (O.H.) ; 
mynd o r nail gleyk i r la I. 

kleykjog [kloykjog]. 

klep. s.m.f., clep, D.G. ccxvi. 37; C.C.M. 417. i ; B.C. 96. 17 ; 
clap, D.G. cxlvi. 20; C.C.M. 251. 4; Eng. clap; cleppe (i3th 
cent.), (i) ' bang, clap ' : rhoi klep ar 3 dru:s, kay 9 dru:s 3y glep, 
' to bang the door ' ; klep ar 9 maud ! be du i n hidjo arno vo ?, 'I 
don't care that for him', i.e. a snap of the fingers. (Perhaps a 
confusion with klek.) (2) ' clapper of a mill ' : farad vel klep melin. 

(3) ' chatter ' : rhoi i glep i vjaun ; riu he:n glep o hy:d ; du ftwedi 
lary ar i he:n glep o. in pi. karjo kleps, ' to tell tales ' (cf. klap). 

(4) ' mouth ' : kay d? glep / (5) ' chatterer, tell-tale ' : r he:n glep ! 

klepgi, s.m., clepgi, T.N. 345, 36, 'a chatterer' = dy:n m farad 
o hy:d ag ar draus paub : ta:u 3r he:n glepgi gdQral ! 

klepjan, v., clepian, S.E. ; Eng. (Dial.) clap [talking, prating] ; 
clep [to chatter, gossip, tattle, tell tales], (i) 'to rattle, bang' 
(cf. klekjan) : may r dru:s ay klepjan, e. g. through being left open 
in a draught ; klepjan am wy:a, * to go round at Easter rattling 
stones together to beg for eggs '. (2) ' to jabber, chatter'. (3) ' to 
ask persistently ' : paid a xl^pjan arna i vel na (?y govyn am be:B na 
'vedruxi m o i roid o); klepjan farad ; klepjan o hy:d am vrextan. 
(4) 'to gossip ' : klepjan s try: on, klepjan am ru:in o hy:d. (5) 'to 
clap ' (the hands). 

kleppyn, s.m., dim. of klap, ' a small lump '. Cf. kneppyn. 
klerk, s., ' a sudden sharp knock ', e. g. of the foot against a stone ; 



kkrkjan klip 265 

also with the hand, etc. : mi ro:6 o glerk arna i ; fig. may o a i 
glerk ar baub, ' he finds fault with every one ' = hel beta. -(].]. ; 
unknown to O.H.). 

klerkjan, v., 'to give a sudden sharp knock'; fig. 'to find 
fault ' (J.J. ; unknown to O.H.). 

klert, s., ' a lounging ' (J.J. ; unknown to O.K.). 

klertjan, v. fl.W.; E.J.; J.J.).j O.K. has kler/jan and kkrtjo; 
cf. Eng. (Dial.) clart [to do anything in a sloppy, slatternly way ; 
to trifle, bungle over work ; to idle, waste time], Bnff., Nhb., Cum., 
e.Yks., Not., n.Lin., ' to lounge ' : kkrtjan m jt: gwtiQjo ; sy kkrtjo 
gweiOjo ; ay kkrtjan hevo i waiQ ; kkrtjo hyd 9 walja, ar 9 bont, ar 
9 6urd (i. e. with one's elbows), ar 9 gha:u (i. e. with one's hands 
resting on the handle). 

klertog (J.J.); kkrtjog (O.H.), adj. corresponding to above : dy:n 
kkrtjog. 

klesbyn ; klebsyn (E.J.), s.m., pi. klesbja. (i) 'clasp': klesbyn 
klogsan, ' the clasp of a clog '. (2) in slate quarries * clasp ', i. e. one 
of two pieces of iron of different lengths inserted into a split made 
by a chisel. Between them is placed a larger chisel (ky:n kraig) 
which is then driven in with a mallet. 

kkut, s., clewt, S.E. ; Eng. clout [a blow]. Cf. the dialectical form 
cleaut, Lan.; also clut, Corn. [* to fall with a clut ' = ' to fall in a 
heap ' ; and * to fa* clout ', Sc. ' to fall to the ground with force ']. 
in phrase : disgin i laur ay gleut, ' to fall in a heap '. 

kleutan (I.W.; J.J. ; O.K.) ; kbutan (E.J.), s.f., pi. kleutja, clewtan, 
S.E. ; Eng. clout, (i) ' anything flat ' (I.W.) of a stone in a wall : 
zy gorvad i gi:d zy gleutan ar 3 mortar may gini hi wely da: (O.H.) ; 
kleutan o vre\tan, dur\ (dywarch), dorQ of bread that has not 
risen properly : may r bara ny:n gleutan. (2) ' a blow ': ssrBjo y 
glautan ar !aur, ( to fall in a heap, to fall with force '. (3) ' a fine, 
strapping woman ' : dma gleutan de:u nobl. 

kleyar, adj., clauar, D., ' lukewarm ' ; ' warm ' (of wintry weather). 

klikjad, s.m., pi. klikjada, klickiet, W.S. ; cliccied, D. ; Eng. clicket 
(still in Dialects), Match of a door ' ; klikjad ge:n, 'jawbone '. 
klino, v. = /lino, tylino, D., ' to knead '. 

kliykum, s., clincwm, S.E., 'importunate harping on the same 
string ' : kliykum o hy:d am 9r y:n pe:Q ; dma gliykum o hy:d ifo i 
X a:l hi; kadu kliykum (O.H.). 

klip, s.m., pi. klipja, clip, R. [a precipice], 'a steep hill ' : may 
hun 3y glip go drum ; dros glip penman'maur, alluding to the road 
between Llanfairfechan and Penmaenmawr. 

klip, s.m., pi. klipja, clips, M.LI. ii. 115, 19, 'eclipse': klip ar 
9r hayl. 



266 klipjo klo:d 

klipjo, v., ' to clip ' : klipjo hfala hevo sisurn. 
klippan, s.f., ' hill ' = klip-. klippan vaur (O.K.). 

klippan, s.f., clipen, S.E., * a slap on the face with the palm or 
back of the hand ' (not so violent as ftelpari). 

klippus, s., cnippws, D., ' talitrum ' ; ' a slap ' (O.H.). 

klt:r, adj., clir, B.C. 26. 24. (i) 'clear' (of the weather). (2) 
' clear ', i.e. at a safe distance : r ^du in sevyl zy gli:r oru6 rhei ni, 
1 1 keep clear of those people '. (3) ' cleared ? : le: kli:r, ' a place 
which has been cleared'. (4) 'entirely': meBy y gli:r, 'to fail 
entirely ' = meQy n la:n. 

klirjo, v., clirio, B.C. 116.31, (i ) ' to clear up ' (of the weather) : 
ma: r derwyb we.di klirjo. (2) 'to clear, clear away ' (of tables, 
food, etc.) : klirjo r burb, klirjo r suppar. 

klistjog, adj., klustioc, W.S. [Ered], pryf klustioc [An erwygge] 
Pty- klistjog, ' earwig '. 

kljaran; klaran (O.H.), s., term of reproach used of dull, slow, 
stupid persons ; kljaran 2 ko:yd, a kind of bird (sp. ?). 

klo:, s.m.j pi. kloia^ clo, D., * lock ' : rhoi klo: ar 3 dru:s y ' to lock 
the door ' ; kadu dan glo:, ' to keep under lock and key ' ; tul 9 klo:, 
' key-hole ' = tulgorjad; klo: klut, l padlock ' ; ma:yn klo: \ma:yn\ ; 
fig. klo: ovnaduy ?di eira, ' snow is a terrible impediment '. 

khb, s.m., pi. klobjon y cf. klobos, W.S. [Cloddes] ; Eng. (Dial.) 
clob [A lump or clod of earth or clay], Devon, ' a hard clod of 
earth ' : pren i gyro klobjon ar 3 ti:r (J.J. not known to O.H.). 

kloban, s.f., cloben, B.C. 33. i. (i) applied to something big: 
kloban o fon. (2) ' a virago ' : kloban o dmas, kloban 8ru:g, also 
used in a much weaker sense : may hi n he:n globan Sru:g, ' she is 
a naughty girl' (applied e.g. by a mother to her daughter); tyd 
9mma r he:n globan ! (to a dog). 

klobar, s., ' a wooden mallet formerly used for breaking clods ' 
(O.K.). 

klobjo, v. (i) ' to break ' (clods) : muBul pren i globjo klai. (2) ' to 
beat, knock ' : mi klobjob o ; klobjo nu 9n i gilib. 

klobor, klobar, s., pi. klobors, klobars, cf. Eng. (Dial.) clobber 
[mud, clay, dirt], Ayr, ' a hard clod of earth ' : gord bren i valy 
klobors. 

klobyn, s.m., pi. klobja, clobyn, S.E., ' a large lump ' : klobyn maur 
o budin, o lo: t o eira, o glai ; also applied to persons : klobyn o 
8y:n, ' a fine strapping fellow ' ; as term of reproach : taw r hem 
globyn gwirjon. 

klo:d, s.m. (?), clod, D., ' praise, fame '. 



kloljo klo:x 2 67 

klotjo, v., cloddio, D. (i) * to dig a ditch' = torifo:s. (2) 'to 
dig out', e.g. people from under fallen earth. 

klotyur, s.m., cloddiwr, D., s.v. ' fossor ' ; ' one who digs ditches '. 

klo:f, adj., cloff, D., ' lame '. 

klofi, v., cloffi, D., ' to be lame, to limp '. 

klofni, s., cloffni, D., s.v. ' claudicatio ' ; ' lameness '. 

klo/rum, s., cloifrwym, D., s.v. ' pedica ' ; ' a rope for tying round 
one of the fore-legs of a refractory cow at milking-time to prevent 
it from kicking, and fastened with a piece of wood behind the 
knee ' (O.H.). fig. ' hindrance ' : mi vy:8 MJ glofrum garu 'arnoxi, 
' it will be a great hindrance to you ' (I.W.). 

klogi, kzvlogi, v., cyflogi, D., ' to hire ' ; ' to go into service ' 
(hevd) : fair gwlogi, ' hiring-fair '. 

kloguyn, s.m., pi. kloguini, clogwyn, D., ' a steep piece of rock ' ; 
in slate quarries, ' the face of the rock ' ; kloguyn dru:g, * a piece of 
rock which cannot be used for slates ' ; fig. mynd m erbyn 9 
kloguyn, ' to run one's head against a stone wall ' (O.H.). 

klogarnab, adj., clogyrnaidd, S.E., * uncouth, rugged ' : hnrra:?'g 
klogzrnati, ' clumsy, uncouth Welsh ' ; byux, kb'ydan, kraig glogzrnab. 

kloi, v., cloi, D. Fut. S. 3. kloiB. Pret. S. i. klois, 3. kloiot. 
PI. 3. kloison. Imperative klo: ; klo:u\. Pret. Pass. klo:ud, ' to lock ' : 
daxi wedi kloi arno vo /, ' have you locked it up ? ' ; 'r oybanu wedi 
xlot hi, ' they had locked her up '. 

kloior, s.f., cloer, D., ' foruli ' ; 'a small receptacle in a chest ' 
(I.W.). 

kick, s.m., pi. klokja, clocc, D. ; cf. D.G. ccxvi. 35, 'clock' : may 
r klok m tipjan, m taro, ' the clock is ticking, is striking ' ; we'indjo 
r klok, ' to wind the clock ' ; may r klok igjan mynyd m vy:an, m 
slo:, ' the clock is twenty minutes fast, slow ' ; b9sa& 3 klok, ' hands 
of the clock'; klok pen davad, 'an old-fashioned clock with 
weights '. 

klokjur, s.m., clocivvr, T.N. 17. 43, 'clock-maker'. 

kloksan, s.f., pi. klokfa, cf. kloc, W.S. [A clogge]. (i) ^clog': 
klokf'a a bakfa, 'clogs and footless stockings'. (2) ' shoe ' (to put 
under the wheel of a cart). 

klokf'ur, s.m., clocsiwr, T.N. 17. 31, 'clog-maker'. 

klo:x, s.f., pi. kloxa. (i) ' bell ' : kanyrglo:x, ' to ring the bell ' ; 
applied to singing in the ear : may gin i glo:\ ba:\ m 9 glhy:st; 
may gini hi glo:x uQ bo:b daint, said of a loud-voiced talkative person 
(cf. below) ; kloxa babis, ' hare-bells ' (Campanula rotundifolia), but 
Mr. J. E. Griffith informs me that in Anglesey this name is applied to 
the daffodil. (2) ' clock ', in speaking of the time of day : vaint (sd}i 
o r glo:x ar *r amsar jaun ?, ' what is the correct time ? ' ; am vaint 
o r glo:x ?, ' at what time ? ' ; Iri: o r glo:x, ' three o'clock '. (3) 



268 kloxderan kloykjog 

used of the voice : kodi i glo:x, ' to speak in high tones ' ; a i glo:x 
myux nane:b, said of a loud-talking, self-assertive person. (4) in 
pi. ' bubbles ' : 9 du:r ay kodi y gloxa, e. g. on the surface of a lake 
during heavy rain (JJ. ; O.H.). Cf. D., s.v. ' bulla '. 

kloxderan; kloxgeran (O.H.), v., cf. clochdarddain, clochdran, 
S.E., ' to talk loudly, shout '. 

kloxjan, v., clochian. (i) 'to ring bells': 9 kloxyb ^n kloxjan 
(more commonly kany r glo:x). (2) ' to talk, make a noise ' : paid 
a xloxjan; kloxjan farad m le: mynd; be u:ti y kloxjan 3n le: mynd ? 

kloxyb, s.m., pi. klox^jon, clochydd, D., ' sexton, parish clerk '. 

klomman, s.f., pi. klomennod, colommen, D. ; clomen, M.LI. ii. 
114, 12, 'pigeon': vel klomman an i 6y:, said of a woman who 
dresses well but has a dirty house. 

klompan, s.f., cf. clompan, M.F., ' anything big ' (I.W.) : he:n 
glompan, a term of reproach for a woman, whether big or small 
(O.K.). 

klompyn, s.m., term of reproach, the masc. equivalent of above 
(O.K.). 

klondid, s., calondid, D., ' magnanimitas ' ; ' anything tending to 
raise the spirits, such as good news, etc ' ; esp. in the expression 
gair o glondid, * a cheering word '. 

klondro \_klandro\. 

klonnog, adj., calonnog, D., s.v. ' animosus ' ; ' hearty, in good 
spirits ' : xwerBin muya klonnog, f to laugh as heartily as can be ' ; 
Kefyl klonnog, ' a spirited horse '. 

kloyk, adj., cf. Eng. (Dial.) clunk [to emit a hollow, interrupted 
sound as of a liquid issuing from a bottle or narrow opening], Sc. 
' addled ' : may r u:y y gloyk. 

kloyk, s., clone, S.E. [a hollow sound like that made by striking a 
metal vessel], Eng. clank, ' the sound of the nave of a cart-wheel 
working regularly on its axle '. 

kloyk, s., pi. kloykja, ' a slant, inclination one way or another ', 
m tavlyd alan ne i veun : may kloyk zno vo ; in pi. ' bumps, 
protuberances ' : ma na hem dolkja a kloykja ar hy:d ?ford. 

kloykjan^ v., clonkan, clonco, S.E. [to make a hollow sound]; 
Eng. clank, and (Dial.) clonk, Cum. (i) said of the sound of 
the nave of a cart-wheel working regularly on its axle. (2) 'to 
talk noisily ' : be u:ti y kloykjan 9n wirjon ? 

kloykjo, v., said of a cart swaying from side to side owing to un- 
evenness in the road : 9 drol sy kadixloykjo ; used also of persons 
walking in a similar fashion. 

kloykjog, kleykjog, adj., clonciog, S.E., 'full of protuberances ', 
" bumpy " : le: kloykjog ; may rford ?n dolkjog ag sy gleykjog. 



kloykuy klu:ad 269 

kloykuy, kbykuy, s.m., pi. kloykwy:a, cloncwy, S.E , ' an addled 
egg ' ; also as adjective : ma: r wy:a y gloykuy i &i:d, ( the eggs 
are all addled ' (O.H.). 

kloran, s.f., cloren, D., ' tail of a horse ' : tori i gloran ; klu:y r 
gloran. 

Morjanny, v., clorianu, S.E., to weigh in scales ' ; fig. * to 
weigh in the mind, to think out ' : erbyn i klorjanny nu. 
klorjon, s.f., pi. klorjanna, clorian, D., 'scales'. 
klos, adj., klos ne gayad, W.S., [Close]; cf. L.G.C. 306 [18]; 
clos, T.N. 238. 9. (i) 'close' (o? the weather) = mul, gwigil, 
/nmmad. (2) 'friendly, unassuming* (opp. to "standoffish"). 
(3) 'close, miserly '. 

klo:s, s.pl., c!6s, W.LI. (Voc) s.v. 'llawdr'; R. ; B.C. 75. 3; 
117.19; Eng. (small) clothes ; 'knee-breeches': gwisgo r bats 
a r klo:s, ' to wear the breeches ' (of a wife); troi klo:s, euph. for 
' ventrem exonerare '. 

klo/'o, v., closio, T.N. 106. 36 ; S.E., ' to close up to, to come 
close ' ; ' to be friendly, unassuming ' : may o y klof>o 'atto\i. 

klvudjo, v., 'to cloud, thicken ' : lay 6 wedi hel at i gilti, wedi 
de\ra troi, de\ra syro, de\ra klgudjo. 

kfous, s., Eng. (Dial.) clow [hurry, bustle, confusion], Yks., ' a 
row, disturbance ' : kodi klents = kodi rew. 

kteuf'o, klerunf'o, v., ' to keep harping petulantly ' (about the same 
thing) ; klyuf'o am 3r y:n pe:6 o hy:d ; paid a \l0uf f o, / adi o m gin t\ 
' don't keep on asking, I haven't got it '. 

kltwt, s.f., in the phrase ar 3 gl0ut, destitute ' (Bangor). Cf. klui. 
klautan \kleutan\. 
klovar, s.pl., ' clover '. 

kloverog, adj., ' full of clover ' : gwair kloverog. 
klu:ad, v., clywed, D. Fut. S. i. klu:a, 2. klu:i, 3. klu:id [klyu]. 
PI. i. klyun, 2. klyux, klu:x, 3 klu:an. Imperf. (frequently used 
with pret. meaning), i. klyun, klu:n, 2. klu:at, 3. klu:a. PI. i.klu:an t 
2. klu:a\, 3. klu:an. Pret. S. i. klu:is, 2. klu:isl, 3. klu:o&. PL i. 
klu:son, 2. klu:sox, %.klu:son. Plup. S. i. klusun, 2. klu:sat, 3. klu:sa. 
PL i. klu:san t 2. klu:sa\, 3. klu:san. Imperative klyu ; klyu\. Imperf. 
Pass, with pret. meaning klu:id. (i) 'to hear ' : ma: nu y klu:ad 
mor vain, ' their sense of hearing is so acute ' ; klu:ad vel ka:6, ' to 
have sharp ears ' ; klu:ad po:b smik, ' to hear the slightest sound ' ; 
may o y klu:ad m drum, ' he is hard of hearing ' ; -glu:so\i ru:in ?y 
gwe't&it, ' did you hear any one shouting ? ' ; r qytiun i n sad pey 
glu:n t lais o, ' the sound of his voice made me ill ' ; taro r po:st 
ga:yl i r parad glu:ad t * to strike the post so that the wall may hear ', 
i.e. ' to give a hint to some one by speaking to some one else ' ; 
klu:ad ar y galon, * to feel inclined ' : mi 8a:u o pey glu:i& o ar i 
galon ; x/:*/Y dim gair am le: ibi hi, ' I heard nothing about a 



270 klub klut 

situation for her ' ; 'glu:soxi so:n am dano vo ?, t have you heard of 
him ? ' ; \lu:is i dim am i salux o, ' I did not hear a word of his 
illness ' ; xlu:is i ri'oyd a m klistja m ono vo, ' I never heard of it ' ; 
os klyuxi, neuxi anvon i mi V, ' if you hear, will you let me know ? ' ; 
muya vy:b dy:n byu, muya wed a muya glyu (prov.), ' we live and 
learn '. (2) ' to listen ', only in the imperative : klyux gwrandu\. 
(3) ' to taste ' : daxi y klu:ad 9 bu:yd 3n da: ?, ; does the food taste 
nice ? ' ; 9 Ki:g gora glu:is i eri'o:yd, ' the best meat I ever tasted ' ; 
klyu\ hun, 'taste this'. (4) 'to smell': daxi y klu:ad hogla 
bakko ?, ' do you smell tobacco ? ' ; klyux 3 gvuahanjaQ hogla, ' smell 
the difference '. (5) ' to feel ' : klu:ad if'o bu:yd, ' to feel hungry ' ; 
daxi n i xlu:at i n o:yr ?, ' do you feel cold ? ' ; klyux * puysa sy no, 
'feel how much it weighs' ; daxiy klu:adh ma: nu m pigo?, ' do 
you feel where they prick ? ', e. g. nails in a boot ; may hun in vedal, 
klyux, ' this is soft, feel '. 

klub, s., ' club ' : klub 9 bar a sy:x, 'a destitute state ', used especially 
with reference to marriage : aros di fanaB i nes ei di i glub 9 bara 
sy:x* 

klubjo, v. (i) ' to put into a club ' : klubjo arjan. (2) 'to put 
away, save up ' : u:ti dim sy klubjo dim ? (3) ' to keep possession 
of, " to stick to " : may o wedi klubjo nu i gi:d (O.K.). Cf. T.N. 
409. 5. Fe glybiodd y cwbwl yn fanwl i'vv fol. 

kluf, s.m., pi. kbfja, ' a large piece, lump, chunk ' : klufo vrextan. 

klujyn, s.m. (i) ' a large piece, lump' : klufyn o gaus, o vara. 
(2) applied to a big boy or girl (JJ. ; O.H.) : may y glufyn o hogyn 
gin ti (O.K.). 

klukjan, v., clwccian, R. (i) 'to cluck' (of fowls). (2) 'to 
complain of some bodily infirmity ' : syt may wil? klukjan dippin 
may o 9 d&wyb o:yr ma (O.H.). 

klu:s t adj., comp. kbsax, pi. kbf'on, tlws, D., 'pretty': hogan 
glu:s; dyn ba:x klu:s 3di o, ' he is a nice little man '. 

klustur, s.m., ' cluster ' ; also used of things in a mass together ; 
tsvy y glustur, ' to grow close together ' ; 'vzbanu 'arnoxi n y:n 
klustur, ' they are on you in swarms ' (of flying insects). 

klut, s.m., pi. kbtja, klwt, W.S. [A clout]; clwtt, B.C. 24. 13; 
Eng. (Dial.) clout, clute [rag, patch] ; O.E. clut ; cf. kleut, kleutan. 
(i) c rag, piece of linen ', etc. ; ' baby's napkin ' : klut ar ben gli:n, 
' knee-rag used by workmen ' ; gorvad vel kluf, ' to lie like a log ' ; 
S9r6jo vel klut, 'to fall like a log'. (2) in slate quarries, when a 
block (ply:g) has been split with a chisel (ky:n brasolt) and the 
pieces so obtained have been cut longitudinally and transversely, 
and again split into the thickness of about sixteen slates, each 
of these pieces is called a klut, ' a reduced block '. (3) ' patch ' : gosod 
klut, ' to put on a patch ' ; -gammanuglut?, ' will they bear patching?' ; 
klo: klut, ' padlock '. (4) ' patch of ground ' : klut o di:r ; klut 



kluttyn kly:n 2 7 1 

gla:s, ' a lawn, patch of grass ' ; klut krvri, in slate quarries, ' the 
place where slates are counted ', ' stacking-ground' ; bo:d ar 9 klut, 
' to be left stranded, to be turned out of hearth and home ' ; dma 
nhu: ar 9 klut, i. e. tub dim gwai'0, heb garlra % wedi ka:yl i tavlyd 
afan (O.H.j. 

kluttyn, s.m., clyttyn, C.L.C. ii. 20. 28, 'a small rag' : kluttyn ar 
ben glim, ' knee- rag '. 

klu:y, s.m., clwyf, D., ' disease ', but only used in specific cases 
as 9 klu:y (of sheep), ' the rot ' ; klu-.y du:r (of sheep), ' red water ' ; 
kluy penna, * mumps ' ; klu:y melyn, ' jaundice ' ; klu:y r brenin, 
' scrofula '. 

kluyd, s.f., clwyd, D., s.v. ' sedile '. (i) 'hen-roost '. (2) said of 
things growing or clustering close together: ma: nu y glu:yd 9mma, 
4 they grow close together here ' ; may amba^ym 9y glu:yd o lay. 

kluy dan, s.f., chvyden, D., said of things growing so close together 
as to form, as it were, a covering : may r ba:u (weeds) 9ny:n gluydan 
dros 9 tattus i &i:d (O.H.). 

kluydo, v., clwydo, S.E., ' to roost '. 

kluybog, adj., celwyddog, D., ' lying, mendacious' : stry:on kluybog, 
' lying tales ' ; hBral kluybog ! 

kluybur, s., celwydd-wyr (pi.), i Tim. i. 10, ' liar*. 

kluyvo, v., clwyfo, D., ' to become afflicted with disease ' : ma: r 
devatd ivedi kluyvo (O.H.). 

kluyvys, adj., clwyfus, D., s.v. ' morbosus ' ; 'diseased': may i 
bgaid o y gluyvys, ' his eyes are heavy with sickness ' (I.W.). 

kly:d, adj., sup. kletta, clyd, D., ' sheltered, cosy * : may n edrax 
*V gfy-'d jaun, ' it looks very cosy ' ; 9 ly: kletta i r klaub, ' the 
sheltered side of the wall '. . 

klydo, v., cludo, D., ' to carry ' (occasionally heard, but karjo is 
the usual word). 

klyl, s.m., clul, D. (i) ' knell ' ; in fig. sense : kany klyl ru:in, 
' to give a very bad account of some one ' : may hun a hun yy kany 
d9 glyl 3n aru, 9n deyd bo ti wedi mynd 9n o:l la:u, wzdi sw&jo i riu 
drabini ; ma na he:n glyl garu 'g9no\i, *you are always harping on 
the same string '. (2) ' a lanky fellow ' : he:n glyl main (W.H. ; O.H.). 
Cf. kyl 

klylbo, s.m., ' a lanky fellow ' : riu hem glylbo (O.H.). 

klymmax, s.m., climmach, D., s.v. 'longurio ' ; D.P.O. 249. 24, 
* a tall ungainly fellow ' : hem glymmax da: i dim 9di o, hogyn ne 
fy:n heb i or/an. 

klym, s.f., pi. klinja, clun, D., ' the leg from the knee upwards, 
thigh ' ; pen 9 glym, * hip ' ; asgurn pen 9 glym, ' hip-bone ' ; o gly:n 
i glym, ' from side to side ' ; brei'xja vel 9 glhinja, said of thick 
arms. 



272 klyro kbmmy 

klyro, s.m., term of reproach : ta:u r he:n glyro gwirjon ! (O.H.). 

kly.st, s.f., pi. klistja, clust, D., ' ear ' : may dz gly:st 9n denajaun, 
' you have sharp ears ' ; opp. te:u ; may gin tglo:x ba:x m 9vlhy:st, 
1 1 have a singing in my ear ' ; may gin i bigin 9n 9 glhy:st i, 
'I have earache'; may hi wedi xu6y n i xly:st, " she has got 
round her " ; dma du:r m i glistja vo /, ( there's unpleasant 
tidings for him ! ' ; r o:d 9 day m 9 gly.st, ' they were quarrelling ' ; 
may o m 3 gly:st hevo vo, ' he is at him, tackling him ' ; wedi mynd 
ogly:st i gly.st, ' to have become a matter of common talk ' = wedi 
mynd an rhigum gin baub; may o y gly:st i gi:d, ' he is all ears ' ; 
4 he knows every bit of gossip ' ; farad ar draus pen a klistja, ' to 
talk thirteen to the dozen ' ; gwasgy r gly.st, ' to keep one's counsel ; 
not to say anything ' ; r o:d 9 day gly:st 9 ijlhy:st, ' they were 
whispering together ' ; may in vo:x ba:\ glistja (prov.), ' little 
pitchers have long ears ' ; may klistja gin globja (prov.), ' walls 
have ears '. Transferred uses : kly.st 9 dgug, 9 guppan, 9 Kibin, 9 
radal, 9 teKal, ' handle ' ; kly:st pikttm, sheep's ear-mark so called 
[no:d] ; klystgam (of a plough), ' ratchet ' ; klistja 9 dro:yl (?) ; kly.st 9 
ga:d, any shell of the genus Pecten ; kly:st 'eltfant, name of a shell, 
Mya truncata ; klyst hgodan, ' mouse-ear chickweed ' (Cerastium). 

klystan, s.f., clusten, S.E. (i) *a box on the ear': mi rois i 
glamp o glystan ido vo. (2) in slate quarries : when, in pillaring 
(plery), the line, instead of continuing straight, turns off sharply to 
the right or left either through a flaw in the slate or through clumsy 
workmanship, the place where this occurs is called klystan. 

klystog, s.f., pi. klystoga, clustog, D., ' cushion ' ; ' pillow ' (for the 
latter O.H. has pilo only). 

klystog, adj., ' obstinate, stubborn ' (J.J. ; O.H.). Also as sub- 
stantive : r he:n glystog stiupid ! (O.H.). 

klystogaft, adj., ' obstinate, stubborn ' (W.H. ; J.J. ; O.H.). 

klyslogyn, s.m., ' an obstinate, stubborn fellow ' (J.J.). 

klystoxi, v., { to become obstinate or stubborn ' (J.J.; O.H.). 

klystveinjO) v., clustfeinio, S.E., ' to prick up one 's ears, to listen 
attentively ' : 9-y klystveinjo am 9 mmvyd i klu:ad nu. Frequently 
used. 

klyu, s.m., clyw, D., 'sense of hearing' : koli i glyu; mimharob 
9 vre:x go:x ar i \lyu hi, ' the measles injured her hearing ' ; mi eif 
i lerpul hevo ylhyu, 1 1 went to Liverpool about my hearing ' ; 9y 
glhyu plant, * in the hearing of children '. 

kbmmog, adj., clymmog, D., s.v. ' nodosus ' ; ' knotty ' : kortyn 
kbmmog. 

khmmy, v., clymmu, D., s.v. ' ligo ', ' vincio ' ; 'to tie, bind ' : 
kbmmy kulum, * to tie a knot '. Intr. kbmmy am rubaQ, ' to twist 
round something ', e. g. of a creeper. Also klummo. 



kbnrag knavab 273 

kbnrag, s.f., canlynwraig, ' mistress ' = hmanas. 

kbtjo, v., clyttio, D., s.v. ' consarcino ', ' resarcio ' ; * to patch '. 

kbtjog, adj., ' patchy ' : gwa:^ khijog, 'hair coming off in patches '. 

kbt/ur, sgodyn kbtfur, s.m., (?) < lump-sucker ' (Cyclopterus 
lumpus) = ja:r vo:r. 

klwar, adj., clyfar, T.N. 98. 35. (i) 'clever'. (2) 'pood- 
looking ; of good appearance ' : hogan glwar, favn o tym kbvar, 
Kefyl ivayk klwar ; farm go gbvar. (3) ' pleasant, agreeable ' (of 
persons) = klem ; (of things) may hi n mynd ar galap amma heno = 
huiljog, gbvar (O.H.). (4) ' well off ' : pobol glruar. 

kna:, s.m., knaf, W.S. [A knaue] ; end, B.C. 21. 7 ; cnaf, T.N. 
I 5- 35- (0 ' knave '. (2) ' a stingy, niggardly fellow ' : hem gna: 
= hem gravur. In the following examples from O.H. the meaning 
is not clear : may o vel kna:, 'vedru\i dim ka:l gwarad o hono vo ; 
may o vel kna: ar 9 ghevn o hy:d ; may o amma vel kna: am arjan, 
dim posib gneyd ifur a vo:. 

knady, v. = hrnady (I.W.). 

knap, s.m., pi. knapja, knap, W.S. [A knoppe] ; cnap, D. ; cf.Eng. 
(Dial.) knap, ' a lump ' : knap o lo:, doys, bren, etc. ; also ' a small 
loaf made from a piece of dough left over when baking ' : duy dorQ 
a \nap (O.H.) of persons * a stunted, dumpy individual as broad 
as he is long' : r he:n gnap ; knapja mer\aid\ in pi. ' sweets'. 

knaf Jan, knapjo, v., cnapian, S.E. (i) 'to make into a lump, to 
huddle up ' : paid a \napjo d? dra:yd, ' don't screw up your feet ' 
(said e. g. to a child who is trying to prevent a pair of boots being 
put on); paid a xnapjo d3 goysa, e.g. in bed. (2) 'to become 
lumpy ' (of the sea). (3) ' to set ' (of apples) : may r vala y knapjo, 
1 the apples are setting ', i. e. becoming round (O.H.). 

knapjog, adj., cnappog, R. ; cnapiog, S.E., ' lumpy ' : glo: knapfog. 

knappan, s.f., cnapen, S.E., ' a small stunted person ' : hem 
gnappan vexan. 

knappyn, s.m., a small stunted person '. 

knarvon, Caernarfon, ' Carnarvon ' : yyynharvon, ' in Carnarvon '. 

knaud, s.m., cnawd, D., ' flesh '. 

knaur, s.m., cnowr, D.G. clxxxii, 37, ' chewer ' : knaur bakko 
oybun i pryt fanny. 

knava, v., cynhauafu, D. ; cynhauafa, S.E. (i) 'to dry', ex- 
pressing the action of the sun and air on a standing crop : may r 
gwynt a r hay I m i knava nu. (2) 'to expose a crop to the sun and 
air for the purpose of drying it ', esp. hay. (3) Intr. ' to dry in the 
sun and air ' (of a crop). 

htavaS, adj., cnafaidd, S.E., ' knavish '. 

143Z T 



274 knawas kn'eya 

knawas (I.W.) ; knavas (O.H.), s.f., cenawes, G.O. ii. 70. 1 7 ; 
T.N. 102. 38, 'vixen ' (said of a woman). 

knay, s.pl., sing, kneyan, f. cnau, D. (i) ' nuts ; hazel-nuts ' = 
(for sake of distinction) knqy kyl; knay freim'g, cnau ffrengig, and 
cneuen ffrangeg, s.v. ' nauci ', D., * walnuts ' ; knay bi:tf, ' beech- 
nuts ' ; knqy 9 fteyar, ' earth-nuts ' (Conopodium denudatum) ; eval 
gnay, ' nut crackers ' ; y:n go:yg o:d 9 gn'eyan, ' I was clean sold in 
the business ' (I.W.) ; ' she turned out an empty nut ' (of a rejected 
girl), J.J. ; tori knay gweigjon, ' to be on a useless quest '. 

knebrun, s.m., pi. knebrwa, cynhebrwng, D., s.v. 'exequige'; 
' funeral ' : knebrun maur, ' a public funeral ' ; knebrun ba:\, ' a 
private funeral '. 

knegwaQ, s.f., ceinhiagwerth, I.G. 610 [38]; ceiniogwerth, M.LI, 
i. 138. 18; ceinhiogwerth, B.C. 140. 2, 'pennyworth'. 

kne'itjo, v., ? yskipio ( = ) krychneitio [Skyppe], W.S. ; crychneitio, 
D., s.v. 'persulto'; cf. cneitio, M.F., *(?)to twinkle' (of stars) : be 
da\i n veSul rie'iQ i vary ? may tu:y gwy-'lt m ammyl, ma: r se:r 3-y 
krieitjo (O.H.), ' what kind of weather do you think we shall have 
to-morrow ? There is stormy weather coming, the stars are 
twinkling (?) '. 

krieivjo, v., cneifio, D., ' to shear ' : kne'ivjo devaid. 

krieivjur, s.m., cneifiwr, D., 'shearer'. 

kneks, s.pl., cnecs, T.N. 308. 27, 'quarrel, strife'; kodi kneks, 'to 
rake up old scores, to stir up strife ' ; rubaB i nejyd kneks. 

kneppyn, s.m., cnepyn, S.E., dim. of knap, (i) ' a small lump '. 
(2) 'anything small and round': kneppyn 9 dru:s, 'handle of the 
door ' = durn ; kneppyn 3 tebot, ' the knob on the lid of a tea-pot ' 
= knottyn ; kneppyn o dor 6, ' a small round loaf '. Cf. also knappyn. 

knesol, adj., cynhesol, S.E. (i) 'acceptable, to one's liking; 
taking '. (2) ' warm-hearted, amiable '. 

Anesruyd, s.m., cynnhesrwydd, D., ' warmth '. 

knesy, v., cynnhesu, D. ; cynnessu, s.v. ' calefacio ' ; 'to become 
warm ' : ma: y knesy, ' it is getting warmer ' (of the weather) ; rieif 

1 gnesy ar o:l tdi vuru, ' it will get warmer after the snow ' ; vedra 

2 dim knesy heity'u, 'I can't get warm to-day ' ; ar o:l i mi gnesy m 
9 gwely, ' when I am warm in bed '. Cf. tummo. 

kneujan [karneujan]. 

knevin, kmevin, adj., cynnefin, D., 'accustomed'. 

knevtn, kmevin, s.m., cynnefin, Ezek. xxi. 30, ' sheep-run, a tract 
of land where there are rights of sheep pasture ' ; also of persons : 
may o wedi du:ad 9n o:l i u he:n gmevin. 

kneya, s.m., cynhanaf, D., ' harvest' : kneya gwat'r, ' hay-harvest '; 
amsar kneya, m 9 kneya, ' at harvest time ' ; rhuy 3 day gn'e'ya, 
' between hay and corn harvest J . 



knidu knova 275 

knidu (I.W.); knidju (O.H.), s.m., 'an insignificant person' 
(I.W.) ; hem gnidju b)\an (O.H.). 

knigjad, s.m., cynnygiad, S.E., ' offer '. 

km'.'Xt s., cnuch, D., ' carnal desire '. 

knt'/o, v., cynnilo, D., ' to economize ' : *y yena r sa:x may km'lo 
(prov.), ' one should economize from the beginning and not only 
when the article is nearly finished '. 

km'Qar, s.f., pi. kniBerod, cyfnither, D., ' first cousin ' : may hi y 
gniBar a mi. 

kniu, s.m., pi. kntuja, cniw, S.E., 'knee', i.e. 'a stanchion on the 
gunwale of a boat to hold fast the seat' (Bangor); in a more 
extended sense : rhummo joy rti rhoi 9 kniuja (O.H.). 

knjalun (I.W.) ; hrjalun, hrnjalun, krmjalun (O.H.), s., 
carnialwn, cerniahvn, criahvn, S.E., ' a restless person '. 

knot, v., cnoi, D. Fut. S. i. kno:a, 3. knot'6. PI. 3. kno:n. Pret. 
S. i. knot's ', 2. kno:8. Imperative kno: ; knerux. (i) 'to chew, gnaw ' : 
ma: r he:n a:st wedi gnoi o, ' the old bitch has gnawed it ' ; knot 
lakko, ' to chew tobacco ' ; knot Kid, ' to chew the cud ' ; brif'a 
vytta, mi &ei gnoi etto, ' make haste and eat : you can digest after- 
wards '. (2) ' to ache ' ; substantively : may knot arna i, ' I have 
a stomach-ache '. 

knok, s.f., pi. knokja, cnocc, D. ; M.LI. i. 222. 10, 'knock, slap, 
stroke ' : animal i gnok dyr garag (prov.), ' dropping water wears 
away the stone ' ; heb wetBjo knok, ' without working a stroke ' ; 
b) 8a gnok, ' plunging churn '. 

knokfo, v., knockio, W.S. ; cnoccio, D. ; cf. D.G. cxxxv. 33, ' to 
knock, beat, strike ' : knokjo u6 9 dru:s, ' to knock at the door ' ; mi 
knokja i di nes fodi di n 8al (bosi), ' I'll strike you blind ' ; knokjo ru:in 
ar i gevn, ' to clap some one on the back ' ; knokjo Karpedi, ' to beat 
carpets ' ; ma: r derwyb wedi knokjo nu, ' the weather has caught 
them ' (e. g. blackberries). 

knokka, v., keiniocka, W.S. [no meaning]; ceiniocca, D.P.O. 
26. 19 ; T.N. 228. 38, ' to collect ' (in a place of worship). 

knokkur, s.m., keiniockwr, W.S. [no meaning], * one who collects 
in a place of worship '. 

knornyn, knonyn \kmron\. 

knottyn, s.m., cnotyn, T.N. 280. 35. (i) ' the small knob on the 
top of the lid of a tea-pot, kettle, cap, etc. ' : knottyn tebot (O.H.) = 
knepfyn. (2) of persons, an epithet implying diminutiveness : 
knottvn o hogyn\ 3 vnhottyn ba:\!, endearing term to a baby 
(O.K.). 

knova, s., pi. kno'veyb, cnofa, D., ' an aching ' especially used of 
the stomach : may knova m vs moli. 

T 2 



276 knu:d kobljo 

knu:d, s.m., pi. knsda, cnwd, D. (i) 'crop': ail gnu: d, 'second 
crop'. (2) 'mass' in such expressions as may o n y:n knu:d o lay 
(xwain), O.H. (3) knu:d o eira, ' fall of snow '. Cf. F.N. 34 (18). 

knulbran, s.m., pi. knulbrenni, canhwyllbren, D., 'candlestick'. 

knujyn, knuyfyn ; knunfyn (J.J.; O.H.), kuninlin (O.H.), s.m., pi. 
knunlma (J.J.), cnewyll and cnywyll, sing, cnewyllyn, D., cyn- 
hwyllin, M.LI. i. 247. 23, ' the kernel of stone-fruit ' ; 'the seed itself 
as opposed to the husk ' ; ' the core of an apple ' (O.H.) ; ' the 
pith of elder ' (O.H.) ; ' the centre of a tree which has been cut 
down ' (O.H). 

knuyad, knoyad, s., cf. canwyr, D., 'a sheep's ear-mark so 
called : a V-shaped slit at the tip of the ear, the tip being thus 
removed' [0:<?]. 

kny:, s.m., pi. knmja, cnu, D., ' fleece '. 



knzsvuyd, s., cynhesfwyd, ' a meal taken formerly during harvest- 
time at about four o'clock in the afternoon, consisting of bread and 
butter and buttermilk '. 

knmjo, v., ( to wrap up wool after shearing '. 

ko:, s.m., cof, D. (i) pi. kqya, cf. couau, T.N. 85. 24, ' memory': 
may gsno vo go: arSerxog, ' he has a splendid memory ' ; may o n 
wel i go: na vo:, ' he has a better memory than he ' ; ko: da: gin i ! 
(ironically), ' what a memory I have ! ' ; pe:B garu zdi ko: plenty n, prov. 
implying that the events of one's childhood are vividly remembered. 
(2) ' remembrance, recollection ' : ma: gin i go: da: am y\ to'd> 1 1 
remember your father very well ' ; may y go: gin i i mi vynd, ' 1 re- 
member going ' ; s gin i 8i?n ma:6 o go:, s gin i va:6 o go:, ' I have 
not the slightest recollection ' ; golun pe:6 dros go:, ' to forget a 
thing '. (3) ' mind ' in phrase : mynd o i go:, ' to go mad ' ; mynd 
o i go: la:s, * to go raving mad ' ; dy:n o i go:, ' a madman ' ; daxi o 
X ko: /, ' have you lost your senses ? ' (4) in pi. kovjon, ' remem- 
brances ' : kovjon gora at . . ., ' my kind remembrances to . . . '. 

kob, s.m., pi. kobja, Eng. cob, ' embankment ', e. g. with flood- 
gates where a river enters the sea : may r avon wedi livo dros 
d kobja, ' the river has overflowed the embankments '. 

kob, s., ' cob ' (horse). 

koban, s.f., pi. kobana> coban, S.E., ' night-gown '. 

kobjo, v,, ' to make an embankment ' (O.H.). 

koblar, s.m., cobler, D,G. ccxvi. 34, 'cobbler*. 

kobljo, v. (i) ' to cobble ' : ma na i if'o kobljo ar 9 sgidja. (2) ' to 
do a thing clumsily, anyhow ' = gneyd 9m 'bum'batf ('butfi'bat/}, 
-strim* straw strelax. (3) ' to play " conquers " or " cobblers " with 
chestnuts ' ; hazel-nuts were also employed, a hole being drilled at 



koblyn kodi 277 

each end and the interior filled with cobbler's wax; knay kobljo, 
1 nuts used in the above game '. 

koblyn, s.m., koblyn, W.S. [A goblyn]; coblyn, W.LL (Voc.), 
s.v. ' llewyrn ', ' tremyniad ' ; cf. coblynnod, D., s.v. ' lemures '. 
(i) in such phrases as the following: mynd ml y koblyn, 'to go 
like mad ' ; ar gevn i goblyn, ( in a rage ' ; mi a:B hi y goblyn ylu 
arm hi, ' she flew into a temper with her ' ; m?y koblyn ylu /, 
asseveration; bf: goblyn u:ti n neyd ?, 'what on earth are you 
doing? ' (2) ' rogue ' : 9 koblyn ba:xt, used esp. of children. 

koblyn, s.m., Eng. (Dial.) cobbler [the fruit of the horse-chestnut 
tree ; the nuts used in the game of cobbler], Stf., War., n.e.Wor., 

* the conquering nut in the game of " conquers " or " cobbler " ' : 
^ rjhoblyn i valiB 9x knay \i i &i:d. 

kod, s.pl., sing, kodyn, ' cod ' : kodyn kreigja, l cod, rock-cod ' 
(Gadus morrhua) ; kodyn lu:yd, ' bib, pout ' (Gadus luscus) accord- 
ing to Forrest, but this species is certainly called here bodyn i 
mlinyb, and my informants distinguish between the two ; kodyn 
leyog, * cod after spawning '. 

ko:d, s.f., pi. koda, cod, D. (i) ' bag for keeping money ' : o:ys 
na arjan 9n 9 go:d ? formerly said when the cuckoo was heard for 
the first time (J.J.). (2) ' stomach ' (of a cow, etc.) : 3 go:d vaur, 

* rumen ' ; 9 go:d ba:\, ' omasum ' ; plisgan 9 go:d, ' the membrane 
of a cow's stomach ' ; ko:d moxyn, ' stomach of a pig ' ; go:d wen, ' a 
kind of cake made of oatmeal (rfonjori), suet, and currants, baked 
like a loaf, and eaten formerly at Christmas time ' (J. J.). Cf. D. s.v. 
' faliscus venter '. 

kodan, s.f., \>\.koda t coden, D., ' pod, shell ' (of beans and peas) : 
tmny py:s o r koda = dy:o py:s ; kodan eyra\, kodan eira, i puff- 
ball ' (Lycaperdon). D. has cod eurych and cod euraid without 
meaning ; O.P. has coden hyred. Also called snifin bugan. 

kodi, v., codi, D. Fut. S. 3. kodiQ, ku:yd, kwyd. Pret. PI. 3. kodson. 
Imperative ko:d ; kodux. Pret. Pass, koduyd, ' to raise, rise '. I. Tran- 
sitive : (i) ' to raise, lift up ' : kodt i ben, ' to raise his head ' ; ko:d d> 
hy:n, ' get up ' ; kodt{u:x, * to raise dust ' ; may hty kodi lu:x, ' dust is 
flying ' ; kodi (sc./r/:8) at 9 tattus, l to earth up potatoes ' ; may hi y 
kodi n wynt, ' the wind is rising ' ; kodi sa\ad ar ben kiauti, ' to lift a 
sack on to a wall ' ; esp. of bread : may byrym 9y kodi bara, ' barm 
makes bread rise ' ; kodi kerf, ' the initial ceremony at a funeral : 
a service held at the home of the deceased before carrying the 
body to the grave ' ; fig. kodi 9 ais, * to raise the voice ' ; neiO 
h9nny godi x kalon, l that will cheer you up ' ; kodi r by:d 9 mhtn 
i giltf, 'to set the world at loggerheads'. (2) 'to pick up'; 
may r adar wedi kodi r hada, * the birds have picked up the 
seeds ' ; kodi bawad o hono vo t ' to pick up a handful of it ' ; 



278 kodi kodjad 

gwelux be n'e'ifi godi ar 9 lo:n neiBjur, 'look what I picked up on 
the road last night '. (3) ' to dig up, pull up ' (of plants) : kodi 
tattus, ' to dig potatoes ' ; may hi y kodi rhei o 'honynu ag m i 
hay nu alan, ' she is taking up some of them and planting them 
out '. (4) ' to dig up ' (earth, etc.) : ti:r gla:s 'ddaxi y kodi i vmy> 
' land covered with grass which you dig up ' ; may r gla:u wedi kodi 
r lo:n nes may hi n reyan, ' the rain has churned up the road into 
gravel '. (5) ' to get out, obtain from out of ' : le ma: nu y kodi 3 
Kerig, ' where they get the stone ' (from out of the quarry) ; similarly, 
kodi tikkad, ' to buy a ticket ' ; kodi pappyr newyd, ' to take 
in a newspaper regularly '. (6) ' to tear out ', kodi dolan, ' to 
tear a page out of a book '. (7) ' to pull out ' : kodi hb'iljon, ' to 
pull out nails '. (8) < to copy ' : kodi pe:B o lyvr, ( to copy some- 
thing out of a book '. (9) ' to remove ' : kodi r dru:g ifur, ' to 
remove the matter '. (10) ' to grow ' : kodiy:d. (i i) 'to build ' : 
kodud 9 velin. (12) 'to charge ' : be da\i y godi am 9 rhei n?, ' how 
much do you charge for those ? ' ; ma: nu y kodi r y: vainl n in/on, 
1 they charge exactly the same '. (13) ' to impose ' (of taxes) : kodi 
treBi, ' to tax '. ( 14) ' to set going ' : kodi diwigjad, * to set going 
a revival ' ; kodi kany, ' to lead the singing '. (15) ' to cause, bring 
on ' : kodi hvih'8 "arnynu, ' to make them ashamed of themselves ' ; 
kodi bly:s, ( to excite a desire ' ; hmny kodob o, ' that brought it on ', 
i.e. the headache; kodi ovn ar, 'to frighten'; kodi zsva, 'to 
tickle ' ; fosgy meun ty: sy y kodi r dre:&, ' sleeping in a house is 
what makes it subject to rates' (cf. 13). (16) 'to hunt up, rake 
up, trump up ' : kodikneks, ' to rake up old scores ' ; peidjux kodi he:n 
beBa, ' let bygones be bygones '. (17) ' to cause to get up ' : kodi 
merxaid 9 no:s. (18) in knitting stockings, ' to increase the stitches '. 
II. Intransitive: (i) 'to get up': kodi ar i dra:yd, 'to 
stand up ' ; kodi ar i ista, ' to sit up ' ; ko:d i vmy> ' get up ' : 
esp. ' to get up out of bed ' ; kodi o dani hi, ' to agitate (against 
something)'. (2) 'to rise': r hay I, 9 ley ad ay kodi; 9 mmzftob 
sy y kodi o gonuy, 'the mountains which rise from Con way'; 
may rhiu dru:g ivedi kodi 'rtonBynu, ' there is bad blood 
between them ' ; kodi n vaur, ' to swell up ' : 9 boxa y kodi 
n vaur, i.e. when puffing out the cheeks. (3) 'to come up' 
(of plants) : we/is i rei wedi kodi n i dail, ' I saw some which 
had come up into leaf. (4) 'to come out' (of a stain): idi 
o y kodi ru:an />, ' is it coming out now ? ' (e. g. ink out of a coat). 
(5) ' to clear up ' (of the weather) : may hi y kodi m bra:v etto, ' it 
is clearing up again ' ; may hi y kodi n hayl, ' the sun is coming 
out ' ; hurax mi 3a:u i godi at 9 pnaun, ' perhaps it will clear up by 
the afternoon '. (6) kodi n la:n, ' to come to nothing, to break 
down ' : mi godob m lam mynd 9 mla:yn hevo farad seysnag, ' I 
didn't keep up speaking English ' ; mi godoS 9n la:n arno vo ar 
ganol i bregaO, ' he broke down in the middle of his sermon '. 
kodjad, s.m., codiad, D., s.v. 'ortus'; 'rising': bara heb dim 



kodl hog jo 279 

kodjad mo vo, ' bread which has not risen ' ; kodjad 9r hayl, ' sun- 
rise ' ; ar godjad ir hayl, ' at sunrise ' ; ar t godjad, ' just after 
getting up ' ; ' the first thing in the morning ' ; paid a mynd ar d) 
godjad vd hyn; mi a: i mo vory ar 9 yhodjad', also 'a rise' in 
wages, etc. ; kodjad ti:r, ' rising ground '. 

kodl, s.f., * nonsense ' : he:n godl wirjon idi o t &i:d, ' it is a pack 
of nonsense from beginning to end '. 

kodlan, s.f., ' a woman who talks in a nonsensical manner'. 

kodlas, kodljas, s.f. = kodlan : r he:n godlas bjaul ! 

kodljan, kodljo, kodlo, v., codlo, T.N. 16. 1 7. (i) ' to mess about 
with ' : paid a kodljo r du:r na, va\gan. (2) 'to talk nonsense ' : 
ta:u a \odlo ; trans. { to talk in a nonsensical manner about ' : 
kodljo peB. (3) * to trump up ' : kodljo riu he:n str'fyon dru:g. 

kodljur, kodlur, s.m., ' a nonsensical talker ' = dy:n ty kodljo 
peB, dim pen na 6i:n ar i sgurs. 

kodlyn, s.m. = kodljur. 

kodog, adj., codawg, M.A. in. 160 a, 39, ' having bags ' : gumman 
kodog [gumman] ; fig., implying wealth : edra\ *y godog, ' to look 
well-fed and well-clothed ' (I.W.). 

kodum, s.f., pi. kodamma, codwm, D., ' fall ' : kaylkodum, " to come 
a cropper " ; ma na bam&ag la:B o godum i r du:r, ' the water has 
a fall of fifteen yards ' ; hyn a hyn o godum, * so much fall ' (speaking 
of hanging a criminal) ; melyd, gaval kodum, ' to wrestle ' ; kodum 
Kevn, * wrestling by placing the arms round the waist ' : \wara kodum 
Kevn; kodum klo:s t ' wrestling by placing the arms round the waist 
and catching hold of the band of the breeches ' ; kodum breixja, 
1 wrestling by catching hold of the collar of one's adversary's coat 
with each hand '. 

kodur, s.m., codwr, D.G. cviii. 10, ' the man who puts the hay 
into a cart ' ; also kodur kany, ( the leader of the singing ' ; kodur 
bora, ' an early riser '. 

kod^mmur, s.m., codymwr, S.E., ' wrestler ' (O.H.). 

kodimmy, v., codymu, *S.E., ' to give some one a fall ' (O.H.). 

kq/a t s.m., coffa, D., ' remembrance ', only in the phrase kofa da: 
am dano, ' blessed be his memory '. 

kofi, s.m., coffi, C.C.M. 210. 10, 'coffee': kofi kristin, 'toasted 
barley-bread ground with a rolling-pin, on which boiling water is 
poured and a little brown sugar added ' (O.H.). 

koftjo, v., Eng. quaff, ' to gulp down, drink greedily ' : 'may o n 
i goftjo vo ! 

kogal, s.m., cogail, D., ' distaff' ; as term of reproach, he:ngogal 
gwirjon / 

kogjo; kokjo (O.K.), v., coggio, R. [to cheat] ; cogio, C.L.C. ii. 
24. 26 ; Eng. cog [to cheat, deceive], (i) ' to pretend ' : may hi 



:>o 



y kegfo boi i n mtdry gar$o t ond tvdar Ai&im, ' she pretends she can 
garden, but she can't ' ; dim m > gn*ylod9y kogjo bud or 9 yuynab, 
not really, but looking as if 1 was '. (2) to cheat ' = ttyfp (O. H.). 

kogj*r; kokjmr (O.H.), s.m., cogiwr, B.C. 21. 28, 'swindle 
kogor, v., cogor, D, to cackle ' (I.W.). 

kogvrn, s,, cogwrn, D M s.v. ' trochus ', ' articulus ', ' cochlea ', 
' gradus ' ; * a winder for winding wool '. It consisted of an upright 
piece placed in a stand (s/o:f) with a hole in the middle ; attached 
to the upright were two cross-pieces which met at right angles in 
the middle (sbbnod dirwin, cf. D., s.v. * girgillus * ; ' winding- 
blades ', O.P., s.v. 'estyll ' ; ysiyUod dirwyn, W.S , blades '). Round 
the ends of these and attached to them were &yla, and upon them 
the wool was wound (O.H.) ; trvi 9m f gogurn, ' to try and tone 
down, get out of what one has said '. 

koidjo, v., coedio, SX. (i) ' to timber, floor, etc. ' : koidjo fy:. 
(2) ' to thrash ' : mi koidja i di (O.H.). 

kindjog, adj., coedog, D., ' woody, well-wooded ' : fe: koidjogjattn 



koifr v., coegi, G.O. ii. 50. 27, to speak sarcastically ' (I.W.). 
coegni, D., ' fatuitas, vilitas '; 'sarcasm '. 

, v., coethi, T.N. 305. 36 ; cydgoethi, G.O. il 251. 29, ' to 
bark ' = k^car. Sometimes used transitively instead of annos, 
r d ft aid i T9ty. 

kokjan, v., kokian val iar, W.S. [Cacle], to cackle ' (of hens) : 
si lilt dfxra dodty ag *y kokjan wedyn. 

kokjo, v., ' to cock ' : kokjo gwair. 

kokkos, s.pl, sing, kobsan, f. O.E. coccas, ' cockles ' (Cardium 
edule) ; kokkos gwlamod (Scrobicularia piperata) ; kokkos 9 
(TelKna solidula); kngi* kokkos, 'cockle-shells'; ohxyn gokkos, 
* cog-wheel ', cf. T.N. 1 6. 10 ; kokkos biumaras, epithet applied to the 
inhabitants of Beaumaris. 

kokky*, s.m., pi. kokja, ng. cock, ' heap ' : kokfyn o gerig wtdi 
hd o r kay;po& pt m ym kokfyn ar 9 %tur ; kokfyn gwair, 
:ock'(cfcj* 



4 small haycock ' (cf. ntuduf) ; kokfyn guynt, a number of sheaves 
of corn placed standing against one another in such a manner that 
the rain will run off them; they are only so placed when bad 
weather is expected. Peat is first piled in threes, then made into 
kokja, and finally into tiisi : gnfyd nu y gokja ar i fxnna i gi:d; 



kokfyn XeJjog [&iljog] ; kokfyn rkustyr, ' obstacle ' ; ' contentious 
person ' = dy.-n 9m crbym pKo fx m erbyn paub may gmo vo bin 
i roid 9n nki.-n paubtn ttnxy pobol cri^ i botfo (O.H.); kokfyn 
ttitjo, ' a mark set up for throwing at '. 

ia.X ad>, pL koyon t c6ch, D., 'red ' : Ky go\ad a gwa.yd, ' as 



red as Mood'; Eygo&d* &**; 'asredasa fax '(said e. 
parched ground); Vx* i*p, 'red cheeks'; fe* J*p, 'fox- 
gloves'; JMMV Jqpw, 'laspbemes'; gwadf It*** *red har; 



go.-* mat grtraJ, pror. referring to posons with red kor; 
'; afeo ' bd j-bird ' ; J^/ Ar% nod fane ' ; 



. '; 



r, adj, cochddo, SJL, 'brown' : 

to*', *-, codri, D. (i) 'to tan red, to 
1J^^, 'lobfcBhtothenwtsofthchak'. (2) 'to be smoked '(of 



herrings, etc.) : vdpemmtg tote* *9 *n?- (3) 'to be 

land): JUT? r a^utr Jj k*jp (}.].). (4) 'to plough' = tn* ti.-r : 

ma? k*m a k*M vx& k*v baoar (\.\.-, OH.). (5) 'to tarn sofl': 



. y _> 1S _ixji_nU J < j y? __ _ 

' '.--,'- - -. ; ~~ -'- -'. - 1 

Aoxw, s-m^ cxchni, D., S.T. ' rabedo ' ; * 

W, s^ sing. A*^ cbl, D, 'awns' (of badey): , 
OJ-; O^L),' bearded wheat'. 

Idbr, sX, pL tty^ coler, D.; DX^ xfa. , 'collar'. 

Arf^Rp T, c. coftio, MJ. (i)'toi 

^^^.^^^ _^_ ^^^^^ / i \ 

mib&jai*! (OJL> 8 

^WJ/itr, sm, c one who 
(OJL). 

Pcwlbren, OP. [bmdgeonl; D.G. cxcvL 49, 

I-J- 



sJL, pL IvflkTWy codcerth, IX; colcerth, LD. xm. 19; 
lOJL);i 



^. 184. n ; 

(O-tas = 



i^V-, *&, e ooUd, D, MotiKs- (OH.). 

lt SJDBL, cofl, DL (i) 'loos', m the phase mjudmrgtL e,g. j 
r^^rfF^^^*ihe book is lost'. (2) -defect': mm 
TtB&t****** ** *** * screw loose somewhere'. GL D^ SOL 



282 kolan kono 

akku 9m maygor, ' great losses have been suffered over in Bangor ' ; 
i kolad nhu: sdi o, ' it is their loss ' ; vba i dim blewyn ar 3 gholad, 
' I shalf not lose anything by it ' ; 6y:d kolad aru ar d o:l di, * we 
shall miss you very much '. 
kolan [kyl]. 

koledur, s.m., colledwr, D., s.v. 'perditor'; 'loser': mynd zy 
goledur hevo r ty:. 

koli, v., colli, D. Fut. koliQ (fyl). Pret. PI. 3. kolson. Imperative kol, 
kola. I. Transitive : (i) ' to lose ' : r 0:8 o wedi koli po:b pe:B ar o:l 
koli i wraig a i blant, ' he had lost everything after losing (by death) 
his wife and children ' ; du i wedi koli bottum, ' I have lost a button ' ; 
' a button of mine has come off' ; koli amsar, ' to lose time ' ; koli 
r aval, ' to let go one's hold ' ; koli rforb, ' to lose the way ' ; koli 
i olug, 'to lose one's sight'; koli i gwra.'ig, 'to lose, forget his 
Welsh ' ; koli ti:r, ' to lose ground '. (2) ' to miss by being too late 
or through some other cause ' : may o wedi koli r tre:n, ' he has 
missed the train '; mi golifi r ysgol do.y, ' I was too late for school 
yesterday '; mi golis Surnod i neyd o, ' I had a day off (from work) 
to do it ' ; ga: i goli dy fy:n ?, ' may I have Monday off ? ' (3) ' to 
lose ' as opposed to ' to win ' : koli r ra:s, ' to lose the race '. 
(4) ' to shed ' : may r ga:B yy koli i ble:u, ' the cat's fur is coming 
oft ' ; used also of corn which has become over-ripe and is 
shedding its grain = buru, droni. (5) ' to spill, to drop ; to be 
spilt ' : koli du:r, levriQ, etc. ; may r pri:b wedi koli, ' the earth is 
spilt ' (e.g. out of a flower-pot). (6) ' to let in ' (of liquids) : ma: r 
sgidja ma n koli du:r, ' these boots let in water ' (opp. dal). 

II. Intransitive : (i) ' to fall back, fall away, decline, go out of 
use ', etc. : du i y koli o hy:d, ' my health is steadily growing worse ' ; 




(3) ' to fail ' : os kyl 9 gla:u \ o r duyran 9 da:u, \ os kyl 3r himba \ o r 
duyran da:u hi'Ba, ' if the rain fails it comes from the east, if the 
fine weather fails it comes from the east too '. (4) ' to run ' (of 
colours). (5) in phrase koli arno i hy:n, ' to go crazy ' : dexra koli 
tippin arna i: V9 hy:n b'ybun i, ' I was wool-gathering a bit '. 

ko:m, adj.. Eng. calm, 'calm, unruffled ' : du:ad MJ go:m; may o 
ny:n ko:m (I.W.). 

kommis, s., komins, komyns, W.S. [Comones], ' common ', i. e. 
' common land '. 

kono, s.m., cono, C.C.M. 83. 32 ; 94. 6 ; 98. 25 ; 101. 6 ; T.N. 
456. 22. (i) according to J.J. l a small dog ', but I am unable to 
obtain confirmation. (2) of persons as applied to a child, kono 
bax = ' a plucky little fellow ' (J. J.), but he:n gone ' a little old 
man with a sharp temper' (fornig), J.J. O.K., however, gives 



komtant koppa 283 



he:n gono he:n voi r'eit ga^ may o n or mod o hen gono i //', n'c'i 
di torn by:d hevo hunna;dy:n kalad m i vargan a fo:b pe:0 t i.e. 
* a knowing old fellow '. 

konstant, adj., Eng. constant ; ' permanent ' : da\i wedi ka:l je: go 
gonstant ru:an, * you have a fairly permanent position now ' (O.H.). 

konstro, v., konstrio, W.S. [Constrewe] ; constro, T.N. 179. 39 ; 
Eng. (Dial.) conster [to understand, fathom, put a construction upon 
a person's behaviour], Yks., Dev., I. of W., ' to fuss ' ; 4 to pry into ' ; 
' to puzzle oneself over ' = m troi ag m Irosi ; xwMj * meun po:b 
pe:6, etc. 

konstrur, s.m., ' one who pries into others' affairs and knows all 
the gossip about them ' = \wiljur da: jaun i ubod am beOa (O.H.) : 
Kerux atto vo: os ta\i if'o gubod, may o n hem gonstrur garu (O.H.). 

konuy, Conwy, ' Conway ' : avon gonuy, ' the River Conway '. 

konyn, s.m., pi. konjon, properly speaking the sing, of cawn. Cf. 
conin, B.B.C. 89. 2 ; konyn, W.B., col. 462. 30 ; conyn, R. (i) 
' a stalk which a cow has left in grazing/ ; cf. kmman. (2) 'stump ' : 
konjon eiBin, gry:g. (3) ' stump of a thing nearly worn away, and 
only fit for burning ' : n'u he:n gonyn o vrus ; may o wedi mynd m 
he:n gonyn. 

koygran, s., pi. hygrod, ' conger-eel ' (Conger vulgaris). 

koykro, v., kwnkwerio, W.S. [Conquere], concwero, C.C. 95. 20, 
' to conquer' : may i nuyda wedi goykro vo, ' his passions have got 
the better of him '. 

koykwerur, s.m., cwncwerwr, Sion Tudur in G.R. [369]. 21; 
(pi.) cwncwer-wyr, Rom. viii. 37, 'conqueror': may o n bigon o 
goykwerur arno vo. 

koylog, adj., conglog, cf. B.C. 66. 23, * full of corners or angles ', 
said e. g. of a house or field of irregular shape. 

koyol, s.f., pi. koyla, congl, D., ' corner ' : konol 9 ty:, 3 barklod, 
etc. ; ma: r van ma y goyol gmnas jaun, ' this is a very warm 
corner ' ; rh0u\ o ar y goyol, ' hang it on the corner (i. e. top angle) 
of the door '. 

hop, koppyn, s., coppyn and pryf coppyn, D., only in pry: kop, pry: 
koppyn, pi. pgyuaid koppi^ ' spider ' ; gwe: pry: kop % ' spider's web '. 

kop t a call to a horse to make it come to the speaker. 

kopjo, v., copio, D.P.O. 179. 26, ' to copy '. 

koppa, s.f., coppa, D. (i) 'crown of the head', only in koppa 
waltog as gtry po:b koppa waljog o 'honynu ifurd, ' to drive away 
every man-jack of them ' used of animals as well as persons, and 
sometimes corrupted into koppa zvatgo. (Perhaps scriptural: cf. 
Psalm Ixviii. 21.) (2) 'tuft of feathers on the heads of certain 
fowls : koppa o bly: ar ifen (O.K.). 



284 koppar - korkyn 

koppar, s., kopyr, W.S. ; coppr, D., s.v. ' serarius ', etc. ; copper, 
W.LI. (Voc.), s.v.' alcan '; copr, B.C. 67. 5, ' copper '. 

koppt, s.m., pi. ko'pt:a, copi, Josh. viii. 32 ; coppi, i Mace. xi. 37, 
'copy'. 

koppts, s.pl., c coping-stones ' (O.H.). 

koppog, adj., coppog, D., s.v. ' cristatus ' ; ' crested ', * having a 
tuft of hair on the head ' : ja:r goppog (O.H.). 

koppyn \_kop~]. 

ko:r, s.m., pi. kora, cor, D., ' choir '. 

korax, s.m., pi. koraxod, corrach, D. [Cymmwythach corrach a 
simmach, Prov.], ' dwarf ; also as term of reproach : he:n gorax ! 
Applied also to trees, etc. : / 9di hi dim gwerd i ti gadu r he:n gorax 
na (O.K.). Cf. kurax. 

kortii, v., corddi, D. (i) ' to churn '. (2) ' to work up and down 
as in churning ', e. g. with a jumper in a hole which has been bored 
in slate. Cf. also may r djaul m i gor&i o, ' the devil is in him '. 
Cf. C.C. 12. 15. 

korty'ad, s.m., corddiad, S.E., ' the amount of butter made at one 
churning '. 

korSur, s.m., corddwr, S.E. [one who churns], ' churn ' : asgal * 
korbur, ' the beater of a churn '. Cf. byba. 



korf, s.m., pi. tyrf, corph, D. (i) ' body ' : uBt nerB enai 
1 at it like niggers ' ; r he:n gorf, term applied to the Calvinistic 
Methodists. (2) 'dead body': kodikorf \kodi\\ kannuyl korf \kan- 
nuyl\ ; deryn korf, 'owl'= d9Jy:an. (3) applied to the main part of 
things : korf pren, ' stem of a tree ' ; korf 9 drol, ' body of the cart ' ; 
similarly 9y ghorf 3 durnod, 9 no:s, 'during the day, the night*. 

korfolaB, s.m., corpholaeth, D., s.v. 'corporatio' ; 'whole, entirety': 
ho:l wla:d an i x r fola6 t 

korforol^ adj., corphorawl, D., s.v. ' corporalis '. (i) 'bodily'. 
(2) 'large-bodied'. 

korfyn, s.m., corfyn, L.G.C. 80. 7, dim. of korf, 'body, dead 
body ' : mu:y na fanny Seil ar he:n gorfyn^ ' more than the body 
can endure '. 

korgt, s.m., pi. korguns, corgi, W.S. [A curre dogge], ' a kind of 
sheep-dog in use sixty or seventy years ago, rather long in body, 
black in colour, and of little use ' (O.H.) ; also as term of reproach : 
he:n gorgi ba:x / 

korkas, s.f., ' a piece of cork about eight inches square, to indicate 
the position of a net in the sea ' (O.K.). 

korkyn, s.m., pi. kyrks, kork, W.S. [Corke] ; core, D., s.v. ' suber '. 
(i) ' cork ' (in general) : ko.ys gorkyn, ' a cork leg '. (2) ' a cork ', 
e. g. for a bottle or for floating a net. 



korxwiglan kornjur 285 

korxwiglan, kornxwiglan, s.f., pi. korxwiglod t kornxwiglod, corn- 
chwigl, D., ' peewit ' (Vanellus vulgaris). 

korlan, s.f., pi. korlanna, corlan, D., ' sheep-fold '. 

korn, s.m., pi. fyrn, kornja, corn, D. (i) 'horn': korn 6yu\, 
ma/wan, etc., ' the horn of a cow, a snail, etc.' ; may o a i gorn 
dano, ' he has his knife in him ' ; i x<*-'t hi ar i gorn, ' to get a 
stunning blow ' = ka:l fond i vol, tegan jaun, slap jaun (O.H.) ; 
mi gei/ i laf'ad ar i gorn o, ' I got a glass on account of him ' 
or 'because of the occasion'; mm 3 korn dy: /, asseveration. 
(2) in various transferred senses : (a) kyrn *r arad^ ' handles of the 
plough* (O.H., but not J.J., who had d^rna r arad); (b) korn 
9 vyux, any shell of the genus Dentalium ; (c) korn 9 gudu, * throat, 
neck ' : tori korn i ubu, ' to break one's neck ' ; also korn : rhoi 
tro: n i gorn o, ' to wring its neck ; (d) korn gwynt, ' wind-pipe ' ; 
(e) * chimney (outer) ', ' chimney-pot ' : may r gwynt wedi xufy 
r korn i laur ; ty: ba:x y:n korn, mu:g main, ' a cottage with one 
chimney and small smoke ' ; 3 mu:g in du:ad o r korn ; (f) ' horn, 
hooter' : may r korn m mynd] (g) korn bu:yd, ' horn used at farms 
for calling the hands to meals, etc.', sometimes formed of a shell 
[krogan] ; (h) ' an instrument for administering medicine to animals, 
a drenching horn ' ; (i) from Eng. corn (?), * a corn on the foot 
or hand ' ; cf. D., s.v. * callus ', ' morticini '. (3) adjectively of things 
made of horn: bottum korn, 'a horn button' : roisun i dim bottum 
korn am dano vo, ' I wouldn't give a button for it '. 

kornal, s.f., pi. kornela, cornel, D., 'corner', more commonly 
koyol. 

kornas, s.f., epithet applied to a strong woman (O.H.) : rhiu he:n 
gornas o fonas. 

korn-brfto, v., cf. corn briddo, C.F. 1890, p. 314, 'to turn up the 
ground with the horns' (of cattle), O.H. ; also of persons, im- 
plying violent temper: be u:ti y -korn'brtio ? (O.H.). 

kornelog, forne!og,adj., cornelog, C.C.M. 140. 27, ' full of corners 
or angles '. Cf. koylog. 

korn-gmnati, v., cf. corn gynnal, C.F. 1890, p. 314, 'to talk 
loudly ' (O.K.). 

kornjo, v., cornio, D., s.v. 'arieto', 'petulcus'. (i) 'to horn' 
(of cattle). (2) ' to speak evil of : kornjo dyn m i gevn. (3) 'to 
wrangle, brawl ' : day dy:n ?y gornjo i giliS. (4) ' to grumble ' = 
grugnax w erbyn pe:6. 

kornjog, adj., corniog, D., s.v. ' cornutus ' ; ' horned ' : da: kornjog 
is sometimes used to express c cattle ' in contradistinction to da: 
Ply:o, ' poultry '. 

kornjur, s.m. (i) 'one who has faults to find in every one ' (i 
gyrn o dan baub). (2) ' grumbler ' (O.H.). 



286 kornxwiglan kostog 

kornxwiglan [korxwtglan]. 

kornuyd, s., pi. kornuydyft, cornwyd, D., ' boil ' = navad. 

koron, s.f., pi. krana, coron, D. (i) ' crown '. (2) ' crown-piece, 
five shillings': du:y bynt a xoron, 'two pounds five'; hannar 
koron, ' half-crown ', pi. hannar krana. 

korpus, s.m., corpws, D.G. cvi. 43 ; B.C. 6. 9, ' body ', generally 
'dead body': bary mi olxi i he:n gorpus tlaud ; r hem gorpus 
llaud! = also ' poor old fellow ! ' 

kors, s.f., pi. korsyS, cors, D., ' bog ' = weyn. 

korsan, s.f., pi. korsenna, corsen, D., ' reed ' ; also ' the stalk of 
growing corn '. 

korf'og, adj., corsog, D., ' marshy '. 

korlyn, s.m., pi. kortma, cordyn, cort, D.; cortyn, B.C. 68. 5, 
' cord ', applied e. g. to the rope of the gallows ; also to the rope 
foundation underneath the mattress of an old-fashioned bed : rhoi 
matja niuburx ar 9 korlyn (O.H.) ; rhoid 3 kortyn am i udu i hy:n, 
1 to cut one's own throat ' (metaphorically) ; rieidjo tru:y r kortyn, 
' to skip with a skipping-rope '. 

korwynt, s.m., corwynt, D., * whirlwind '. 

koryn, s.m., coryn, D., ' crown of the head ' : ma na \wilan 
an i xotyn ht, ' she has a bee in her bonnet ' ; r 0:8 rubad in 
i goryn, ' he had something in his head ', i. e. ' he had brains ' ; may 

wedi mynd ay goryn mo:yl, ' he has become bald on his crown ' ; 
hi:r i goryn, ' long-headed* ; koryn het, ( crown of a hat'. 

ko:sb, s.f., cosp, D., ' punishment ' : rhoi ko:sb ar, ' to punish '. 

kosbi, v., cospi, D., ' to punish ' : kosbi a dgeljo, 'to punish and 
imprison '. 

kosi, v., cosi, D. (i) ' to itch, tickle ' : kosi bgad de:, lawenyb o 
bo:b le:, kosi bgad xwi:B, dagra vel 3 gwli;B. (2) ' to thrash ' : mi 
kosa i di os na Oewi di. 

koslyd, adj., 'itching; itch-producing'. 

ko:st, s.f., pi. kostja, cost, D. ; cf. also W.B., col. 428. 15; 
D.G. iii. 31, ' cost, expense ' : may o n vu:y o go:st na niliQ o by6, 
'he will never pay for his keep'; ar i go:st o, 'at his expense '; 
gwe'iQjo ar i go:st o, * to work in his pay ' ; du i y gweiOjo ar v) 
gho:st V9 hy:n, ' I work on my own account ' ; rhoid arjan ar go:st 

1 ru:in, ' to put some one into court for debt '. 

kostjo, v., costio, D. ; M.LI. ii. 61. 25 ; B.C. 93. 21, 'to cost'. 

kostog, s.m., costog, D., 'molossus'; cf. B.C. 38^. 18; 136.5; 
P.G.G. 249. 2 ; G.O. i. 229. 4. (i) ' a burly man ' : dy:n trum a 
laun bol i gi:d (O.H.). (2) 'auick of tongue' = pert, parod i air 
(JJ-)- (3) 'a conceited, self-satisfied fellow' (O.H.). Cf. also 
sl0uKi. 



kos tys kffulad 287 

koslys, adj., kostus, W.S. [Costyouse] ; costus, D., ' expensive ' : 
mi e'i6 yy gostys jaun arna i, ' it will be very expensive for me '. 

kosva, s.f., cosfa, S.E. (i) ' an itch '. (2) ' a thrashing '. 

kosyn, s.m., cosyn, D., ' a cheese ' : kosyn o gaus. 

ko:t, s.f., pi. kolja, ' coat ' : ko:t wey, ' jersey '. 

kotjo, v., Eng. cut, ' to spay '. 

kotral, s.f., pi. kclrela, Eng. (Dial.) cotterel [a pin, screw, wedge, 
or bolt which fastens something in its place], ' an iron pin, the upper 
part of which is divided into two parts, which is placed through a 
hole in the kleivis to fasten a truck to a rope ' (J J.)- 

ko:tf, s.f., pi. kot/ys t coits, C.C. 120. 23, 'coach': pobol 9 go:lf 
vaur, ' mail-coach passengers ' (the chief purveyors of news in the 
old days), hence : pu:y sy n deyd? pobol 9 go:// vaur, * Who says 
so ? ' ' Some one I can't name ' (I. W.) ; ko:tfba:\, ' perambulator '. 

kottas, s.f., pi. kotesod, cotes, S.E., ' a spayed cow '. 

koiton, s., ' cotton ' : eda gotten. 

koilum, s.m., cottwm, D., * cotton ' ; only in the phrase wedi 
gicisgo at y kottum, ' threadbare ' (Bangor). 

kvudal, s., Eng. (Dial.) caudle [a mess, muddle, entanglement : 
also a miner's term for a thick and muddy fluid], Cornwall, ' any- 
thing of the consistency of porridge' (I.W.); pe:6 sy wedi k>mzsgy 
hevo du:r ne rubaB (JJ.) ; fhiu gjffudal = hmitgva (J.J.). Cf. 
krtfudal. 

hvudgan, s.f., Eng. gouge (in slate quarries), ' an iron chisel with 
a concave blade for cutting grooves across blocks of slate with a 
view to dividing them ' ; (in making clogs) a similar instrument for 
hollowing out the wooden sole. 

tougan; kaukan (JJ.), s.f., cf. cawg, D., 'a small vessel formerly 
used for milk in shape either tapering upwards or bulging out in 
the middle ' : kerugan bri&, k0ugan bren. 

k0ugjad, s., kawgeit, W.B., col. 230. 20 ; cawgaid, S.E., ' as much 
as a kgugan will hold ' . 

k0uk. s.pl., k0ukja, cf. cowciau, Medd. An. 176. 36; Eng. (Dial.) 
cogs, Shr., ' one of the turned down ends of a horse-shoe '. 

kvulad, s.f., pi. hyuleidja, coflaid, D. ; cowlaid, C.C.M. 140. 28 ; 
cywled, P.G.G. 19. 14; 39. 10. (i) 'an armful': kffulad gwair, 
kgulad o re<yn ; may o wedi garjo vo n i g&ulad, 'he carried it as 
a bundle in his arms ' ; kffulad ba:x a i gwasgy n dyn (= eferi), ' a 
sm ill armful tightly pressed together ', a proverbial expression 
corresponding to ' grasp all, lose all', Fr. " qui trop embrasse mal 
e*treint " ; so also may o wedi hmmyd gormod o gerulad ; basa n wel 
t'8o vo lai o gerulad. (2) used ot persons of great size : kffulad 
o mas, ' a very big woman '. (3) ' unborn child ' : may nu y 
hnwiyd riu (rue) i la:d 3 g0ulad. 



288 kauleidjo kovjo 

foule'idjo, kloidjo, v., cofleidio, D.; cywleidio, P.G.G. 287. n ; 
cowleidio, P.G.G. 300. 6 ; 324. 6, ' to embrace'. 

foubty'o, klutijo, v., cywilyddio, D., ' to shame ' ; ' be ashamed '. 

fouhbys, kluafys, adj., cywilyddus, D., ' shameful ' : he:n dro: 
fouh&ys. 

founslar, s., Eng. counsellor, " a woman who always insists on 
having her rights and uses language to that effect ", T.G.G. 
1902, 30. 32: he:n gounslar ovnaduy ^'^'(O.H.). 

founfo, founfur [keruntjo, k0untjur\. 

kemnt, s., ' count ' : kadu g0unt vaint vy:8 o bo:by:n, 'keep count 
how many there are of each '. 

fount, s., cownt, C.C. 13. n ; 173. 19 ; 435. 9, Eng. account. 
(i) ' account ' : lyvr fount, ' account book '. (2) ar gaunt, ' on 
account of, with regard to ' : ar i g0unt o, ' with regard to him ' ; 
po:yn ar i g0unt o, ' sorry on his account ' ; pe'idjux a mynd i dim 
trafarQ ar ^ gh0unt i. (3) ' reckoning ' : ar bo:b fount sy gin i, ' as 
far as I can reckon '. (4) ' esteem ' : may g?no vo g0unt an 3 
gamra.'ig, ' he has esteem for, makes account of Welsh '. 

fountjo,v. (i) 'to account, consider'. (2) 'to reckon, add 
figures up '. 

fountjur ; also foun/'ur (I.W.), s.m., ' reckoner ' : may o y 
g0untjur reit 8a:, ' he is very good at reckoning '. 

foupar, s.m., cowper, C.L.C. ii. 22. 17, 'cooper'. 

foupog, s.f., Eng. cow-pox, * vaccination '. 

fouran, adj., cywraint, D., ' skilful ' ; " 'cute " : dy:n fouran, 
gwaid fouran. 

fouras, s.f., cowres, D., s.v. ' gigas ' ; t giantess '. (Cf. the place- 
name fedogad 3 g0uras in Bwlch y Ddeufaen) ; used of an im- 
perious woman : may hi -y g0uras ar baub. 

fourt, s.m., pi. fourtja, kwrt, B.H. 143. i ; W.S. [A courte]; 
cowrt, C.L.C. iv. 40. i. (i) 'yard '. (2) 'court of law ' (W.H.). 
Cf. tout. 

fourtjo, v., ' to put into court, to summons '. 

fouf'o, v., cawsio, S.E., ' to curdle ', said of milk when the butter 
is beginning to show in it ; may o n dexra fouf'o (= tort). This is 
the next stage to briBo. 

tout, s.m., pi. toutja, l yard ' (E.J.; W.H.). Cf. tourt. 

kovjo, v., cofio, D. Fut. S. i. kovja, 2. kovi, 3. koviB. PI. i. 
kovjun, etc. Pret. S. 3. kovjoft. No plural. Imperative kovja ; 
kovjux. (i) 'to remember ' : du i n meQy kovjo i enu vo, 'I don't 
remember his name ' ; mi govja i am dano vo, ( I will remember 
about him ' ; kovja am dj verwyd!, ' mind you remember I ' (2) ' to 
mind in phrases like kovja deyd 9 gwi:r ! tj ' mind you speak the 



kovjur koyl 289- 

truth ! ' (3) in the imperative, a kind of expletive ' mind ! ', 'my 
word ! ' : may hi n oyr, kuvju\ /, ' my word ! it is cold ! ' (4) in 
complimentary messages, ' remember ' : kovjux vi at i\ mam, 
1 remember me to your mother '. (5) ' to remind ' : kovjux i mi 
yynd vory, ' remind me to go to-morrow '. 

kovjur, s., ' one who has a good memory ' : may o y govjur jaun. 

kovys, adj., cofus, D., s.v. 'memor ' ; ' having a good memory '. 

herwan, s.f., cywen, D., * pullet ' ; also ' child ' ; cf. Eng. ' chick '. 

kffwar, ku:ar, s.m., cywair, D. ; cywer, P.G.G. 16. 10 ; 83. 19, 
etc., ' state ' : 9m mha gu:ar daxi he&ju ?, ' how are you to-day ? ' ; 
meun kerwar priodol, ' in a proper state ' ; in music ku:ar ?&v, ku:ar 
Ion, ' minor, major key ' ; also used figuratively. 

kenvarx, ku:arx, s.m., cywarch, D., s.v. 'cannabis'; 'hemp': 
pu^ ku:arx, ' pool where hemp was watered or rated ' ; ku:arx du:r 
(O.H. and Bangor), probably 'hemp agrimony* (Eupatorium 
cannabinum). 

kerwir, adj., cywir, D. (i) ' correct'. (2) ' true, faithful' : may 
o y g9vail keruuir i x/, * he is a true friend of yours '. 

koyd, coed, D. (i) s.pl., 'wood, timber': wedi rieyd o go:yd 
kledjon, krwjon, ' made of hard, strong wood ' (JJ.) ; maly koyd, 
' to chop wood ' ; tori koyd, * to cut wood ' ; pah's ko:yd (o go:yd). 
' a wooden partition ' ; nid po:b koyd nei6 drol, ( not every kind of 
wood will make a cart ' ; du:ad at i go:yd, ' to come to oneself, said 
e.g. of one who has gone beyond his powers and come to under- 
stand his position, his proper level. (2) s.m., pi. koydyS, ' a wood ' : 
meBy gweld 9 koyd gin brenja, ' not to see the wood for the trees '. 
(3) s.pl., sing, kb'ydan, f., ' trees ' : kb'ydan vedwan, ' a birch ' ; kqydan 
vala, ' an apple-tree ' ; koydan elig, ' a pear-tree ' ; koydan drops, 
' fuchsia ' ; tori koyd ar 9 geltyb, 'to cut down trees on the slopes ' 
(cf. also under i) ; dan 9 goydan i moxal 9 gla:u, ' under the tree to 
shelter from the rain ' ; also frequently ' plant', e.g. growing in a 
pot : koy.d mevys, ' strawberry plants ' ; ko:yd]y:s, ' bilberry plants '. 

koyb, s., cyhoedd, D. ; c'oedd, D.G. App. xiv. 38, 53, in the 
phrases ar go.yd, ar goyft gwla:d, ar go:y$ by:d, ' in public '. 

&yg> ac ^J-> coe g> ^'> ' empty ' : kneyan go:yg, ' an empty nut ', 
only used in the phrase^.vi go.yg o:y& 9 gneyan [kna:y\. 

koyglyd, adj., coeglyd, T.N. 152. 34, 'sarcastic*. 

ko:yl, s.m., pi. koiljon, coel, D. (i) 'omen, inference': gneyd 
koiljon, ' to draw inferences ' ; asgurn koyl \asgurn\ ; 9 dndyb waiB 
fy:d koyl, ' the third time is lucky ' ; / oys na dim koyl 'arnynu n 
9 gfya, ' you cannot draw inferences from them in the winter ' 
(referring to cows which, by feeding on the top of a hill, are sup- 
posed to indicate fine weather) ; koyl gwra:x ar o:l bytta yud, ' an 



290 koys krai 

old wives' fable '. (2) ' credibility, reliability' : / o:ys na dim ko:yl 
ar 9 pe:6 r u:ti n i beyd; / oys dim ko:yl arno vo t * he is not reliable '. 
(3) ' credit ' : ar goyl, ' on credit ' = ar lab. 

koys, s.f., pi. koysa, coes, D., * leg' : ko:ys bren, ko:ys gorkyn, ' a 
wooden leg ' : ko:ys la:s, ' shin bone of beef ; koysa n tavlyd alan, 
1 bandy legs ' ; tommy d 3 goys, ' to run away '. In various trans- 
ferred senses : (a) ' leg ', e. g. of a table : ko:ys bur ; (b) ' leg ' of a 
pair of tongs ; (c) ' handle ' : koy:s brus, sospan ; (d) ' stalk ' (of 
a plant or flower) ; (e) ' stem ' (of a pipe). Masc. in these senses 
(I.W. ; but not at Bangor). 

koysgox, kosgox, 'ko:ys'go:x, s.f., pi. koysgoxjad, coesgoch, D. 
(i) ' redshank ' (Totanus calidris). (2) ' red-leg robin, herb Robert ' 
(Geranium Robertianum). 

koysnb'yQ, koysnoB, kosnoB, adj., coesnoeth, O.P., 'bare-legged': 
mynd yy goysnoB droydnoB, ' to walk with one's shoes and stockings 
off'. 

ko:yO, adj., coeth, D., ' polished, skilled in utterance ' : gneyd x* 
n vu:y ko:yd m 9r jaiQ ; jaiQ go:yQ. (Seldom used.) 

kra:, s.pl., era, craf, D., ' ramsons ' (Allium ursinum). 

krab, s.m., ' a kind of receptacle in a cart, beneath the seat of the 
driver, for putting any small article, e. g. when going a distance '. 

krab, s., 'the smallest pig of a litter'; hence riu he:n grab o 
hogyn, applied to a small boy (O.H.). 

krabjo, v., ' to shrink, waste away ' (J.J.; O.H.). 

krablyd, adj., ' shrunk, wasted ' : dylo krablyd. 

kra:f, s., craff, R., 'a grasping, laying hold of : ma: nu n rhoid 
9 drain a i bl'eyna i vwy a i bona i laur, am vod 9 gwynt ay tommy d 
lat o gra:fm 9 bona (O.H.) ; / oys na dim kra:f ar i stori = / oys 
na dim pen na Bi:n ami hi (O.H.). 

kra:f, adj., craff, D., ' keen ' (of sight) : golug kra:/', edrax ty 
gra:f t ' to look intently ' ; also, in general ' quick, intelligent, 
observant '. 

krafy> v., craffu, D., 'fixis oculisintueri'; *to look intently' : krafy 
hmny 'vedruxi, e. g. in semi-darkness. 

krafys, adj., craffus, D.P.O. n. 9, 'quick, intelligent, observant '. 

krai, s.m., crau, D. ; crai, W.LI. (Voc.) s.v. ' mwn ' ; ' eye ' of a 
needle : krai nzdub by:r ; also of axes and hammers krai wy:alt, 
murBul, gord : may r troyd (handle) m du:ad o r krai. 

krai, s., in the phrase kany n zgrai(cf. M.F. canu ei grai, p. 8): 'to 
spread unfavourable reports as to the misfortunes or delinquencies 
of some one ' (the opp. of ' to sing the praises of some one '):'dy:n 
wedi pexy, dy:n m mynd 9n o:l la:u, a pobol eril 9y kany n i grai 
(O.K.). 



krai Kgapjo 291 

kgai, crai, D., in the phrase newyb sbon danji grai, ' bran-new '. 
Cf. ' bran-span-new '. 

*<"& s.f., pi. kr'e'igja, craig, D., ' rock '. 

kgai'6, s.f., pi. kreieja, craith, D., ' scar ' : dan i gr'Mja (O.H.), 
' scarred '. 

krak, s.m., pi. kgakja, ' crack ' : may krak mo vo, ' he is nearly a 
bankrupt '. 

krakjo, v., craccio, C.C. 357. 14, 'to crack*. 

kra:x, s.pl., sing. kra\an (kra\od is also used for the plural), 
crach, D., ' scabs, sores ' : kra\an ar 9 wymmad, * a scab on the 
face ' ; myndzy gra:x ikruyn nu, ' to become covered with scabs ' ; 
riu he:n gra:x wedi kodi truybo vo i gi:d\ ma: Kega devoid ?y gra:x 
i &t:d ar o:l bytta e'iQin ; also of excrescences on trees ; krefein 
kraxod, ' barnacles ' ; dail kra:\, ' fox-glove plant ' (Digitalis pur- 
purea) ; as depreciatory epithet : he:n graxan sa:l o d?dyn, * a 
wretched tenement ' ; used adjectively : kra:x vontbtg, ' snob ' ; 
cf. T.N. 4. 8 ; kra:x boiri, * to spit after clearing the throat ' ; cf. 
G.O. ii. 113. 10. 

kraxgoyd, kraxgod, s.pl., crachgoed, ' the shoots which grow out 
of the stump of a tree which has been sawn off ' (O.H.) : briga 
kraxgoyd, ko.yd kraxgoyd. 

Aramman, s., crammen, Lev. xiii. 2, ' a scab such as forms over 
a wound } (O.K.). 

krand, adj., sup. krandja, Eng. grand (T.N. 4. 12), 'smart, 
stylishly dressed ' : ru:m grand, ' a fine room ' ; po:b pe:6 wediwisgo 
y grand, * everything draped magnificently ' ; daxinedrax ay grand > 
' you look smart '. 

krandruyb, krantruyb, s.m., grandrwydd, T.N. 9. 24, ' smartness, 
showiness in dress, etc/ 

krayk, s.m., pi. kraykod, crangc, D., 'crab'. Fishermen dis- 
tinguish between kraykod koxjon, which are edible, and kraykod 
gleif'on, which are not : bodja kraykod, ' crabs' claws ' ; krayk wisgjur, 
" peeler", i. e. a crab which has cast its shell. 

kgayKi, s.m., cf. Eng. cranky ; term of reproach : r he:n granKi 
gwirjon. 

krap, s., crap, D., ' raptio, praehensio' ; crab, B.C. 30. 26 ; crap, 
148. 22, ' smattering, inkling, idea ' : krap o seysnag, ' a smattering 
of English ' ; may gmo vo grap ar gwira:ig y ' he has a smattering 
of Welsh ' ; riu grap ar 9 forb ; riu grap am waiQ ; r o:d gin 
laud riu grap i neyd klokf'a r amsar honno, ' every one had some 
idea how to make clogs at that time '. Cf. T.N. 209. 24. 

krapjo, v., crapio, S.E. (i) ' to pick up ' : krapjo geirja, ' to pick 
up words '. (2) used of an action done in an imperfect way : riu 
grapjo darlan, gwetd, dy:al. 

u 2 



292 kra:s kravy 

kra:s, adj., eras, D. (i) < dry, parched ' : dr hayldy gmydzr haft 
dy gra:s. (2) ' rough, acrid, saucy ' : kzmma bu:yl a mmaH ; paid a 
farad mor gra:s. (3) ' harsh, discordant ' : lais kra:s ; he:n duru 
kra:s ; often used of thunder when heard directly overhead : may 
n trany y gra:s jaun. (4) ' rough to the touch '. 

krasog, adj., ' rough, acrid, saucy in speech ' : dy:n krasog = dy:n 
9n farad m egar. 

krasy, v., crasu, D., ' to bake ' (as distinguished from pobi, it im- 
plies the act of baking the dough in the oven, whereas pobi means 
the whole process) : 9n 9 ty: daw y krasy ? na:K i, mynd alan a vo: 
(sc. 9 toys] ; avol wedi grasy, ' baked apple ' ; krasy bara = also 
' to toast bread '. 

tyai/(l.'W.) ; Mat/(E.].) t s., Eng. (Dial.) cratch [stomach], Yks., 
' stomach ' : be sy n d3 glatf di ? Cf. katf. 

kratf, s., Eng. crash (?), in the phrase tori n gratf, ' to break clean 
in two '. Cf. also tori y glatf, tori y glatfan. 

kraujo, v., ' to place pieces of slate (krauja) round the sides of a 
waggon when carrying away rubble ' (J.J.) \krawan\. 

kravaglax (O.H.) ; kravagljax (JJ-)> s v cf. cryfaglach, cyfraglach, 
Rhys, Celtic Folklore, p. 450. (i) ' a tree whose leader has been 
cut and which throws out small branches in all directions ' (J.J.). 
(2) dy:n 'dirnerQ, ble:r, dim szmmyd, dim mynd mo vo (J.J.). 

kravayk, s.m., pi. kravaya, crafangc, D., ' claw ' : myndo i gravaya 
vo, l to get out Of his clutches ' ; kravayk 9 vra:n, ' crow's foot ' 
(Ranunculus bulbosus) ; bloda kravayk d vra:n^ l buttercups '. 

kravayy, v., crafangu, S.E. (i) 'to grasp, clutch': kravayy 9 
kubul ido vo i hy:n. (2) 'to climb by catching hold of small 
protuberances ' : kravayy i vmy r graig. 

kravat, s.m., pi. kravatja, 'scarf. 

kravjad, s.m., crafiad, D., s.v. 'scalptura'. (t) 'a scraping'. 
(2) ' a slight grasp, a touching ' : rot's i gravjad ami hi (= gaval, 
tutfad mi hi), O.H. 

kravur, s.m., crafwr, S.E. (i) ' one who scrapes together ' of 
a niggardly man : he:ngravur am arjan, in good sense, he:ngravur 
go s0und am i dammad ydi o. (2) ' a sarcastic man'. 

kravy, v., crafu, D. (i) ' to scratch (where one itches), to scrape, 
to chafe ' : kravy r kro:yn, ' to scrape the skin ' ; kravy asgurn, 
' to pick a bone ' ; kravy gubu, ' to clear the throat ' ; kravy fur, ' to 
scrape away ' (e. g. a piece of paper stuck on to something) ; kadu 
9 %*W a &ag kravy oxor 9 Kefyl, * to keep the traces from chafing the 
sides of the horse ' ; may hunna y kravy i linja n aru u& ger&ad, 
'that man is knock-kneed'. Substantively, 9 kravy, "the itch". 
(2) ' to scrape together ' : kravy r rhent a r treBi, ^to scrape together 



krawan krei/'on 2 93 

the rent and taxes'. (3) 'to paw the ground' (of bulls, etc.). 
(4) fi&- ' to annoy, be sarcastic to ' : kraiy ru:in ; also abs. : r o:& o 
y kravy n ovnaduy, ' he was terribly sarcastic '. 

krawan, krawon, krewyn, s., pi. krawenna and krauja, crawen, 
D., 'crusta'. (i) 'a covering': mi drviB ?y grewyn dros 3 [yn i 
gi:d, ' it grows till it forms a coating over the whole lake ' (O.H.) ; 
briu a krawan ar i o:l o (O.H.), alluding to the hard flesh which 
appears after a scar has healed (cf. krammari) ; 9 kroyn wedi kodi y 
grawan (J.J.) ; also the 'crackling' of pork: krawan Ki:g mo:\ 
(J.J.) ; mi e:s i riu grawan dena ba:\ o &i:g moxyn (O.H.). (2) in 
slate quarries, ' a piece of slate which has been rejected, no matter 
what the size may be '. They are often used to place round the 
sides of a waggon when carrying rubble. In former times it was 
the custom to start a strike by sending a krewyn round, passed from 
hand to hand, with instructions written on it, so as to bring about 
concerted action. 

kre:d, s.f., cred, D., ' belief, faith trust ' : r o:d faf'un gre:d gmo 
vo m i da:dy ' he had such trust in his father '. 

kredo, s., kredo, W.S., ' creed' : da\i wedi newid 9\ kredo, 'you 
have changed your creed ', i. e. ' you are going to be married '. 

kredy, v., credu, D. (i) ' to believe ' : d zdu i dim zy kredy i vod 
o wedi bo:d rusyt, ' I don't believe he ever existed, somehow ' ; dim 
93 kredy bod dyu meun bo:d, dim yy kredy m i vftbil, l not believing in 
the existence of God, not believing In his Bible ' ; r zdu i y kredy 
meun lawar o be6a ovargoylys vel na, ' I believe in a number of 
superstitions like that ' ; -\redanu -m onaxi, ' they would not believe 
you '. (2) ' to think ' : ty: a for na du in kredy may hi, ' I think it 
is somewhere near there '. 

kreft, s.f., pi. kreftja, crefft, D.; cf. W.B., col. 65. 25; D.G. 
xliii. 5 ; cv. 65 ; B.C. 75. 14; M.E. creft (nth-i4th cent.), 'craft, 
trade, calling '. 

kreftur, s.m., krefftwr, W.S. [A craftesman], ' craftsman': may o 
y greftur da:. 

kregleifo, v., crugleisio, B.C. 1 14. 1 1 ; cregleisio, T.N. 330. i, ' to 
shout ', especially in connexion with singing : kregleif'o kany ; kana 
afaid a xregl'^if'o. 

kregog, adj., carregog, D., s.v. ' saxeus ', ' saxosus ' ; * stony '. 

kregyr, s., crjr, cryhyr, crehyr^D., ' heron ' (J.J.) = kry: gla:s. 
Not known to my other informants. 

kreif'o (O.H.) ; krenif'o (J. J.), v., < to go round selling herrings, 
potatoes, fruit, etc.' 

kreif'on, s.pl., cf. creision, Isaiah Ixiv. 2, used to intensify : may 
m boy 6 greif'on, rhewi y greif'on. 



294 kreif'ur kribinjon 

kreif'ur, krbif f ur> s.m., ' one who goes round selling herrings, etc. 
a.lreif'o. 

kreiQan, s.f., creithen, S.E., dim. of kraiB, 'scar'. 

kreivjon, s.pl., creifion, D., s.v. 'ramentum', ' strigmentum ' ; 
1 scrapings ', e.g. ' the remains of food, after cooking, in a pan, etc.' ; 
< the remains of tallow which has melted on a candlestick '. 

krempog, s.f., pi. krempoga, crempog, D., ' lightcake, pancake '. 

krentf, s., Eng. (Dial.) cranch (kranf\ [to grind, gnash the teeth, 
to set the teeth on edge], Nhb., West., Yks., in the exp. krentf z 
ku:n, * sorrel ' (Rumex Acetosa, etc.). Also called Keriks ku:n, dilis 
ku:n, syrans 3 ku:n, dail sirjon. (Kerig sgo:l is the usual form at 
Carnarvon.) 

kreppax, kleppax, s.f., crebach and creppach, D., ' ariditate et 
marcore contractus ' ; ' numbness of the hands through cold ' : dirni 
maur ar 9 dylo, (JJ.) ; gwa:yd 3n fery dn 9 fosad = winQraw (O.H.). 

kreutjo, v., Eng. recruit, ' to recover from an illness '. 

krevy, v., crefu, D., ' to beg, entreat ' : may o y krevy 'arnoxi 
mifo, ' he begs you to make haste '. 
krevyS, s.f., crefydd, D., 'religion*. 

krewyn, s.m., ? crewyn, D., dim. of craw, ' hara ' : krewyn oy:d, o 
dattus, ' a store of corn, potatoes' (I.W.). JJ. looked upon this as 
an Anglesey word. 

krewyn \krawaii\. 

kr'ey, v., cre*u, D., ' to create '. 

kreylon, adj., creulawn, D.; G.R. [106]. 19, 'cruel'. 

kri:, adj., cri, D., only in bara kn:, kakkan grt:, ' bread without 
barm in it baked in a pan or on a griddle '. 

kri:b, s.m., pi. krtba, crib, D. (i) 'comb' : daint kri:b, 'tooth 
of a comb ' ; kn':b ??ia:n t ' small-toothed comb ' ; dail kriba sant 
fraid (O.H.), 'wood betony' (Stachys Betonica). (2) 'comb' (of 
a cock) : kri:b Keiljog. (3) ' apex ' (of a roof, etc.) : kn:b ty: t kri:b 
ta:s, kri:b d to:. (4) fig. tori i gri:b, ' to lose one's character ' = 
tori i vri:. 

'kri:b-eiljo, v., cribddeilio, R., 'to do business dishonestly, e.g. 
by representing goods to be of a quality which they are not '. 

kribtn, s.f., pi. kribinja, cribyn, D., ' rake '; as term of reproach, 
' a niggardly, grasping individual ' = kravur. 

kribinjo, krfanjo, krzbinjo, v., cribinio, D., ' to rake ' : heb i 
gribinjo n la:n, * not well raked '. 

kribinjon, knbinjon, kzrbinjon, s.pl., cribinion, S.E., ' Takings', 
e. g. com left on the fields and raked together. 



kriblin kgino 295 

s., ' something shrunk ' : rubaQ wedi krihyy , wedi mynd i 
nes may r kroyn 9n lak t a rh*\a a kuisi arno vo (J.J. not 
known to O.H.). 

, v., cribo, D. Imperative kpba, ' to comb '. 

> ac lj., cribog, D., ' cristatus, cacuminatus ' ; ' rising to its 
apex. steeply on both sides ' : m&iyd kribog ; may r ty: n %hy: gribog 
i \i vynd i vmy heb zstol, ' the slope of the roof is too great for you 
to go up without a ladder * ; of persons, applied to one who has a 
high opinion of himself. (All O.H.) 



kriglin, s., pi. kriglod, kriglis, cruglyn, G.O. ii. 240. 10 ; cf. Eng. 
(Dial.) griggles [small apples left on the tree after picking ; small 
worthless fruit, vegetables, etc. left after gathering], w.Cy., Wil., 
Cor. ; also griglens, w.Cor., and derivative griggling, ' scrap ' = 
mzmryn : po:b kriglin o hono vo; may o wedi darvod bo:b kriglin. 

kriglis, s.pl., cruglys, S.E. ; cf. cryglus, D.G. ccxvii. 5 ; creiglys, 
H.D., ' crakeberry, crowberry ' (Empetrum nigrum). 

krik, s.m., pi. krikja, Eng. crick, ' a rheumatic pain ' ; krik 9n 9 
gubu, ' stiff-neck '; du i y grikja tgi:d, * I am aching all over '. 

krikjad, s.m., krickiad, W.S.; criccied, D.; criccad, C.C. 476. 21, 
* cricket ' (insect) : may r krikjad ay kany. 

krikmala \kry:d']. 

krimmog, s.f., pi. knmoga, crimmog, D. (i) 'shin'. (2) ' spur 
of a mountain '. 

krimp, s., Eng. crimp [to crumple ; also (dial.) ' to be niggardly', 
Devon], (i) applied to things which have been burnt to a cinder : 
losgi y grimp; wedi rieyd ay grimp. (2) of persons : ' a stingy 
fellow, a screw ' : he:n grimp / 

krimpan, s.f., ' a stingy woman '. 

krimpin, s., ' something dry and burnt up ' : ma: r hayl wedihsgi 
po:b man zy grimpin may o y grimpin graminstin, ' it is dried up ' ; 
so also krimpin grampan in the popular rime : gwraig 9 ty: a teyly 
da: | os m gwelu\i n da:, ga: i grempog ? \ may ghe:g 9y grimpin 
grampan ; \ may mam an rhy: dlaud i brmny blaud, \ may nha:d 9n 
rhy: 8i:og i branny iri-'og ', as applied to persons, * a stingy fellow, 
a screw ' : p he:n grimpin I 

krimpjo, v., crimpiaw, O.P. [to pinch, or crimp], 'to be burnt, 
scorched, " caught " by the fire '. 

krimpjO) v., ' to ask* : paid a i grimpjo vo etto (O.K.). 

kn:n, adj., crln, D., ' dry and brittle '. 

krino, v., crino, D., c to become dry and brittle '. 



2 9 6 krinfan krjavol 

krinf'an, v., Eng. (Dial.) crinch, Sc., ' to grind ' (of the teeth) : 
paid a xrinf'an da Sannad arna i (O.H.). 

krint, adj., ' stingy ' : he:n 8y:n krint (O.H.). 

krintax, adj., crintach, D., ' stingy ' ; as subst. r hem grintax /, 
' the old screw ! ' 

krintaxlyd, adj., crintachlyd, *S.E. ' stingy '. 

krintaxruyb, s.m., crintachrwydd, D., ' stinginess '. 

kn:o, v., krio, W.S. ; crio, D. Fut. S. 3. kri:6. Fret. kri:s, ' to 
cry ', e. g. of a child ; b'e'ixjo kri:o = gneyd nada, l to bellow, to 
howl ' ; hornjo kri:o, ' to cry out of temper '. 

kripjad, s., cripiad, S.E., 'a scratch'. 

kripjo, v., cripio, D., ' to scratch ' : du i wedi ka:l 3 yrhipjo gin 

3 ga:6. 

kripjo, v., crippian, C.C. 37. 28, 'to creep * = kripjan, kropjan : 
mi gripjoti i vmy hy:d dannad 9 graig, * he crept up the jagged edges 
of the rock '. 

krtpptl, s.m., krupul, S.G. 167. 23; krypyl, W.S. ; crypl, W.LI, 
xcix. 6;^ crupul, C.L.C. i, 17. 25; crippil, C.C. 334. 12 ; 351, 2, 

' cripple ' : wedi mynd 9y grippil gla:n. 

kri:st, Crist, ' Christ ' : jesy grist, l Jesus Christ '. 
kristin \krsslyn\. 

kristjon, s.m., pi. kristnogjon^ Cristion, Acts xxvi. 8 ; Cristianogion, 
Acts xi. 26 (the latter is a * learned ' development of Cristionogion), 
' Christian '. 

kristnogol, adj., Cristionogol ; crystnogawl, M.A. ii. 195. 23; 
Cristnogol, P.G.G. 201. 28, ' Christian'. 

kriu, s.m., pi. kriuja, Eng. crew, ' a number, band, mass, crew ' : 
kriu o verxaid a bexgin ivayk ; kriu o blant ; hel nu y griu at i 
gilib ; kriu o hogja at v o:yd i ; kriu bargan (in slate quarries), 
' the partners in a bargain ' generally consisting of three, who hire 
a young man to work for them by the day. 

kri:ur, s.m., criwr, B.C. 75. 10, 'town crier*. 

krius, s.m., Eng. cruise: may hi wedi mynd ar 9 krius i rula 
(O.H.), ' she has gone gadding about somewhere '. 

krjadyr, kradyr, s.m., pi. kndirjaid, creadur, D., s.v. ' creatura ' ; 
* creature ' : kradyr ka:s, kradyr bli:n, ' a tiresome creature ' ; krjadyr 
divir ( kle:n, ne'is), ' a nice, pleasant individual ' : krjadyr ba:x /, 
' poor fellow ! ' ; he:n grjadyr /, ' poor old thing ! ' ; he:n grjadyr 
digri, ' a funny old character '. 

krjavol) kravol, kravons^ s.pl., criafol, D., ' mountain-ash berries ' : 
koydan grjavol, * mountain ash '. 



kro:gkroisi 297 

:g t s.f., crog, D., * cross ' in gu:yl 3 gro:g, ' Holy Cross Day ' 
(Sept. 14), which occurs in the expression may hi m burn sgnmpja 
gu:yl ^ gro:g, ' it is pouring great drops of rain ', alluding properly 
to the heavy rains of late summer. 

krogan, s.f., pi. kre&in, cragen, crogen, D. (i) ' shell ' ipysgodkregin, 
' shell fish ' ; krefein kokkos, ' cockle-shells ' ; krefain westras, i oyster- 
shells ' ; krogan la:s (pi. kregin gletf'on\ l mussel ' (My tilus edulis) ; 
kre&in mo:\, 'the shells of the whelk (= gwi'xjad mo.-x); krogan 
blakkan (Mya arenaria); kgogan berfro (i.e. Aberffraw), * big 
clam ' ; krogan dgo:b, Cardium echinatum and other species of the 
same genus ; krogan jago, Cypraea europaea or any shell of similar 
shape, e.g. the cowrie ; krogan ne'idar, ' a small shell, something 
like a periwinkle, of a greyish colour, with white spots ' (? Neritina 
fluviatilis) ; krogan vu:yd, ' a large foreign shell of spiral shape with 
the apex removed, used in farms for calling the hands to dinner, 
etc.' [&?r] ; krogan agor, a small shell of similar shape to the 
latter (app. Turritella), sometimes worn as an ornament on a watch- 
chain ; krogan gasgljad, ' a kind of foreign shell of a silvery colour 
(Haliotis), used formerly for collecting in chapels ' ; kregin hedux, 
4 money ' ; mynd i u grogan, ' to sulk, to retire to one's tent '. (2) 

* gill of a fish ' = drogan, taga. Cf. D. crogen pysgodyn, 'branchiae '. 

krogt, v., crogi, D., * to hang, be hanged ' (on the gallows) ; cf. 
hoyjan : 0a:lme8ul8tm i grogi dy:n(rxo\.} t 'suspicion is not sufficient 
to hang a man ' ; gneyd rha:fi grogi i hy:n (prov.), ' to make a rope 
to hang oneself with ' ; ma: hunna ivedi mynd i grogi, d o:s na dim 
da! arno vo, ' that fellow has gone to be hanged : there is no stopping 
him ' ; gadux 180 vynd i grogi, ' let him go and be hanged to him ' ; 
/ e'iQ o 8im dros i grogi '/, ' he'll be hanged if he'll go 1 ' ; mi dzsgod 
o i grogi, ' he learnt it perfectly ' ; 'tri:u\i i grogi /, * try your very 
best ! ' ; du i wedi grieyt i ru:an i \rogi '/, * I've done it now ! ' 

krogliB, s.f., croglith : dy gwenar 9 grogliB, ' Good Friday '. W.S. 
has' dy w gwener y croglith '. So in all Books of Common Prayer. 

krogur, s.m., crogwr, S.E., ' hangman '. 

kroini, kroinjo, v., croeni, D., also croenio, S.E., ' to form skin ' : 
pe6 wedi kruinjo ar i wynab o, e.g. of a milk pudding; (of a 
wound) briu m dexra kroinjo, ' a wound beginning to heal by the 
formation of new skin ' ; eli krb'ini. 

kromjog, adj., croenog, S.E., ' with a thick skin or crust ', said of 
ground which has not been ploughed for a long time ; (of persons) 

* thick-skinned ', so also of horses, potatoes, etc. ; (of stone) ' having 
an unworkable exterior'. 

kroiygi, s.m., croengi, 'a crusty fellow' = dym kro:ys, ka:s, 
an'huylys a i gamdogjon (JJ.) 

krb'isi, v., croesi, D. (i) 'to cross*: kroisi r avon, 3 stry:d. 
(2) to cross out, erase '. 



298 krokbran kro:6 

krokbran, s.m., crogpren, D., ' gallows '. 

krokbris, s., crogbris, S.E., ' extortionate price ' : rhoi krokbris am 
dano vo. 

krokkal (I.W. ; JJ.) ; krogal (O.H.), s.m., cnoccell, D., ' talitrum ' ; 
'woodpecker* : krokkal koyd (].].). 

kroksan : do:s i d3 groksan /, ' go and be hanged to you ! ' 

kro:x, adj., croch, D., ' acer, vehemens, violentus ' : dy:n kro:x = 
dy:n maur, audyrdodol, dy:n a tempar yxal (O.K.). 

kroxon, s.f., pi. kroxana, crochan, D. ; crochon, T.N. 67. 28, 'an 
iron pot suspended by a hook above the fire ' ; applied to persons : 
pen kroxon, ' numskull, idiot '. 

krombil, s.f., crombil, D. (i) ' gizzard '. (2) ' stomach of any 
animal ', of human beings : rhaux lond ax krombil o vu:yd ; 
mi rots i lond i grombil o vu:yd io vo. (3) ' heart ' (of a mountain, 
etc.) : 9y grhombil ^ mmy. 

kronni, v., cronni, D., 'to collect ' : du:r ty kronni ; kronni du:r 
ha:U ; wedi kronni lawar jaun o bvra ; kronni du:r rhag 180 redag 
ifur (e.g. with a dam) ; du:r wedi gronni a Qolpja a x^US"> ' wa ter 
dammed up with sods and stones'. 

kronva, s.f., cronfa, S.E., 'collection', e.g. of water stopped up 
by a dam : kronva o 8u:r ; also of money collected for some object : 
rhoi rubaB at 9 gronva. 

kroygast, s.f., cingroengast, dmas ga:s vydyr (O.H.). 

kroygi, s.m., cingroengi, dy:n ka:s bydyr (O.H.) : ta:u 9 kroygi 
kluybog ! ; ta:u 3r he:n groygi gwirjon / 

krop, s.m., pi. kropja, ' crop ' = knu:d. 
krop, s.m., ' crop ' (of a bird). 

kropjan, v., croppian, D. [The O.E. past participle * cropen ' 
(from ' crdopan ') gave rise to a past tense ' crope ' which still 
survives as ' crop ' in dialects], ' to creep ' (of children). 

kropjo, v., croppio, C.C. 357. 12, 'to crop' : pu:y he:n vyux vy:o 
V kropjo da wa:lt?, said to some one whose hair has been cut badly. 

kroppa, s.f., pi. kro'pa:y, (in slate quarries) ' a kind of fault in the 
strata which, instead of being level, are tilted at an angle '. It is 
somewhat similar in appearance to a sglont (q.v.), but it differs from 
a sglont in two ways : a kroppa slopes, whereas a sglont is perpen- 
dicular, a kroppa is a sort of cleavage, a sglont a sort of joint. 
Hence, when it is worked the result is often a fall (rub), and it is 
thus frequently the cause of accidents ; kroppa \wi6ig slopes in an 
opposite direction to the ordinary kroppa, and is not so dangerous. 

, kro:6, s.f., pi. kro&a, kr0u6a, croth, D. (i) ' womb '. (2) ' calf 
of the leg ' : kro:6 s go.ys ; kro:Q dr hosan, ' the thick part of the 



299 

leg of a stocking*. (3) anything protuberant: i &e:g m Jai na i 
gro:6 o (O.H.), describing a vessel which increases in bulk below the 
mouth, e.g. a kroxon. 

kro6al y s., pi. ?9/, crothell, D. ; G.O. ii. 60. 28. ? ' gudgeon ' 
(Gobio fluviatilis), but this fish, according to Forrest, is not found 
in Carnarvonshire. 

kroBog, adj., crothog, D., ' bulging '. 

kgerudal, s.f. = kerudal. Cf. Eng. (Dial.) crowdy [a kind of 
porridge ; and various mixed foods] : nes may o nym grsmdal, ' till it 
is all mixed up '. 

krenidi, gr#udi\ s., Eng. (Dial.) crowdy [a small fiddle], Som., 
Dev., Cor. (i) in phrase kany i \remdi ', kany gr0udi (of cats), ' to 
purr '. (Cf. also crowd, * to purr ', Som., Cor.) (2) in such phrases 
as be u:ti y kany n d) grerudi?, 'what are you whining about?', 
i.e. kwyno heb a\os. (3) in phrase kany kremdi (greudi) ru.i'n, 'to 
cry down somebody ' = dfyd vod o n mynd m o:l \a:u ; also kany 
kr0udi ?y yhevn dy:n. 

kretuk, s.m. \kr0ukwaU\. 

kr#uk, s.m. (i) ' croak of a raven '. (2) ' the noise heard in the 
belly of a horse when running ' : kr0uk 3m mol Kefyl. 

kwukjan, v., crowccian, M.LI. i. 163. 31 ; Eng. (Dial.) crowk 

Jto croak ; also of the bowels, to rumble, make a noise], Cum. 
i) 'to cackle' (of hens). (2) 'to grumble': krewkjan m erbyn 
po:b pe:6. (3) <to make a noise in the belly when running' (of 
horses). 

kreukjo, v., ' to croak ' (of ravens). 

kgtukwafa s.m., cf. Eng. (Dial.) croke [refuse of any kind], 
Der., Line., 'coarse grass which grows on mountains and other 
rough places, and which the cattle will not eat '. 

krmpar, s., crwper, D.G. ccviii. 60. (i) ' crupper : a strap 
extending from the backband of a horse to the tail '. (2) ' crupper : 
part of a horse '. Cf. krump. 

krvufa, s.pl., 'idle tales' = xwedla 'dfrsaili kodi krerufa, 'to 
rake up old scores '. 

kremfo, v. (i) ' to talk unintelligibly ' : paid a kr0ufo n uuirjon, 
du i dim m dy:a be u:ti n i beyd. (2) ' to gossip, talk about other 
people's business' : be u:ti n i gr0ufo farad ? 

kpuf'o \kreij>o~\. 

kro:yn t s.m., pi. kruyn, croen, D., ' skin ' : dim ond kro.yn ar w 
asgurn, ' nothing but skin and bone ' ; may r gavod m taro at 9 
kro:yn, ' the shower stings the skin ' ; mi b\i6 3 d&vyb ma at i\ 
kroyn, ' this weather wets you to the skin ' ; / o:ys na dim djogi m 
i gro:yn, ' there is no laziness in him ' ; may o n Ipnd i gro:yn, ' he 
is plump, sleek ' ; (fig.) ' he is a pompous man ' ; dy:n a \ro:yn 



300 kroynan krb'ysawy 

tena, ' a thin-skinned, " touchy " man ' ; kuppurft kroyn, facetious 
expression for ' stomach ' ; vedrun i dim byu 2n 9 vrhoyn tan .... 
' I could not rest until . . / ; un i dim syt d may o n esmuy6 m i 
groyn, ' I do not see how he can be easy in his mind '. In various 
transferred senses: (a) 'plausibility' applied to a story: / o.yd 
gmo vo dim kroyn ar 2 stori (E.J.), ' his story was not plausible ', 
' his story did not hang together ' (cf. Irish, croiceann do chur ar 
sge'al) ; (b) ' skin, peel of fruit, etc/ : tinny kroyn avol, ' to peel an 
apple' = plikjo avol\ (c) 'skin', e.g. of a rice pudding; (d) 'a 
layer of vegetation (e. g. lichen) covering something ' : kroyn gla:s, 
<a layer of grass', e.g. kroyn gla:s 9n tivy ar bri: 9 wa:, 'a. 
layer of grass growing on the molehill ' ; also ' a green surface 
covering mud ' ; he:n groyn, said of a field which has not been 
ploughed for many years (cf. D.G. clix. 43); fig. of persons : he:n 
groyn o be:B adi o, ' he is a crusty old fellow ' ; (e) ' a hard surface 
caused by exposure to the sun, etc. ' : magy kroyn, said of peat 
which lias been exposed to the weather to dry: 9y kodi nu n dair 
m0unan ivagy kroyn ; 'savanu dim ar i penna heb groyn ; (f) ' the 
exterior, unworkable coating of stone in quarries ' ; (g) of the sea : 
3 mo:r zy groyn ar i wymmad o, i. e. ' like glass '. 

kroynan, s.f., croenen, D., ' cuticula ' ; may dd groynan di n dena 
jaw, ' you are very thin-skinned, " touchy " '. 

-kroyn-dena, 'krbn'dena, adj., croendeneu, ' thin-skinned, " touchy", 
quick at taking offence '. 

kroyndeu, adj., croendew, D., s.v. 'callosus'; 'thick-skinned' 
(lit. and fig.). 

kgoys, s.f., pi. kroysa; kruisi (O.H), croes, D. (i) 'cross'. (2) 
' a place where several roads meet, a cross-road ' : pedar ford an 
du:ad i r y:n groys. (3) ' a burden, weariness ' : he:n alt drom ddi 
hon, t e: ? i:a wi:r, may hi n groys, ( this is a nasty hill, isn't it ? 
Yes, indeed, it is hard work ' ; may n mynd dy groys drom ydynu 
(e. g. of a misfortune). (4) ' impediment ' : ela by: na riu groys i 
attal i xi vynd, ' perhaps there will be some impediment to prevent 
3ou going '. 

kroys, adj., croes, R. (i)'in the shape of a cross': kadax 
groys, ' a handkerchief bound on the head crosswise, used formerly 
as a remedy for headache ' ; puyQ kroys, ' cross-stitch ' ; bgad 
kroys, ' a squint '. (2} ' in the wrong direction ' : byky y gro.ys, 

* to swallow (something) the wrong way '. (3) ' at cross purposes ' : 
kroys weiBjo n erbyn i gilid. (4) ' contrary ' : 9y gro.ys i r gdvraB, 

* contrary to the law ' ; 3-y groys i wastraf, ' the contrary of waste- 
fulness ' ; tmny y groys, ' to oppose, demur, express an opposite 
opinion, kick against ' : tinny y groys 9 nail i r lal, ' to provoke one 
another, to nag at one another '. (5) ' cross, bad-tempered '. 

kroysawy, v. ; croesawu, D., ' to welcome '. 



krumfast 301 

, v., croesdynnu, T.N. 1 14, 23, 'to be at loggerheads': 
ma: r gu:r a r wraig yy -kroys'dmny ; ma na r0u o hy:d. 

kroyslon, s.f., croeslon, 'a cross-road, a road which crosses 
another ' : /got i r grb'yslon ;pedar kgoyslon. 

kroyso, s.m., croesaw, D., ' welcome ' : kgoyso /, ' welcome ! ' ; 
/ o:ys vaur o groyso i ne:b vynd MO ru:an t ' there is not much wel- 
come, inducement, for any one to go there now '. 

krb'ysewgar, adj., croesawgar, S.E., ' affable, cordial '. 

kroyu, kreyu, adj., croyw, D., ' clear ' : deyd rubaQ 9y groyu, ' to 
say something clearly ' ; tori r &e'irja y grb'yu ; du:r krb'yu, * fresh 
water * (as compared with du:r ha:H). 

krub, s.m., crwb, S.E. ; Eng. (Dial.) crub [a crust, crumb of 
bread], Ken., Sus., Dor., Som., Dev. (i) ' lump, chunk ', esp.gw3 
o vara, ' a lump torn from a loaf fresh from the oven '. (2) applied 
to persons : krub o hogyn, ' a boy of 13 or 14, old enough to begin 
to earn something '. (3) in slate quarries : ' a defective foot-joint 
where the slate, instead of being level, rises in concave shape '. 

krub, s., Eng. (Dial.) crub [manger], Sc., Cum., Som., Dev., 
* stomach ' (facetiously) : &e:sti lond di grub ? = lond fc freitog 
(O.H.). 

krub, s.m., ' croup '. 

krubi, s., crwbi, S.E. ; cf. D., s.v. ' gibber ', crwban, cefn-grwba, 
' hump ' : dy:n a krubi ar i gevn, ' hunchback ' (O.H.) ; kodi y 
grubi, ' to rise like a hump ' (O.H. in speaking of the water in a 
great flood) ; rhag 280 (i. e. ? ti:r}godin ormod o grubi (].]., speaking 
of ploughing). 

krubjo, v. (i) ' to stoop ', e. g. of old people = 9 Kevn zy gulun 
(O.H.). (2) ' to thrash ' : mi krubis i o, ' I thrashed him ' (O.H.). 

krubyn, s.m., crwbyn, S.E., dim. of krub : riu he:n grubyn o 
hogyn, ' a little scrub of a boy ' ; 9 grhubyn ba:\ annuyl!, said e. g. 
by a mother to her baby ; dy:n wedi mynd ay grubyn, ' a man with 
a stoop'. (All O.H.) 

kruk, s.m., pi. krukja^ krwck, W.S. [A payle], 'tub ' for washing, 
mixing food for horses or pigs, baking, salting, etc. : r o:y hi m 
buru vel tasa hi n du:ad o gruk, * it was raining bucketfuls ' ; the 
phrase may o n du:ad vel o gruk is also used in speaking of a 
person's eloquence. 

krukkud, s., crwcwd, D.G. xc. 17 ; the same word as kurkud q.v. 
As term of reproach : ta:u r he:n grukkud I (O.H.). 

krumfast, knmfast, s.m., pi. krumfastja, cnvmffast : krumfast 
o hogyn, * a big strapping lad ', alluding to a boy of about fifteen 
(cf. krub, hoglayk). 



302 krump kry:\ 

krump, s., ' rump ' : the part of a horse immediately above the 
tail ; also of persons : may o y karjo i vayx <*r grump i dim (O.H.). 
krun, adj., fem. kron, pi. krmjon, crwn, D., * round ' : ay grun vel 
' as fat as a dumpling '! 



krunar, s.m., ' coroner '. 

kru:st, s.f., crwst, D., s.v. 'crusta', 'crustum': O.F. crouste. 

(1) ' crust ', e. g. of a pie (not of bread = knstyti) ; applied also 
e. g. to the skin of a burnt rice pudding. (2) ' growth upon stones, 
trees, etc.' (3) ' blow ' (J J. not known to O.H.). 

kruttyn, s.m., pi. krdtja, crwtyn, O.P., ' a small boy of seven or 
eight years of age '. 

kru:6, s.m., pi. knBja, crwth, D. (i) ' hump, hunch on the back '. 

(2) 'basket' in kru:6 sgotta, ' a fisherman's basket '. (3) ' fiddle ', 
only in the phrase kany i xru>'0, ' to purr ' (cf. kr0udi) t (4) ' salt- 
box ' : kru:6 halan Kettog (which is the usual word). 

fyu6i, adj., ' hunch-backed ' (I.W). 

kruydredig, adj., crwydredig, D.P.O. 73. 17, 'wandering': dy:n, 
devaid kruydredig. 

kruydro, v., crwydro, D., ' to wander '. 

kruydryn, s.m., crwydryn, G.O. i. 233. 3, 'wanderer, tramp': 
wedi mynd ay gruydryn maur (O.H.), ' having become a regular 
tramp '. 

kruydyr, s., crwydr, D., c wandering J : may r bavod wedi mynd ar 
gruydyr. 

kfy: t adj., fem. kge:, comp. krwax, pi. knvjon, cryf, D., ' strong ' : 
dy:n kry:, ' a strong man ', either as regards strength of muscle, etc., 
or as regards health. applied to tea, etc. : may r te: y gry:, of a 
blow, ' heavy' : rhoi slap gre:> 'to deal a heavy blow'; of soil, 
'rich': ti:r kry:. Cf. bra:s. 

kry:d, s.m., crud, D., ' cradle '. 

kjy:d, s.m., cryd, D., 'ague'; krikmala = ccyd y cymalau, 
' rheumatism '. 

kry:, s.m., pi. kr&jon, crydd, D., ' shoemaker '. 

kry:g, adj., cryg, D., 'hoarse'. 

-kry: -gla:s, 'kry:r 'gla:s, 'kry 3 'gla:s ; kryglas (JJ.) ; s.m., cryr, 
cryhyr, crehyr, D., 'heron ', i.e. cryr glas. Cf. kregyr. 

kry:x, adj., crych, D., ' curling ' : pen kry:x, gwa:lt kry:x. 

kry:x, s.m., crych, cf. D.G. App. iii. 12. (i) 'rough water in 
a river '. (2) name applied to certain flaws in slate : kry:x hy:d, ' a 
defective stripe about one inch wide running more or less in the 
same direction as the grain, but obliquely and irregularly ; kry:x 
traus, ' a similar stripe, one or two inches wide, running across the 
grain. Both these defects make that part of the rock utterly worth- 



kryn kpxjad 303 

less; kry:x dy: is a flaw of a different nature, like a splash of ink on 
the slate. Slate with this defect can be worked, but it is of brittle, 
inferior quality. 

krjm, adj., cryn, D., ' fair, good ' (before nouns of quantity or 
numerals) : may na gryn dippin o:b akku i r knebrun, ' it is a good 
long way to the funeral from my home'; may na gryn dippin o 
buysa mo vo, ' it weighs a good deal ' ; krjm lawar, ' a good deal ' ; 
er s krjn bamQag mlmab, ' a good fifteen years ago ' ; am gryn &e:y 
mytiyd, ' for fully ten minutes '. 

kry:s, s.m., pi. kpsa, crjs, D., ' shirt '. 

knban, s., ' a thrashing ' : mirois ignban tio vo. (Not the same as 
kurban, which is a stronger term.) 

knbibjon, hrbibjon, s.pl., cyrbibion, S.E., 'smithereens, shreds' : 
may r dilad wedi tori n raks grzbibjon, tori n gzrbibjon ylu, ' the 
clothes are torn to shreds '. Also wedi malirjo, wedi maly n raks 
grabibjon (n va:n grriibjori) ; hel 9 knbibjon, tavlz knbibjon, ' collect 
the bits, throw away the bits ' ; fig. may o wedi mynd m raks 
gnbtbjon, implying ' he has become a bankrupt '. 

knbinjo \kribinjo\. 
knbinjon \kribinj ori\. 

krzbjady s., ' a good quantity': bytta krzbjad ; knbjad oyud, etc. 
Cf. krub. 

krzbjo, v., ' to pull a piece with the hand from a loaf fresh from 
the oven ' : paid a knbjo r dorQ. Cf. krub. 

knbuyl, v., crybwyll, D., 'to mention '. 

knfaxfyd* a dj-, cf. crebach, D., ' ariditate et marcore contractus ' ; 
' in wrinkles, creases ' : wedi smutyo y gnbtxtyd, ' badly ironed ' (of 
clothes), ' creased in the ironing ' ; gwynab knbsxlyd, * wizened, 
lined face '. [For variations in pronunciation see below.] 



W *W> 'xv ..; rexy, naxy .., v., 
krybychu, W.S. [Shrynke] ; cyrbychu, crepachu, crebychu, D., s.v. 
'contraho'; cf. kreppax and L.A. 54. 7; 153. 29, 'to shrink, 
crease by shrinking '. 

krzdety, v., cyfrodeddu, D. : crydeddu, M.LI. ii. 148. 19, 'to 
twist two threads together ' (O.H.). Cf. hvrodat. 

kndyras, s.f., creadures, S.E., 'creature': 9 gndyrasl, 'poor thing ! ' 
knf'hay, v., cryfhau, D., ' to strengthen '. 
kngni, s., crygni, D., ' hoarseness '. 
kngy, v., crygu, D., ' to become hoarse '. 
krzkjad, s., as much as will fill a kruk, q.v. 

krsxjad, s.m., crychiad, D., s.v. ' ruga ', ' patagium ' ; ' gathering 
(in a dress), pleating ; crease '. 



3 o 4 kr9\jas knsiyn 



knxjast (J.J.; O.K.), s., crychias, D., ^s.v. 'bullio', 
' vndo ' ; in phrase berwi y gnxjas, ' to boil furiously '. 

> adj., crychlyd, S.E., ' curly ' (of the hair). 
, v -> ' to crumple, curl, curl up ' (trans, and intr.) : may hi 
y kr^xy i dail rhag bla:yn, 'its leaves curl up (i.e. wither) very 
early ' ; kr^xy pappy r, ' to crumple paper ' ; kr^xy i dalkan, ' to 
wrinkle up the brows ' ; kraxy 9 gwa:lt, ' to curl the hair ' ; also (of 
the hair), ' to wave, to be wavy ' ; (of clothes, etc.) ' to crease, to 
pleat, to gather (on a tape) etc.' ; (of water), ' to ripple '. 

krsminstin \krimpin\. 

knminstjo, v., ' to dry up '. 

krsmman, s.f., pi. krsmana, crymman, D., ' sickle, pruning-hook '. 

kpmmy, v., crymmu, D., * to stoop ' (by bending the back and 
legs) ; said also of people bent by age : may o wedi krmimy ; 
kwmmy i ben, * to bend one's head *. Cf. gwyro, gwargammy. 

krmdod, s.m., cryndod, D., ' a shivering, the " shivers " ' : rhiu 
grmdod truy^a i ; may r krmdod arna i nes may nannad iy klekjan 
ar i gilib. 

krm-hoi, v., crynoi, D., c to put much into a small space, to 
gather together' : krm'hoi peQa at i gilib. 

kranlo, s., ' medium-sized lumps of coal ' : rh#ux dippin o grsnlo 
ar 9 ta:n. 

krmny, v., crynu, D., crynnu, C.C.M. 117. 2 ; M.LI. i. 132. 27, 
' to shiver, tremble ' : krmny gin annuyd, ' to shiver with cold ' ; 
krmny veldetlan, ' to tremble like a leaf ' ; krsnny o r koryn ir s0udul, 
' to shiver from head to foot '. 

krmo, adj., cryno, D. (i) ' compact ' : mi b'eyOon zy grmo, ' they 
came very well together ' ; 'r oyftanu wedi du:ad dy grmo mo, ' there 
was a fairly good attendance '. (2) ' neat, smart ' = tut, trevnys, 
taklys ; dy:n, Kefyl, diladkrmo; ta:sgrmo; wedi gneyd i le: y grdno. 

kransuQ, krmsuQt, s.m., crynswth, R. ; G.O. ii. 132. 22, ' a mass ' : 
mi S9r6jo& ay gwnsuQ, 'it fell in a mass, all together' (e.g. of soot 
down a chimney) ; also of persons e. g. to fall too suddenly to be 
able to defend oneself; dma vo ny:n krmsuQt ; mynd a vo: an i 
grmsu&, ' to carry it bodily '. 

knsbas, krysbas, s.f., pi. krasbeif'a, crysbais, R. ; pi. crysbeisiau, 
D., s.v. ' paragandes * ; 'an undershirt ' : krasbas wlanan, ' flannel 
shirt, flannel vest ' (worn next the skin) ; knsbas li:an, ' a linen 
jacket with sleeves, worn underneath the coat by workmen ' ; kwsbas 
wey, ' knitted jacket ' ; knsbas no:s, term formerly applied to a 
woman's nightgown (J.J.). 

krsstyn, kristin (O.H.), pi. krsstja ; kristja (O.H.), s.m., crystyn, 
D., s.v. ' crustula'; M.LI. i. 1 19. 5, crust of a loaf, opp. to muidjon, 



krrvdur ku:x 

' the crumb ' ; kpstyn kaus, ' cheese-rind ' ; knstyn o 8y:n, said of 
a very dry man ; also may o y gnslyn sy:\. 

krwdur, s.m., cryfder, D. ; cryfdwr, Job vi. 12 ; C.L.C. i. 17. 7 ; 
C.C. 105. 25, 'strength'. 

kr9V9bol, adj., crefyddol, D., s.v. ' religiosus ' ; ( religiously in- 
clined, devout '. 

Xv/.% call to drive away a dog. 

ku:ar \kerwar\. 

ku:arx \kerivar *]. 

kubul, s.m., cwbl, D., * whole ' : dma r kubul sy: na, ' that's all 
there is ' ; may gwynt 9 duyran m deivjo r kubul^ ' the east wind 
blasts everything ' ; may r kubul ar i sguy&a vo, * he has all the 
responsibility ' ; dim . . . o gubul, ' not ... at all '. 

ku:d^ s.m., pi. hda, cwd, D., ' bag ' : ku:d pappyr, ' paper bag ' ; 
prmny ka:6 meun ku:d, ' to buy a pig in a poke ' ; paub a u:yr 
gulum i gu:d i hy:n (prov.), ' every one knows where the shoe 
pinches ', ' every one knows his own troubles ' ; also ' scrotum '. 

kuderbyn, adv. = kwerbyn, ' opposite, in a line (with) ' : kuderbyn 
a m':, * opposite us ' ; sbi:a y guderbyn a dz dru.yn, ' look straight in 
front of you '. 

kudsax, s., cwdsach, D., s.v. folliculus ', ' sacciperium ' ; ' small 
sack ' (larger than ku:d and smaller than sa:x), JJ-, O.H. ; as 
applied to persons, ' a short individual ' : r hem gudsax = dy:n 
kulta (O.K.). 

kudyn, s.m., cwdyn, S.E., dim. of ku:d: kudyn o hogyn, ' a sturdy 
little boy ' (corresponding to sa:x o dy:n = dy:n kry: y dy:n fruydo 
drau), O.H. ; kudyn annuyl /, term of endearment used by a mother 
to her child (O.H.). 

kufans, kufas, kufast, s.f., ' fight ' : 0:8 na gufas 8a: ano ? ; be di 
r gufast ru:an ? 

kufjo, v., cwffio, G.O. ii. 77. 22; T.N. 33. 14, Eng. cuff, 'to 
fight ' (of human beings or animals) ; kufjo penna hevo i gilfo, ' to 
knock heads together in play ' (of children). 

ku:&, s.m.f., pi. ku:ks, * cook ' ; 3 ku:k (f.) ; but may htygu:k reit da:. 

kukri, s., Eng. cookery, (i) 'potatoes mashed with turnips or 
carrots '. O.H. has also kukri fa:. (2) ' muddle ' : gneyd kukri o 
honynu. (3) 'unfair dealing' (I.W.). 

ku:x, s.m., pi. hxod, cwch, D. (i) ' boat ' : pen bla:yn 9 ku:x, 
1 bow ' ; ti:n 3 ku:x, pen o:l 9 ku:x = starn, ' stern ' ; tru:yn 9 ku:x, 
' nose of the boat '. Cf. also km'u, rhu:yv, toft, tolyn.haljo 9 ku:x, 
1 to haul the boat ' ; rhoid 9 ku:\ ilexy, ' to put the boat in a sheltered 
place ' ; g9ry (= guOjo) r ku:x i r du:r (fig.), ' to incite, to add fuel 
to the fire '. (2) * bee-hive ' : ku:\ gwenyn. 

1432 X 



306 kula kumfonnas 

kula, adj., Pcwla, D., 'carens auribus'; M.A. i. 122 a, 9; 
T.N.~3O5. 28, * poorly ' : digon kula a digalpn, * rather poorly and 
dejected '. 

kulin, s.m., pi. kulins, Eng. cullings, ' article thrown aside as being 
of inferior quality to the rest ', ' a small inferior article ' : paid a rhoid 
he:n gulins ma:n, said e.g. to one selling potatoes ; 9 porxalsala adi 
~ 



kuljo, v., Eng. cull, ' to put aside something as being of inferior 
quality to the rest ' : kuljo devaid = pigo 9 rhei sala o 'honynu. 

kulum, s.m., pi. kbmma, cwlm,clwm and cwlwm, D., 'knot': kbmmy 
kulum, ' to tie a knot ' ; kulum rhedag, ' slip knot ' ; kulum gulum, 
1 a knot tied twice ' ; kulum do/an, ' bow ' ; kulum nain, ' a knot 
tying two ends together ' (O.H.) ; kulum morur, ' sailor's knot ' 
(O.H.) ; mynd 9y gulum, ' to get into a knot ' ; saul kulum 'vedruxi 
roid?, ' how many kinds of knots can you make ? ' \ daxi wedi rhoi 
kulum arno vo n rhy: s0und, ' you have tied it too tight ' ; kulum 
dzrys, ' a hard knot ' ; kulum ko:yd, ' black bryony ' (Tamus com- 
munis) ; kulum ar i forvad, ' stricture of the bowel '. 

kuUur, s.m., pi. kuljsra, cwlltr, D., ' coulter '. 

kum, s.m., pi. tommob, kummob, cwmm, D., ' hollow, valley with 
only one inlet '. 

kumany, v., ' to stoop '. 

kumfon, s.f., pi. kmfonna, cynfFon, D. (i) ' tail ' : bo:n 9 gumfon, 
1 root of the tail ' ; 9sguyd 9 gumfon, * to wag the tail ' ; kodi 9 gumfon 
(fig.) = rhedag a raf'o, ' to lay aside all restraint' : daxiy kodix kumfon 
9n vy:an (i.e. an ivayk\ J.J. ; may o wedi tori i gumfon, ' he has 
done for himself = may o wedi tori kumfon igi: ; penpynt, kumfon 
Simma, ' grand bonnet, ragged shoes ' ; kumfon Igodan, ' broad- 
leaved plantain ', Bangor (Plantago major) = dail lorjad, kabaitf 9 
laur. (2) 4 train ' (of a dress). (3) kumfon go:\, ' the third grade in 
bolting flour, fine bran '. (4) in transferred sense implying ' spong- 
ing, sneaking, toadying, fawning': byu ar i gumfon 9n le: byu ar i 
winaS, l to live by sneaking and sponging instead of honest work ' 
(O.H.) ; gna: d9 ora i gadu dz gumfon, ' do your best not to " lay it 
on too thick "', e.g. a caution after giving advice to a young man 
to go and see a relation from whom he expected a legacy and to 
be polite to him '. (5) ' blackleg, sneak, parasite, toady, sponger ' 
(in this sense often kmfon). 

kumfonjyd^ fonfonjyd, adj., cynffonllyd, S.E., ' sponging, apt to 
play the sponger '. 

kumfonna, kmfonna, k9fonja, kzfonjo, v., cynffoni, cynfFonio, 
S.E., " to suck up to ", ' to curry favour, to fawn upon ' ; 'to be 
a sneak, toady, parasite, sponger ' ; 'to cringe '. 

kumfonnas^ kmfonnas, s.f., ' a female sneak, toady, sponger '. 



kumfonnog kuplus 307 

kumfonnog, bnfonnog,fonnog, adj., cynffonnog, D., ' caudatus ' ; 
B.C. 25. 23, 'sponging, apt to play the sponger*. 

kumfonnur, fanfonnur, s.m., 'sneak, toady, sponger'; fern. 
kumfonrag, hnfonrag. 

kumfoygi, hnfoy&i, s.m., pi. kum/oyguns, cynffongi, S.E. ; cyffongi, 
T.N. 4. 29, ' sneak, toady, sponger '. 

kumman, s., cwman, S.E. [the rump or buttock ; the lower part 
of the back], 'a stoop in the shoulders': m 9 yhumman, etc., 
' stooping ' ; may o n i gumman 9n aru, may o wedi mynd i u 
gumman m aru, ' he stoops very much '. 

kummul, s.m., pi. hmyfa, cwmmwl, D., ' cloud ' : hmrta ble:u 
geivr, " goat's hair ", i.e. streaky or ' cirrus ' clouds. 

hummus, hmmuys, adj., cymmwys, D., 'suitable, fit': dy:n 
kummus i rieyd peQ. 

kumni, s.m., cwympni (sic), B.C. 107. 3 ; cwmnhi, B.C. 64. 15; 
M.LI. i. 158. 4; 195. 27, etc., 'company'. Cf. kumpeini. 

kumpas, s., pi. kumpasob, kwmpas, L.A. 9. 17 ; I.D. xxxviii. 9; 
cwmpas, D. ; cf. D.G. xix. 27 ; Ixxviii. 23 ; Eng. compass, in the 
ex p. o gumpas, ' about ' : o gumpas amsar Kinjo, ' about dinner 
time ' ; o gumpas 9 gwilfa, * about the time of the holidays ' ; o 
gumpas pymp, ' about five o'clock ' ; klut o di:r o gumpas ty:, ' a 
piece of ground around a house ' ; 9 pe:6 o gumpos 9 gobennyb, i. e. 
' bolster-case ' ; peidjux a gneyd dim lol 9n i gumpas o, ' do not 
make any nonsense about it ' ; trot o i \umpas hi, l to be courting 
her '. In pi. ' neighbourhood, environs ' : pobol 9 kumpasob. 

kumpeini, tompe'im, s.m., kwmpaeni, S.G. 13. 26; cwmpeini, 
B.C. 64. 15 ; P.G.G. 44. 21, 'company': kumpeini 'a'nivir jaun 
9di r vannod, ' toothache is very unpleasant company ' ; kumpeini 
dru:g, ' bad company ' ; he:n gumpeini di&an 9di o, l he is pleasant 
company '. 

kuna, v., said of a bitch maris appetens : may r a:st 9y kuna. 

kunnus, kmnuys, v., cynnwys, D., s.v. ' admitto '. (i) ' to encour- 
age, egg on': hnnuys 9 nail 9 lal, 'to egg one another on'; hnnuys 
ir ty:, 'to invite, welcome to the house'; 'folaxiin o i gmnuys ?mma, 
' you should not encourage him here '. (2) ' to make room for ' in 
the exp. kmnuys ! (kunnus /), said to one of two cows which are 
too near one another while being milked (J.J.) ; also to persons, 
implying ' get out of the way ' : hnnuys ga:l i mi gal (e: (O.H.). 

kupanad, hpanad, panad, s.f., pi. (ku)paneidja, cwppaneid, St. Mark 
ix. 41, ' cupful ' : kupanad o de:, ' a cup of tea '. 

kupany, v., used of something which ought to lie flat but curls 
up, e. g. crochet work. 

kuplus ; hplus (J.J.), s.m., kwplys, W.S. "[Couples] ; cwplws, D. 

(1) 'a rein used to fasten horses together while ploughing ' (I.W.). 

(2) ' a rope or chain attaching two sheep together, to the centre of 

X 2 



308 kuppan kurnad 

which a cord is tied which the driver holds ; or a piece of wood 
used in the same way for driving rams ' ; also ' a leash ' for dogs. 
(3) ' cluster ', e.g. of nuts : kuplus du.y, kuplus fair, etc. (J.J.). 

kuppan, s.f., pi. kupana, fopana, cwppan, D., ' cup ' : kuppan de: } 
' tea-cup ' ; kly:st 9 guppan, handle of the cup '. 

kuppul, s.m., pi. hpla, kwpyl, W.S. ; cwpl, I.D. xxxix. 34 ; D., 
s.v. ' tignum '. (i) ' a couple ' : kuppul o fan/on. (2) ' a sheep and 
its lamb '. (3) 'two sheep attached by a kuplus '. (4) supporting 
beams of a roof, in the shape of an inverted V [fraust]. 

kuppurb, kuppur, s.m., pi. hpwba, cwpwrt, L.G.C., p. 99 [49] ; 
cwpwrdd, W.LI. (Voc.), s.v. * almari ' ; kwpbwrdd, W.S. ; cypyrddau 
(pi.), G.O. ii. 78. 25, 'cupboard': kuppur kanol, kuppur kro:yn, 
facetious expressions for the stomach. 

kur, s.m., pi. for a, cwrr, D., * edge, skirts ' : kur 9 ka:y, ' the edge 
of a field close to the hedge ' ; kur 9 ko:yd, ' the outskirts of the 
wood ' ; kur 9 klaub, ' one of the two sides of a road enclosed by 
hedges ' ; fora r wla:d, ' the utmost limits of the country '. 

ku:r, kurb \kwarvod\. 

kurax, s.m., pi. kuraxod, apparently another form of korax, q.v. 
(i) ' a dwarf; a very small person' : riu gurax o dy:n. (2) term 
of reproach for a person of small size = dy:n ba:x, 'dirasgurn, 
dirnerB (J.J.) riu he:n gurax o dy.ti (O.H.). 

kurban, s.m., 'a thrashing' : mi rots i gurban da: 180 vo ; ka:l 
kur ban. 

kurbanny, v., ' to thrash ' : mi kurbannifi o. 

kurbitf, s.m., Eng. kourbash, ' a thrashing '. 

kurbit/o, v., ' to thrash '. 

kurkud ; krukkud (O.H.), s., cwrcwd, crwcwd, S.E. ; cf. Eng. 
(Dial.) curcuddie [a grotesque kind of dance, performed in a 
shortened posture sitting on one's hams with the arms akimbo], 
Sc. ' a squatting posture ' : 9n 9 yhurkud, ' on my hunkers '. As 
term of reproach applied to a small person : ta:u 9r hem gurkud! 
(" old squat ", O.P.). As term of endearment to babies : 9 ghurkud 
annuyl! Cf. krukkud. 

kurkzdy, v., ' to squat '. 

kurlid, s.m., kyvyrlit, S.G. 241. 29; kwrlid, W.S. ; cwrlid, D. 
Also D.G. cxviii. 23, ' coverlet, quilt'. 

kurnad, s.m., cwrnad, G.O. ii. 38. 28, 'bawling, shouting, jarring 
noise, nagging ' : sum o:yr ka:s riu 8ru:g wedi neyd a ru:in 9y 
klebran, a rhei wedi blino ar 9 kurnad ; paid a x^du kurnad ; may 
o uQi 9n i gurnad ; riu hem gurnad am 9r ym pe:6 (O.H.). 

kurnad, v., ' to bawl, shout, nag ' : paid a kurnad 9r y:n pe:B o 
hy:d (O.K.). (Cf. k9rnady, rfogny, rhiykjo.) 



kurs kutjo 309 

kurs, s.m., pi. forfa, cwrs (kwrs), D.G. vii. 39; civ. 25; G.I. 
xxiii. 30 ; D. (i) ' course ' : m o:l kurs natlyr. (2) ' manner of 
life ' : dy:n dru:g i gurs ; may o y kadu kurs dru:g, ' he is a bad 
lot ' ; also, less strongly, of children, ' he is naughty '. (3) ' a large 
quantity ' : am gurs o amsar, ' for a considerable time ' ; cr s kurs 
maur o vbn&ob ; du i n hym o gurs maur na vo:, * I am much 
older than he ' (O.H.) ; may o ymma er s kurs ru:an, ' he has been 
here for a considerable time now ' ; kurs o arjan ; kurs o/orb; 
may hi y gurs o la:u = may hi n la:u garu, ' it is raining heavily ' 
(O.H.). (4) * fit ' : far/'a o bwxy, ' fits of coughing '. (5) pi. font's, 
' a layer of hay placed round the outside in making a haystack '. 
Cf. [anu. 

kurtais (I.W.) ; kurtas (W.H.), adj., kwrteis, S.G. 217. 29 ; W.S. 
[CourtesseJ ; cwrtais (read kwrteis), D.G. cl. 3. O.F. courteis 
[courteous], ' shy '.< (Not known to O.H.) 

kurtans, adj., ' short, curt ; niggardly' : attab 9y gurtans ; dy:n 
kurtans hevo i vesyr a i buysa. 

kuru, s.m., cwrw, D., ' beer ' : glafad o guru, ' a glass of beer ' ; 
koysa kuru, ' a drunken gait '. 

kurva, s.f., curfa, D., a thrashing ' (O.H. ; Bangor). Perhaps 
a confusion with sgurva. 

kusberins, s.pl., sing, kusberan, f., ' gooseberries '. 

ku:sg, s.m., cwsg, D., * sleep ' : melys gu:sg tdi ku:sg 9 gweidjur 
(prov.). Not in general use ; cf. hsgy. 

kusmar, s.m., pi. kusmerjad, (pi.) cwsmeiriaid, B.C. 119. 10, 
' customer '. 

kusnjo, v., said of apples, turnips, etc., which have become 
shrunk and dry from long keeping. 

kustuyo, stuyo, v., costwyo rectius cystwyo, D., ' to strike ' : mi d) 
gsstuya i di (e. g. a durn, afori), O.H. 

kufat, s.f., pi. kufedi, kwyset, W.S. [Gusset], 'gusset'. Also 
kssat. 

kul, s.m., pi. htja, cwtt, D., ' sty, kennel, shed, etc. ' : kut moxyn, 
* pig-sty ' ; kutjeir, ' hen-coop ' ; kut Hi:, ' dog-kennel ' ; kutgwniyan, 
' rabbit-hutch ' ; kut glo:, taitus, ' coal, potato shed ' ; kut ku:x, 
' boat-house ' ; riu he:n gut ba:\ o hem dy:, ' hovel ' ; kut bu:yd, 
1 shed where quarrymen take their food ' ; kut mo\al, ' shelter for 
quarrymen during blasting operations '. 

kut, s., cwtt, D., ' frustum, particula ' ; ' tail ' (I.W.) ; uQ i gut, 
' behind him ' : hogyn uB i gut o. 

kutjo, v., cwtio ne dwckio gwisc laes, W.S. [Tucke], ' to shorten ' 
(trans, and intrans.) : may r dy:b 9y kutjo ( = torhay], ' the days are 
drawing in ' ; r 0:8 3 gewin wedi kutjo, ' the sinew had shrunk '. 



3 1 o kutogi kwaral 

kutogi, v., cwttogi, D., s.v. ' abbreuio ' ; ' to shorten ' = kutjo. 

kutf, s.m., Eng. couch : kutftattus, ' a heap of potatoes covered 
up for the winter with bracken, potato-stalks, etc., and earth above '. 

kuifa, v., Eng. couch, a command to dogs to keep quiet, especially 
when they are inclined to bite the sheep. 

kutfo, v., < to store potatoes'. Cf. kutf. 

kuifo, v., 'to be wasted, to look ill ' : may o wedi kutfo n aru = 
strikjo (O.K.). 

kutta, adj., cwtta, D. (i) ' short ' : Kettyn kutta, ' a short pipe ' ; 
tori gwa:lt,fon ay gutta, ' to cut hair, a stick, short ' ; tori ge'irja ay 
gutta,) ' to clip words ' ; ma: x tr0usys wedi mynd m rhy: gutta, if'o 
leysy nu. (2) ' short ' as regards supply : ma: r y:d m 3 sa:\ wedi 
mynd 3y gutta. (3) ' mean '. 

kutiar, s.m., pi. kuteryb, cwtter, 2 Sam. v. 8, ' gutter '. 

kuttus, s., kwttys, W.S. [A cutte, lotte] ; cwttws, Isaiah Ivii. 6 ; 
D., ' lots ' : t3nny kutlus. 

kuttyn, s.m., cwtyn, S.E. (i) * chit ' : kuttyn o hogyn ba:\ (JJ.) ', 
also as term of endearment to babies : 3 rjhutiyn ba:\ i I both 
kudyn and kuttyn are used in the latter sense. (2) ' tuck ' (for 
shortening) : rhoi kuttyn 3no vo. 

kutvys, s.m., cwtfys, ' third finger ' \by:s\. 

kuBlun^ s., cythlwng, D., in the phrase ar i guBlun^ ' fasting '. 

kuQruvul, s.m., cythrwfl, D., 'squabble, hubbub, brawl': pu:y 
godod 3 kuQruvul ? / be di r kuQruvul sy 3mma ? (O.H.). 

kti&waly s.m., cf. cwthwal, M.F., ' hovel ' : meun riu he:n guQwal 
tlaud may o wedi vagy, ' he has been brought up in some wretched 
hovel '. 

ku:yn, s.m., pi. kwinjon, cwyn, D., ' complaint '. 

ku.yr, s.m., cwyr, D., 'wax': ku:yr melyn, 'bees' wax'; ku:yr 
kry:, ' cobbler's wax '. Also ' wax in the ears '. 

ku:ys> s.f., pi. kuisi, cwys, D., 'furrow' : tmny ku:ys, 'to make a 
furrow ' ; in fig. sense : 3 kro:yn wedi mynd 3n lak, a rh3\a a kuisi 
arno vo (JJ.). 

kuyso, v., cwyso, D., ' to furrow '. 

kwak, s.m., Eng. quack, term of reproach, ' cheat, rogue ' : r he:n 
gwakdru:g! (O.H.). 

kwak, kwat, s.m., Eng. quod : wedi mynd i r kwak, ' gone to 
quod ', i. e. to prison. 

kwaral (W.H. ; I.W.), s.m.f. ; xwaral (Bangor; E.J.), s.f., pi. 
kwareli, xwareli, cf. cwarel, L.G.C., p. 12. [32]; Eng. (Dial.) quarrel 
[A pane of glass] ; O.F. carrel, quarrel : kwaral o wydyr, ' pane of 
glass'. 



kwarvod kwcsljun 311 



kwarvod, k(s>]varvod, hvur(&), kuvur, kurb, ku:r> v., cyfarfod, D. ; 
cyfwrdd, M.LI. i. 6. n ; B.C. 125. 22 ; cwrdd, C.C. 5. 32. Put. 
S. 3. k(9)vervyb t k(3>)vervyO, PI. 2. k(?)varv)bu\\ Pret. S. 3. 
k(i)varvtiob, ' to meet ' : mi 'eifi ')(warvot /', ' I went to meet her ' ; 
wedi krvur a ;'^///3, ' having met ' ; rubaB kroys ?n du:ad i \ kuvur 
X*, ' meeting with some unpleasant experience '. 

kwarvod, k(i)varvod, s.m., pi. k(i)varvodyb, cyfarfod, D., 'meeting '. 

kwat \kwaK\. 

kwavar, s., Eng. (Dial.) quaver [A flourish], ' flourish (especially 
in writing one's name), scallop, any ornamentation in round out- 
line ' : gneyd riu gwavars ar sanna (O.H.). 

kwavrjo, v., ' to make flourishes '. 

kweiljo, koiljo, v., coelio, D., 'to believe ' : -^weilja i vaur /, ' I 
should think not indeed!' 

kwe'in, s., Eng. (Dial.) quine (i. e. kwain), Gloucestershire, ' coin '. 

kweinjo, v., ' to coin '. 

kweir, s., cyweir, B.C. 92. i, 'a thrashing ' : rhoi kweir 180 vo ; 
mi gei di gweir. 

kwe'irjad \krveir jad\ 

kweirjo, v., cyweirio, D. ; cf. cweirio, C.C.M. 208. 12; G.R. 
(i i ) 17. (i) ' to make, prepare ' (= tri:n, gneyd) : kweir jo givair, 
menyn, ' to make hay, butter ' ; kweir jo gwely, ' to make a bed ' ; 
also in a fig. sense: mi gweir j a i da wefy, he:n wa:s/, Til do for 
you!', 'I'll see you get the sack!' (2) 'to tune': kweir jo telyn. 
(3) ' to castrate '. (4) ' to thrash ' : mi gavoft o i gweir jo njaun. 

kweirjur, s.m., cyweiriwr, Isaiah Iviii. 1 2 [repairer], ' castrator '. 

kwe'itis, s.pl., (sing.) koyten, W.S. [A coyte], coeten, B.C. 62. 24, 
'quoits' (O.H.). 

kweitjo, v., koytio, W.S. [Coyte], ' to play quoits ' (O.K.). 

kwekjan, v., cf. cwecian, C.F. 1890, 330. 21 ; Eng. quake, 'to 
oppose, demur, kick against ' ; dim ius i ti gwekjan, viu i tigwekjan, 
'' it is no use demurring ' ; be u:ti n i gwekjan ? r u:ti n rhy vs\an 
i Su:ad hevo ni (O.H.). 

kweryl, s.m., pi. kwerrta, kweryl, W.S.; cweryl,D., ' quarrel '=/ra.y. 

kwe:st, s.m., kwest, W.S. [A quest]; cwest, C.C.M. 97. 15, 
' inquest '. 

kwesta, v., ' to eat ' : be u:ii n i gwesta /, ' what are you eating ? ' 
(O.K.). 

kwestjun, s.m., pi. kwestjma, kwestiwn, W.S. ; cwestiwn, D., 
' question ' : govyn kwestjun i ru:in, * to ask some one a question ' ; 
mi drinjoft 2 kwesijun an da:, ' he treated the question well ' ; may n 
gwestjun gin i 'vedru\i godi vory, ' I question whether you will be 
able to get up to-morrow '. 



312 kweyQog 'kyd'vynd 

kweyGog, adj., kywaythoc, W.S. ; cywaethawg, W.LI, xcviii. 16; 
cyfoethog, D., ' rich '. 

kwik t s., Eng. quick ; ' an instrument formerly used, when heated, 
for goffering the cap worn under women's tall hats ' heyyrn kwik, 
' curling tongs ' (O.H.). 

kwtkjOj v., ' to goffer ' ; kwikjo (= karljo] gwadt, 'to curl hair' 
(O.H.). 

kwilib, s., cywilydd, D. ; cwilidd, C.C.M. 47. 15, ' shame' : rhak 
Awili'8 /, ' for shame ! ' ; r o:d zy gwt'lib ibo vo vynd i folad, ' it was 
shameful for him to get into debt ' ; kodi kwilift 'arnynu, * to make 
them ashamed of themselves '. 

kwilim, Gwilym, ' William '. Sometimes shortened into kwil. 

kwilja, kwiljux, v., sometimes for gwilja, gwiljux, gwylia, 
gwyliwch, l take care '. 

kwils, s.pl., sing, kwilstn, m., kwyl, W.S. [A quyll] ; chwilsyn, 
T.N. 169. 5, 'quills': gu:r kwils y 'lawyer'; ma/Jo dim kwilsin 
gu:y 9no vo, ' not to care a straw for him '. 

kwimpjad) s.m., cwympiad, D.F. [99]. 4, ' fall ', in the exp. 
kwtmpjad 3 dail t ' the fall of the leaves '. 

kwirkin, s.m., Eng. (Dial.) quirk [the clock of a stocking], Ch., 
Shr., Som., Dev., ' the clock of a stocking ' (O.H.). Cf. T.N. 280. 37. 
Ac yn lie 'sgidie pine, a sane cwircie, Goes tin agored a hen facsie. 

kwirkjo, v., ' to make clocks on stockings '. 

kwit, adj., comp. kwitjax, 'quick': dy:n kwit ar i droyd ; kwit 
i davod. 

kwymp, s., cwymp, D., ' fall '. Only in kwymp 3 daily ' the fall of 
the leaves ', and in kwymp dy:n, ( the Fall of Man ' : hence also may 
o wedi kayl kwympy ' he has had a fall' (in the moral sense). 

kwympOy v., cwympo, D., ' to fall ' of leaves : may r dail zn 
dexra kwympo. [The usual word for ' fall ' is S3r6jol\ 

kwyno, v., cwyno, D., s.v. * queritor ' ; 'to complain ' : dary xi 
giuyno uBo vo? ; kwyno n erbynpo:b dim ; kwyno heb if f o ; esp. ' to 
complain of pain or illness ', hence ' to be ailing '. 

ky:d, s.m., cyd, S.E.*, in the phrase kadu devaid ar 3 ky:d (O.H.), 
' to keep sheep in common and half share '. Cf. also gid a, i gi:dy 



ky:d-, a prefix used with verbs in the sense of 'with', e.g. tri: 
o bmjon ay -ky:d'tavlyd a i giliby ' three men throwing together '. 

ky:d, cyd = cyhyd, cf. D.G. xxv. 24, equative of hi:r, q.v. 

-kyd-vynd, v., cydfyned, S.E. [to go together], ' to agree ' : 
'kyd'vynd a vo: } ' to agree with him ' ; du i dim 3y 'kyd'vynd afobol 
bu:ad 3mma o r s0uB i godi diwtgjad, ' I don't agree with people 
coming here from South Wales to start a revival '. 



ky*ky:r 313 

ky:b, s., cudd, D.G. cxxviii. 42, ' hiding ': may o dan gy:b t ' he is 
in hiding ' (seldom used). 

ky:/, s., cyff, D., ' log ' : ky:fdolig, ' Yule log '. 
kyl, s.m. =klyl (2) : he:n gyl maur (I.W.). 

ky:l, adj., pi. Kiljon, cul, D., ' narrow ' : fe: ky:l, sguyba Kiljon / 
gwal gy:l, ' a thin wall '. 

kylbran, s., ' a fallen tree good for nothing but to be burnt ' ; also 
a term of reproach : r hem gylbran kaQral! (O.H.). 

kyl-hay, v., culhau, D., ' to make narrow '. 

kylx, s.m., pi. folxa, cylch, D. (i) 'circle ', used of bands, etc., 
encircling objects, e. g. ' tire ' (of a wheel), ' hoop ' (of a barrel) : 
buru i \9lxa, said of a flouncing woman who gets into a temper ; cf. 
the exp. dy:n a d gatto rhag buru d9 g9l\a a r k0upar dim gartra ; 
kylx am 9 jeyad t kylx o gumpas 9 leyad, ' halo round the moon '. (2) 
with the prep. 9n, ' concerning ' (cf. o gumpas) : 9 rjhyl\ 9 pe:B, 9n i 
gylx (not often used = am 9pe:B, am dano). Cf. also the phrase dyu 
9n d9 gylx / lit. ' God be about thee ', e.g. dyu 9n d? gylx / u:ti n i 
xlady hi!, ' good gracious ! you are stowing it away ! ' (i.e. the food). 

Ay( t s.pl, sing, kolan, f., coll and cyll, D., ' hazel ' : ko:yd kyl, 
' hazel-trees ' , sing, ko'ydan gojan ; fon golan, ' stick of hazel-wood '. 

&y:n, s.m., pi. kmjon, cyn, D., ' chisel ' : ky:n brasolt, ' rough- 
splitting chisel ' ; ky:n manolt, ' fine-splitting chisel ' ; ky:n kraig, 
' rock-chisel ', all used in slate quarries. 

kynnog, s.f., cunnog, D., ' a wooden pail for milking, smaller than 
a stem '. 

kynt, adv., cynt, D. (i) generally in the form gynt, ' formerly', 
' long ago ' : r hem amsar gynt, ' the old days ''. (2) ' before ' : Kf 
i 9no gynt( = o r bla:yn), '1 went there before ' ; welifi m ono vo na 
xynt na xwedyn, 'I never saw him before or after'. (3) * sooner, 
earlier ' : kynt (fovervyB) day dy:n na day vmyb (prov.), 4 two people 
will meet sooner than two mountains', i.e. 'perhaps we shall meet 
again ' (cf. Irish : casfar daoine le che'ile agus ni chasfar cnuic) ; 
meun mi:s a dim kynt, 'in a month and not before'; usually, 
however, in the form 9 rjhynt, e.g. du in myndiywely nhynt heno na 
neiBjur, ' I am going to bed earlier to-night than last night ' ; am 
na vedrun bu:ad 9 nhynt, ' because I could not come earlier ' ; 9 
vhynt na vo:, ' sooner than he '. (4) in the form yy gynt, ' sooner, 
earlier ', after a noun expressing time : x^artar aur ?y gynt, ' a 
quarter of an hour earlier '. (5) ' quicker ' : may r adag 9m paf'o 
y gynt uB i mi 8u:ad i deyd streyon, ' the time goes quicker when 
I come and tell stories ' ; Jft'y g9ntad a r gwynt, ' as quick as the 
wind ' ; Kiy g9ntad a median, ' as quick as lightning '. See also fanta. 

ky:r, s.m., cur, D., ' verberatio, ictus, pulsus ', in the exp. ky:r ; 
' headache ' : may gin i gy:r m 9 mhen, ' I have a headache '. 



314 kyrlau kzdeny 

kyrlau^ s.m., curlaw, D.G. xliv. 30, ' driving rain' : kyrlau o r de: 
duyran (O.K.). 

kyro, v., euro, D., ' to beat, knock ' : kyro Karpad. ' to beat a 
carpet ' ; kyro (= knokjo) n 9 dru:s, ' to knock at the door ' ; mi ga:6 
i gyro n ovnaduy, ' he got a terrible beating ' ; kyro hb'ylan, ' to 
hammer a nail ' ; also ' to beat ' of the heart. 

kyrur, s.m., curwr, Isaiah 1. 6, ' beater ' (in hunting). 

kysan, s.f., pi. kysana, cusan, D., ' kiss ' ; kysan boppa (boppo), l a 
sore on the lips '. 

kysany, v., cusanu, D., 'to kiss '. 

kyux, cuwch, S.E. = cyfuwch, equative of yx<iZ, kyux a be: o:y 

f t ' how high was it ? ' ; kyux a r klauft, ' as high as the hedge '. 

tobaldjan, v., ' to talk nonsensically and disjointedly '. 
tobol, s.m., ' nonsense, rubbish ' : he:n grbol! 
hbolan, s.f., ' one who talks nonsense '. 

hboli, v., cyboli, S.E. (i) 'to talk nonsense, to talk about some- 
thing of which one knows nothing ' : peidjux a x&oli, ' don't talk 
nonsense ! ' ; do:s o: na di i gyboli, * get away with you with your 
nonsense ! ' ; hboli a x?baldjan (ksbaldjan) ar draus i giliS meun 
stem (O.H.), ' at it hammer and tongs '. (2) ' to bother ' : wa:yB 

1 xi beidjo a x^boli mynd 9no, ' you might just as well not bother to 
go there '. (3) * to put out of order, disarrange, make a mess of : 
paid a hboh r peQa na ; may o wedi gsbolt o, ' he has made a hash 
of it '. Similarly hboli Keluyb, ' to trump up a lie '. 

fo&olur, s.m., cybolwr, S.E., ' one who talks nonsense '. 

hby, s.m., pi. hbdtijon, cybydd, D., ' miser '. 

fobtbdod, s., cybydd-dod, D., ' miserliness '. 

kyby&jaB, s., cydnabyddiaeth, D., s.v. ' notitia ' ; ' acquaintance ' : 
r 0:8 fobtijaB rtoyQo vo: a nhu:. 

kMlyd, adj., cybyddlyd, S.E., ' miserly'. 

hbtiys, adj., cydnabyddus, D.F. [151]. 22, 'acquainted': r o:n 
i n reitgb&ys a vo:, ' I knew him very well ' ; daxiy gafoftys a hunna ?, 
* do you know that man ? ' 

hbznnad, s.f., pi. hbzneidja, cibynaid, R., ' as much as a Kt'bin (q.v.) 
will hold' : 6 fabmnad (potatoes) = i saxad(224 Ibs.) ; 8 kdb9nnad 
(wheat) = i saxad =244 Ibs. (Bangor measure). Now only used 
in measuring potatoes and cockles ; a fabmnad of cockles = 
21 quarts ; i basgad gokkos = -| hbznnad. O.H. Cf. also hobad, 
storad. 

hdad, s., cyded, G.R. [112]. 5; cydaid, S.E.*, 'bagful'. 
hdeny, v., gwdenu, O.P., 'to twist together' (in spinning) = 
kndety (O.K.). Cf. D. nyddu 'n wden, s.v. ' contorqueo '. 



hdjad h'froi 315 

hdjad, v., cydied = cydio, S.E., 'to catch hold of (= gaval) : 
ko^i yaval bary vi 9n 9 pe:6 r oy&un i y hdjad mo vo. 

hdjad, s.m., cydiad, D.P.O. 12. 23 [a joining together], 'hold ' 
(= gaval) : bary mi gay I hdjad 9ni hi, ' I caught hold of it '. 

hdjo, v., cydio, D., 'to work together in harmony': ma: nu y 
hdjo 0.7 9y g9'ty:n ; ma na rei t o:ys na Mm hdjo 'arnynu. 

hdmary, v., cydmaru, S.E., 'to compare'. A corrupt semi- 
literary form, but in frequent use. Cf. cymmharu, D. 

hdnabod, v., cydnabod, D., ' to acknowledge ' : bary o Mm 
hdnabod, ' he made no acknowledgement '. 

hdnabod, s.m., cydnabod, St. Luke ii. 44, 'an acquaintance '. 

hdol, s., cydol, D., s.v. ' continenter ', ' continuus ' ; ' whole ' : 
tru:y g?dol 9 dy:, ar hy:d g9dol 9 dy:d y ( all day long '. 

hdwybod, s.f., cydwybod, D., s.v. ' conscientia * ; 'conscience*. 

kydyn, s.m., pi. fodttia, cudyn, D. (i) 'lock' (of hair), ' tuft ' : 
hdyn o wa:lt ; may i wa:ft o n myndifurb yygydma ; also applied 
to the 'beard' of a fish, e.g. of Motella mustela. (2) ' whisp ' : 
hdyn o we:U i e\ra ta:n : do:s i no:l hdyn o we:^t medi i da/ 9 
Kefyl, i.e. by enticing the horse to eat it (O.H.); esp. in hay- 
making, ' a lump of wet or green hay caked together ' : mi n'e'iB 9 
hdyn gly:b, wedi knava, luydo mi ne'i'6 9 hdyn gla:s go\i (O.H.). 

fobarab, s.f., ? cynddaredd, D., ' rabies, furor, insania ' ma na riu 
gtfarad ru:g m 9 plant, said of children who have been up to some 
mischief (O.K.). 

hfelib, adj., cyffelyb, D. ; cf. kyffelib, L.A. 73. 38, 'like'. 

hfinja, s.pl., cf. cyffin, D. ; cyffinieu, B.C. 147. 21, 'neighbour- 
hood ' : ay rtfafinja kappal Kerig, ' in the neighbourhood of Capel 
Curig ' (O.H.). 

hfjo, v., cyffio, D., s.v. ' dirigeo'; ' to be benumbed ', to "go to 
sleep " (of limbs) ; also used of the effect produced by knocking the 
funny-bone : mi drawis 9 mnhelin nes may 9 mrayx we d* hfjo. 

k9fl9by, v., cyrTelybu, D.; cyphlybu, G.R. [117]. 7. (i) 'to 
liken ' : -r oyftanu y gneyd r y: va:B a givyba ve{y 9du iy hfl9by nu, 
' they were making a noise like geese that is what I liken them to '. 
(2) ' to think, imagine ' : wedihflaby mod i wedi gweld bugan (O.H.). 

hfredin, adj., cyffredin, D., 'common' : smnuyr hfrcdin, 'common 
sense ' ; pobol gzfredin, ' common people ' ; ru:in 9n dal_a\ na r 
hfredin, ' some one taller than people generally are ' ; 9y g9fredin^ 
' generally '. 

h/ro, s.m., cyffro, D., ' agitation, anxiety, commotion ' : may r 
pentra meun hfro maur. 

h'/roi, v., cyffroi, D., ' to agitate, cause anxiety ' : wedi h'froi 
n i vedul, ' upset '. 



3 1 6 krfroys tomdogaQ 

krfroys, adj., cyffrous, D., s.v. * indignabundus ', ' tragicus ', 
* tumultuosus ' ; 'agitated': golug h'froys arno vo ; edrax ?y 
gdfro:ys. 

hfur, v., cyffwrdd, D., ' to touch '. Seldom used (= tutfad, tutfo), 
but occurs in fig. sense : l&fur a i galon o, ' to touch his heart .' 

fofilog, s.m., cyffylog, D., ' woodcock ' (Scolopax rusticula) : nid 
an o:l i bi:g may prmny kafalog (prov.), i.e. ' one must not judge by 
outward appearances '. O.H. has also gsflog. 

hfertys, adj., cyfFyrddus; comfforddus, T.N. 72. 15, 'com- 
fortable ' : kadar gtfirtys ; may n re't't gtfsrfys smma. 

hxjad, s., cychaid, S.E. (i) ' boatful '. (2) ' hiveful ' : hxjad o 
wenyn. 

, s.m., cychwr, D., s.v. ' lintrarius ' ; ' boatman '. 

, sometimes kuxuyn, v., cychwyn, D., ' to start ' : mi bzla 
vo gsxuyn ne mi eiB zn no:s arno vo, ' he ought to start or it will be 
getting dark* ; hxuyn ar vry:s maur, 'to start in a great hurry' ; 
hxuyn ar o:l doktor, ' to start off for a doctor ' ; may hmny n agor 
d dru:s i g*xuyn, ' that enables one to make a start ' (fig.) ; do:s 
alan ! hxuyn /, ' out you go ! ' ; ar gaxuyn, ' fidgety, restless ' ; may 
hi vel tani ar g^xuyn^ ' we are in a mess ' (said of an untidy room) ; 
trans. : hxuyn 9 prikja, ' to set the chips alight ' ; inf. used 
substantively : rhoi hxuyn ido vo, ' to give him a push off ' ; my 
k3xuyn kmta, ' at the very beginning, at the first start ' ; / o:ys na 
dim kzxuyn arm hi, ' she has no " go " in her '. 

, hxunjad, s.m., cychwyniad, Num. x. 28, * start': rhoi 
i ru:in, * to give some one a start ' (fig. sense). 
, adj., kylchoc, W.LI. ix. 36, 'having stripes all round': 



, s.m., cylchwr, O.P., 'hooper'. 
, v., cylchu, D., to hoop '. 
, s.m., cylchyn, D., s.v. * circuitus ' : ' hoop ' (toy). 

tolvat, s.m., ' culvert '. 

hlaQ, s.f., pi. hli6, cyllell, D., ' knife ' : lavn, karn folaQ, l blade, 
handle of a knife j folaB wair, ' hay-knife"' ; hlad gerig (in slate 
quarries), ' an instrument for squaring sglodjon ' ; mynd vel folaQ 
bo:y& tru: venyn, said of one who squanders his money ; bla:yn 9 
gzlaB (fig.), ' the thin end of the wedge ' ; krtad (9) mo:r, ' razor- 
shell ' (Solen) = morgrtaO. 

kamdeiBas, s.f., cymdeithas, D., s.v. ' societas'; ' society' : fe'trjo 
fomde'iQas hevo pobol, ' to have social intercourse with people ' ; vel 
da vo Sim if'o dx tomdeiQas x*\ ' as if he did not want your society '. 

hmdogas, s.f., cymmydoges, D., s.v., 'vicina'; ' neighbour'. 

hmdogaB, s v cymmydogaeth, D., s.v. ' vicinitas ' ; cymdogaeth, 
B.C. 58. 24, ' proximity, neighbourhood'. 



hmdogol hmonas 3 1 7 

kamdogol, adj , cymmydogawl, D., s.v. ' vicinalis ' ; ' neighbourly '. 

kamerjad, s.m., pi. kamerjada, s.m., cymmeriad, D. (i) 'character*. 
(2) applied to persons, hem gtmerjad, * an old character '. (3) fhoi 
mu:y, jai o gamerjad (in ploughing), ' to broaden or narrow the 
furrow by means of the ratchet ' (O.H.). (4) * tenancy ' : gano vo: 
may hmerjad a (y:. 

kammal, s.m., pi. hmala, cymmal, D., 'joint'. 

hmmal, v - cymmell, D. Fut. hmheja, * to compel '. 

kammyd, k(a)meryd, v., cymmeryd, D. Fut. kamma, k(a)mera. 
Pret. S. i. kammis, k(a)meris, 3. fommod, &h}merod. PI. i. kamson, 
2. hmsox, 3. hmson. Imperf. kammun, k(a)merun. Plup. hmsun, 
kmasun. Imperative kamma, kammar, kym ; kammu\, k(a}meru\. 
Pret. Pass, kammuyd, ' to take ' (the forms kamryd, kamra, etc., 
are common at Bangor) : mi gammob 9 fy6yr odj'ar i vraud, ' he 
took the letter from his brother'; Kimmint vedar dy:n gzmeryd o 
wair uQ i dori a fladyr^ 'as much as a man can take (i.e. reach) 
of hay in mowing it with a scythe ' ; d un i dim be gamma i 
am rieyd o, ( I don't know what (money) I will take to do it ' ; 
xwtmun i lawar a i fyiay i x*> ' I would not clean it for you for 
a great deal ' ; \ammun i 'dim am dano, ' I would not part with 
it for anything ' ; x m asun i lawar a \erbad i gonuy heno a xmasa 
xi&a \wai6, na neyBax?, 'I would not walk to Conway to-night 
for a great deal, and you would not either, would you?' (E.J.); 
\zmsun i btm well's t ri'o:yd a i \oli hi, ' I should rather anything 
than have lost it ' ; in various phrases : hmmyd amsar i rieyd 
ru&ati, ' to take time to do something ' ; fommyd bendtg, ' to borrow ' ; 
hmmydgovol, ' to take care ' ; fammydmantais ar, ' to take advantage 
of; hmmydsyluar, 'to take notice of; hmmyd an wgavn, 'to 
take lightly ' ; hmmyd 9 go:ys, ' to run away ' ; fammyd an i ben, ' to 
get into one's head ' ; i hmmyd nu at i giliS, ' on the whole ', 
* taking them all together ', so also a i gammy d o i gi:d ; of eating 
or drinking: 'gammuxi gapanad o de: ? 'to take, stand, endure' : 
gammanu glut?, ' \\ill they stand patching?' followed by ar, 'to 
pretend ' : kammyd arno gasgy, ' to pretend to be asleep ' ; / oy& o 
dim ay kammyd arno vod o n da:lf, 'he did not "let on" that he 
understood ' ; also / adi o dim ay kameryd arno, ' he does not show 
it' (e.g. grief). 

kammyn, s.m., cymmun, D., ' communion ' : kammyd t gammyn. 

kammysg, adj., cymmysc, Lev. xix. 19, 'mixed together' : bvy n 
gammysg hevo beru du.r, ' to grow mixed with watercress ' ; bara 
kammysg \baro\ ; gla:u ag eiray gammysg, ' rain and snow mixed ' ; 
tu:yb kammysg = tu:yb kamasglyd. 

kamodi, v., cymmodi, D., ' to become reconciled ', ' to make 
it up '. 

kamonas; kumonas (O.H.); kamanas (J.J.), s.f.; cf. cymanes, M.F. 



3 1 8 krm0ut kmdyn 

(i) term applied to a frisky cow : may hon an he:n gzmonas o he:n 
vyux (E.J.). (2) ' mistress ' : dmas ?n kalyn dy:n heb vynd tru:y 
briodas (J.J. ; O.H.) ; as term of reproach : kumonas o he:n dmas 
(O.H.). " 

krmmt, s., in phr. ar 3 krmaut, * gadding about, wandering 
about '. 

k9m0uta ; also knm0uta (I.W.), v., ' to wander about ' : le: 'by:osti? 
ktm0uta hyd 9 van; tomvuta ar o:l riu he:n bavod ; mi g9m0utis 
tru: r dy:d ar i ho: I ; ksm0uta am fosgod; k9m0uta o r nail dy: i r 
lal i hel stra:s. 

fom'ra:ig, s., Cymraeg, 'the Welsh language', f. in general as 
9 g3m'ra:ig, but m. when followed by adjectives and denoting a piece 
or style of Welsh as ksm'ra:ig gwa.yl, da:, etc. ; sy gwra.'ig, ' in 
Welsh ' ; medry ksm'ra:ig, ' to know Welsh ' ; ksm'ra:ig go wa:yl 
s gini hi, ' her Welsh is rather bad '. 

kam'ra.'ig, adj., Cymraeg, ' Welsh '. Generally applied to the 
Welsh language as sr jaiB gwra:ig, geirja hm'ra:tg, but some- 
times otherwise. 

ksnrrays, s.f., pi. tomryesa, Cymraes, G.R. (13). 12, 'Welsh- 
woman '. 

hm-reig, adj., Cymreig, G.R. 5. 8, ' Welsh ', but not used when 
speaking of the language. 

hmretgab, adj., Cymreigaidd, G.R. (12). 16, 'Welshy': le: 
tomreigab jaun, ' a place where the Welsh element is strong '. 

fomro, s.m., pi. fomry, Cymro, ' Welshman ' : ksmro gla:n (gloyii), 
1 a thorough Welshman ' ; tomro o wa:yd, 'a Welshman by parentage*. 
famry, s.f., Cymru, * Wales '. 

kamuynas, s.f., cymmwynas, D. (i) ( an act of kindness, a good 
turn, a favour ' : net di g^muynas ba:x hevo vi ?, ' will you do me 
a favour ? ' (2) ' work, occupation ' : ble:r 3n zgsmuynas (= wai&\ 
O.H. 

fomzdog, s.m., pi. hmdogjon, cymmydog, D., neighbour '. 
hmslog, adj., cymmylog, D., s.v. 'nubilus' ; ' cloudy'. 

raQ, s.f., ? cymyrraeth, D., ' arrogantia ', etc. : m laun o 
dru:g, ' full of meddlesomeness ' (O.H.) ; gneyd rubaB o 
dru:g, ' to do something from a spirit of meddlesomeness ' 
(O.H.). Cf., however, mwaB. 

hmdsglyd, adj., cymysclyd, Wisd. xiv. 25, ' mixed ' : tu.yb 
hmssglyd, ' heavy showers and wind interspersed with sunshine '. 

, s.f., cymmyscfa, B.C., 87. 10, ' medley, mixture'. 
, v., cymmysgu, D., ' to mix '. 
kmdyn, adj., cyndynn, D., 'obstinate '. 



hndmruyb kmnig 319 

hndmruyb, s.m., cyndynrwydd, D., ' obstinacy '. 

kn&lirjog, hnMirig, adj., cynddeiriog, D., ' raving, mad, wild ' : 
Ki: kmteirjog, ' mad dog '. As intensifying adverb : da: gwMirjog, 
devilishly good '. Cf. fortogt. 

kmfonna^ h/onja, hfonjo \kumfonnd\. 

kmhaljaQ, s., cynhaliaeth, Acts xii. 20, 'maintenance, sustenance ' : 
/ o:s gmo vo 8im arjan at i gmhaljaQ. 

kmfarvjad, krwrvjad, s.m., cynnhyrfiad, St. John v. 3, 'commotion, 
agitation '. 

hnfarvlyd, adj., cynhyrflyd, ' agitated, excited ' : r 0:6 o n edrax 
yy gmhzrvlydjaun. 

hnforvy, kwrvy, v., cynnhyrfu, D., s.v. 'excito'. (i) 'to excite, 
agitate ' : dgest i kmhzrvy nu (of a dog barking at sheep) ; ' to be 
excited, agitated ' : r 0:8 o wedi knarvy n aru jaun. (2) ' to be 
moved, stirred ' : du i wedi kayl 3 nhmharvy i vynd. 

kmfarvys, adj., cynhyrfus, S.E., ' excited, agitated, exciting*. 

kmivar, cynnifer, D., only in expressions like 0:8 na lawar o 
bobol? 0:8 na dippin o gmivar (O.H.), 'were there many people? 
There were a considerable number '. 

hnleidva, s.f., pi. fonleidva:o8, cynnulleidfa, D. ; cynlleidfa, D.F. 
[46]. i5, ' congregation '. 

fonna, v., cynne and cynneu, D., ' to kindle': ma: r tarn ?y 
kmna ( = du:ad), ' the fire is burning up ' ; kmna ta:n = gola fo:n, 
' to light a fire '. 

kmnal) v., cynnal, D., ' to maintain, support '. 

kmnar, adj., cynnar, D., ' early ' : rhaid i \i godi n voreyax vory 
gad i \t votjo y gznnar, ' you must get up earlier to-morrow so as 
to vote early ' ; 9n gnara\ ne huyra\ } ' sooner or later ' ; tattus 
kmnar, ' early potatoes '. 

kmnas, adj., comp. knesax, cynnes, D. (i) ' warm ' : du:r kmnas, 
ierwyb kmnas , etc. ; mi gadwi'B hmny vo y gznnas, ' that will keep it 
warm '. (2) ' warm-hearted ' : merx gmnas. 

kmnig, v., cynnyg, D., s.v. 'offero'. Fut. S. i. kwgfa. Imperf. 
S. i. kwgjun; knikjun (O.H.). Pret. S. i. kwgts, 2. kmgist, 3. kwgjob. 
Pi. i. knskson, etc. Pluperf. kmksun. Imperative: knsgja; kwgjux. 
Pret. Pass, knikjuyd (J.J.). Forms in i for 9 are common in all 
tenses, ' to offer ' : kmnig bu:yd i ru:in ; kmnig bu:yd a r bu:yd 
m 3 kuppurb, { to offer food in the hope that it will not be accepted ' ; 
a similar idea is expressed by hnnig ar hy:d brayx ; ' to make an 
offer of marriage ' : kmnig (prjodf). 

kmnig, s.m., pi. kwgjon, knigjon, cynnyg, R. (i) ' offer * : dsmma 
r kmnig ola i x/, ' this is the last offer ' ; er mu:yn i \i gad kmnig 
arno vo wedyn, ' so as to get it offered you again '. (2) ' attempt ' 



3 2 o kmnil kmvigan 

hence ' time ' : luybo, meQy bo:b fonm'g, ' to succeed, fail every time ' ; 
may o n disgin i u le: bo:b kmnig ; may o n i hitjo hi bo:b kmm'g. 

kmnily adj., cynnil, D., ' thrifty, sparing ' : ksmmyd o y gmnil 
jaun, ' to take it very sparingly '. 

kmnur, s.m. (pi. krvrvfada), cynnwrf, D. ; cynnwr, P.G.G. 200. 4, 
' disturbance, fuss, ado ' : dsmma gmnur maur am roi tippin o lo: ar 
9 ta:n / 

kmnuys, adj., cynnwys, D., ' confined ' : le: kmnuys. Cf. kunnus. 

kmnyfty s., cynnydd, D., 'increase'. 

kmnyl, v., cynnull, D., ' to gather together ' : kmnyly:d, 'to bind 
corn in sheaves' (JJ.; O.H.); pren kmnyl, 'an instrument for 
gathering corn ' (J.J.). 

kmnyrx, s.m., pi. kmrxjon, cynnyrch, D., 'produce': byu ar 
gmnyrx * ti:r. 

kmron, kmdron, km&ron, knonod, knornod, s.pl., sing, knonyn, 
knornyn, m., cynrhawn, sing, cynrhonyn, D. ; cynron, W.B., col. 
107. 26, 'maggots': may o n vyu o gnornod, 'it is alive with 
maggots ' ; may o vel ta knonod 9no vo, said of a fidgety child. 

kmstdro, kmdro v., considrio, B.C. 141. 7,' to consider': 9dt\ 
fonst'dro, ' it is, considering ' ; a xwsidro bo:d, ( considering that '. 

kmta, adj., adv., cyntaf, D. (i) l first': bora fonta, ' very early 
in the morning' (= bem bora gla:s) ; am 9 tro: kmta, 'for the first 
time ' j Keru'xi: wa y gwta, mi do: inna dna tok, ' you go first, I'll 
come presently ' ; kmta doifi amma, ' when I first came here ' ; paub 
am 3 hnta, ' all trying to be first ' ; rhedag am 9 tonfa, ' to run in 
emulation, to race '. (2) ' soonest ' ; also conj. ' as soon as ' : gora 
pey gmta, ' the sooner the better ' ; kmta 'deyQonu, ' as soon as they 
came ' ; dikka (n 3 by:d} bo: r Keiljog, kmta by:d (= n 2 by:d) s ka:n 
o (prov.), ' the angrier the cock is, the sooner he crows ' [di:g\ ; 
kmta by:d 9 'medranu, l as soon as ever they could '. (3) ' quickest ' : 
muya draux kmta by:d (= by&] 'korftuxi, 'the more you thump the 
quicker you churn ' (i. e. with a fyda gnok) ; hon 3di r for gmta, 

4 this is the quickest way '. Cf. kynt. 

kmtretvjo, htreivjo, v., contreifio, T.N. 121. 30, 'contrive'. 

kmtflivjol) fotreivjol, adj., from Eng. contrive, ' economical, well- 
managing ' =iforbjol. Opp. dzveQgar. 

kmtyn, s.m., cyntun, D., ' nap '. 

kmvas, fovnaSy hvas, s.f., pi. bnvasa, fovnasa, k(9)vasa, kynfas, 
W.S. [Kanuas] ; cynfaseu (pi.), B.C. 94. 29 ; cynfas, G.O. i. 26. 6, 
' sheet ' (of a bed) ; also ' a sheet for threshing on ' : darny ar 9 
kwnas = d^rny ar 9 gur&ban (O.H.). Cf. kar&an. 

kmvigan, s., kynuigen, W.B., col. 72. 34 ; cynfigen, cenfigen, 
D., ' envy ' : may li:d a xwvigan 9n la:d i perxmnog (prov.), ' wrath 



hnyn hrnol 321 

and envy slay their possessors ' ; m drewi o bngjoni a fy:d a \9nvigan 
(O.H.). Not often used colloquially = gwenwyn. 

kmyn, s.m., 'a solitary, friendless individual' (I.W.); vel hnyn 
ar i ben i hy:n (I.W.). 

fonrty, v., cynnyddu, D., ' to increase ' : may r teyly y fawdy ; 
rhag i r kasgal (gathering) gmriy a mynd m wa:y6. 

hnngaQ, s.f., cynnysgaeth, D. ; l dowry, marriage portion ' (of a 
man or woman). 

fayor, s.m., cynghor, D. ( i ) pi. hyhorjon, ' advice ' : fayor da:, 
{hoi hyor, hyhorjon, ' to give advice '. (2) pi. fayhora : ' council '. 

faply, v., 'to couple ' : day voxyn wedi kzply. 

hpbsy, v., kwplyssy, W.S. [Couple]; cjplyssu, G.R. 58. 3, to 
attach with a kuplus (q.v.). 

tops, fa/s, s.pl., sing, fapsan, hfsan, f., 'cuffs'. Sing, also fap, fa/ t m. 

farad ; sometimes &ry$, v., cyrraedd, cyrredd, etc., D. Fut. 
kreyfta, knfta. Trans, (i) 'to reach' : dros de:g ay farad i gwely, 
' not getting to bed till after ten ' ; gwarOag heb gwab drvluyb, 
' cattle under two years old ' ; Kin farad na:u, ' under nine years of 
age '. Intr. (2) ' to reach, stretch out the hand (towards) ' : kreybux 
at 9 tattus, ' have some potatoes ' ; krey$u\ at nakku Kin 80 vo diri^ 
'have some of that before it gets cold'. (3) 'to reach, extend': 
may r gair yy farad zm bel jaun, ' the word admits of a very wide 
application '. Substantively meun farad, alan o gtrab, l within 
reach, out of reach '. 

farans, ksraintf, farant/", s.pl., ' currants '. 

fardogi, v., cynddeiriogi, D., s.v. ' furo ', ' rabio ' ; ' to be in a rage, 
fury '. 

hrjalun, hrnjalun, knnjalun \knjalun\. 

farxy, v., cyrchu, D. (i) ' to make for ' : be dir minin (meaning) 
bod nu y farxy at ? ty: aku / ; may paub 3y farxy gartra ; farxy at 3 
ywaiQ . (2) ' to fetch ' : farxy du:r dros avon (prov.), 'to go a 
long way for what can be got close at hand'. (3) ' to gather together': 
farxy arjan at i gilft ; farxy devaid at 9 ty: ; farxy haid o ivyda. 

hrlays, adj., said of a skirt which hangs lower on one side than 
on another. 

farljad, s.m., cwrliad, C.L.C. v, vi. 67. 22, 'curl ': hrljad ar i 
dalkan o. 

hrljog, adj., ' curly '. 

hrnady, knady, v., cyrnadu, S.E., ' to cry, howl, bawl ' (as of 
people quarrelling, etc.). 

farnan, s., curnen, D., * a round rick of corn, etc.' : farnan y:d 
(py:d f ) > gwair, rhedyn ;-daxi wedi kay 9\ farnan in reit da:, * you 
have feathered your nest ' ; ?y grun vel farnan. 

farnot, s.m., Eng. coronel, ' coloner. 

1432 Y 



322 farnoni kastal 

kzrnoni, v., cynrhawni, D., to breed maggots ', 

hrnoppyn, s.m., cf. cyrnopyn, M.F. 67. 18, ' whipper-snapper ': 
taxi r hem gsrnoppyn ba:\! (O.H.); also used as an endearing 
term to babies : hrnoppyn annuyl 1 (O.H.). 

ksrtan, s.m., pi. tortoM/ta, kwrten gwely, W.S. [Curten], ' curtain '. 
O.H. uses this word for ' blind '. 

krsakt, adj., Eng. exact, ' punctual '. 

kssamjo, v., Eng. examine, ' to examine, look into '. 

hsat, s., ' gusset ' = kufat. 

hseiljad, s., ceseiliad, R., ' as much as can be carried under the 
arms '. 

krse:t, s., cf. cynset, G.O. ii. 72. 26, Eng. conceit, * fastidiousness ' : 
/ o:ys gmo vo dim mzmryn o gyse:t ; t o:ys na dim h'se:t 9no vo. 

fosetlyd, adj., 'faddy, old-maidish, particular, full of whims, 
eccentric '. 

kssgadyr, s., cysgadur, D., s.v. 'indormio'; 'sleeper'. Also 
used adjectivally and adverbially : durnod fosgadyr, ' a " sleepy " 
day ' ; ma n dnmmad kssgadyr, ' it is " sleepy " weather ' O.H. 
Cf. F.N. 30 (62). 

fosgod, s.m., pi. hsgodjon, cysgod, D. (i) 'shadow'; fosgod 9 
vra:n, 'the shadow of the crow'. (2) 'shade, shelter' : 9 ly: sy 
yhssgod 9 koyd na, ' the house in the shelter of those trees ' ; m 
tegad 9r hayl ag wj ghasgod 9 gwynt, ' in the sun and sheltered from 
the wind '. (3) ' shade ' (for an eye). (4) said of doing something 
in secret : 9 wraig 9ti rhanny pe6 zy ghzsgod i gu:r, 'the wife giving 
away something without her husband's knowledge '. (5) said of 
doing something in the "shade" of some one, i.e. by making him 
a pretext : gneyd rubaQ 9n i x^got i, ' to make her a pretext for 
doing something '. (6) said of doing something under the " shadow ", 
i. e. the aegis, the protection of some one else : du i am gad ? ywair 
an 9x kssgod x*, i. e. in the fine weather you are sure to have at your 
command (facetiously). 

hsgodt, v., cysgodi, D., 'to shade, shelter': may fomzla n i 
gssgodi o, ' it (the sun) is behind the clouds '. 

hsgy, v., cysgu, D. Imperative hsga, 'to sleep': ksgy vel 
moxyn, ' to sleep like a top ' ; rhuy hsgy agefro, ' between sleeping 
and waking ' ; hsgy n hu.yr dary m', ' I overslept myself ' ; may n 
sukro i x* g^gy, ' it sends you off to sleep ' ; mi gzsgax ta drolja n 
mynd -drostaxiy ' you would sleep if carts were running over you ' ; 
hsgy alan (fig.), 'to be in the grave'; as subst. : du i y koli 
yfosgy, ' I lose my sleep ' ; kssgy luynog, ' simulated sleep ' : used 
of limbs "going to sleep": may nrho:yd 9y kasgy (cf. kzfjo)* 
used of the stump of a tree rotting in the ground and transformed 
into touch-wood (O.H.). 

tostal, kastlad, adj., adv., cystal, D. ; cf. cystled, D.P.O. 274. 7, 



bstyb bBral 323 

* as good, as well, etc.' (equative of da:) : r oybun i n smny ivo:d o 
fos/a/, * I was astonished he was so good ' ; may o gislal a ne:b am 
dmny [inja t ' he is as good as any one for taking photographs ' ; mi 
feyijpttal klystan ge:J ' i -ri:oyd t ' I got as good a box on the ears 
as ever I got ' ; may hynna y gtstal a deyd . . ., * that is as good as 
saying ...',' that amounts to saying . . .' ; / idi o dim in edra\ 
bstal ag o:yb o, l he does not look as well as he did ' ; dim 9n medry 
farad bstal a */;, l unable to speak as well as you '. 

hstyb, s., cystudd, D., ' afflictio ' ; in the exp. gwely bstyb, ' sick 
bed '. 

bsyr, s.m., pi. hsyrvn, cyssur, D., 'comfort, consolation ' : / o:ys 
na dim bsyr o nwwyd, 1 1 lead a miserable life '. 

hsyro, v., cyssuro, D., ' to comfort '. 

hsyrysy adj., cyssurus, D., 'comfortable' (e.g. as to circum- 
stances) : sy da\i he&ju ? wi:r, may n reit g*syrys arna i ; ma: 
by:d bsyrys arno vo, ' he is in easy circumstances '. 



tlfjad, s.m., pi. ktsyfljada, cyssylltiad, D., * connection ' ; 

* relations ', in such expressions as " friendly relations ". 

hs9fy'ol t adj., cysylltiol, S.E.*, ' united ' : dal *y gxrtljol (O.H.). 
kzstlty) v., cyssylltu, D., ' to unite ' : hs^ly day be:B a i &ilib ; day 
gwai'l ?y kwliy a tgilti. 

ht, s., Eng. cut : tori bt, ' to cut a dash '. 

kstinjad, s.m., cyttuniad, S.E., * agreement ' : -oydanu wedi attab 
9n jaun i r htinjad ?, 'were they (the articles) in accordance with 
the agreement ? ' 

htteu, adj., ' stiff, thick ' (of liquids) : may la:y& kadu n mynd ry 
gztteuy ' milk which is left to stand becomes stiff ' ; may r tattus wedi 
berwi y gitteu, ' the potatoes have been boiled to a " mush ", to a 
thick liquid '. 

lu-ty:n, adj., cyttun, D., ' in agreement': may paub ?y grlym. 

fotyndab, s.m., cyttundeb, D., 'agreement': htyndab prjodas^ 

* betrothal '. 

btyno, v., cyttuno, D., c to agree '. 

hQral, s.m., pi. bOre'tljad, cythraul, D., ' devil ' (cf. djaul) : mynd 
vel ka:B i gsQral, ' to go like a flash ' ; do:s hy;d 9 hQral, ' go to the 
devil ' ; may kd&ral ?no vo meun kroyn dy:n, ' he is a devil incarnate ' ; 
muya 'fadu\i am gzBral nesa m by:d dau o 'atto\i (prov.) ' talk of the 
devil, he's sure to appear'; xuuara te:g i r hBral [djaul], as term 
of reproach : ksBral o by:n ydi o ; ksQral kluybog, etc., implying 
rage, fury, etc. : r 0:8 o n 9 kyQral, ar gtvn i grtral ; kodi r kdBral 
maur, ' to make a terrible row ' ; as name of implements : bBral 
gwair, ' American tumbler ' ; bQwl gwla:n, ' machine for carding 
wool ' ; in animal and plant names bBral 9 mo:r } 4 fishing-frog or 

Y 2 



324 kz&reilig hv'Aljorm 

angler-fish ' (Lophius piscatorius) ; pren kas gan grtral, ' spindle- 
tree ' (Euonymus europseus) ; pervad 9 hBral, ' the convolvulus '. 

hBre'ih'g, adj., cythreulig, D., ' devilish ' ; ' furious '. 

faBry t v., cythru, S.E. (i) ' to snatch ' : faBry n 0uxys, ' to 
snatch greedily ' ; hBry r kubul. (2) ' to do a thing hurriedly ' : 
mi krtroS o. (3) ' to bolt ' (of food) = slafjo, foukjo. (4) ' to 
rush ' : krtry ido vo a i danny n i o:l, e. g. of some one going into 
danger ; leidar dy faBry i x*, ' a thief bursting out upon you '. 

hBrabljo, v., cythryblu, D. ; cythryblio, Acts xvi. 20 ; B.C. 1 16. 18, 
' to disturb, disquiet, upset ' : kqyl i boini gin riu brovadigaB. 

foBnblys, kuBnblys, adj., cythryblus, D., s.v. ' conturbatus ' ; 
' agitated, perturbed ' : may o y guBrzblys jaun m i vedul, m meBy 
kadu i vedul oru& peB (O.K.). 

fova, kman, adj. and s.m., pi. kmeyon, cyfa and cyfan, D. ; cyfa, 
G.R. 48. 6; W.LI. vi. 39; B.C. 86. 21, 'whole': avol, mo\yn 
kma ; bytta peBa sy gaveyon (J . J.), ' to eat things whole ' ; ar 3 
kwan, ' on the whole ' ; dma r hva tan da:u o, ' that's all (e. g. the 
milk) till he comes ' ; 2 kman o:l, ' the whole '. 

kwaSa, v., cyfaddef, D., ' to confess '. 

kyuail, s.m., pi. fove'tyon, cyfaill, D., ' friend ' frind. 

kmansobjad, s.m., cyfansoddiad, D., ' constitution ' (referring to 
the body). 

kwar, s., cyfer, D., in ar gdvar. (i) 'against', in phrases like 

* against his coming ' : mi do:0 o adra ag ifo bu:yd arno vo, ond d 
o:yb dim ar i g3var o, ( he came home hungry, but there was no food 
ready for him ' ; darpary ar gzvar r ha:> ' to prepare for the 
summer '. (2) ' opposite ' : ar gwar zr eval, ' opposite the smithy '. 

kwar, s.m., pi. favors, Eng. cover, (i) 'table-cloth' (made of 
cloth, etc., as distinguished from U:an burb, ' a white table-cloth '). 
(2) 'cover, small wood'. 

fovarx, v., cyfarch, D., ' salute ' : dary mi gwarx o a deyd dy:$ 
da: ixi- 

hvarxwal, s.f., cyfarchwel, D., ' a shelter, place of safety used in 
quarries at blasting time'; also ka:l y:d (etc.) tgwarxwal rhag 9 
derwyb used by old people (J.J.). 

kmarB, v., cyfarth, D., ' to bark ' : kmarB paub, favarB at baub, 
' to bark at every one ' ; kadu Ki: a wvarB V3 hynan, ' to keep a 
servant and do all the work myself '. 

kwaruyb, adj., cyfarwydd, D., ' acquainted ', followed by a. 

ksvarvod \kwarvod\. 

hvetljorn, s., cyfeiliorn, D M s.v. ' error ', in phr. myndar gmeiljorn, 

* to go astray ' ; mi a:B o fanny vedra gmeiljorn, ' he went as fast 
as his legs could carry him ' ; mynd nerB i gsvetljorn. 

kweiljorni, v., cyfeiliorni, D., ' to go astray '. 



krunewidjad 325 

s., cyfeillach, D., ' friendship ' : mynd i gyvfifax dy:n 
araf. Sometimes used for sfiat. 

kwe'ifear, adj., cyfeillgar, M.LI. ii. 13. 17, * friendly'. 

hveirjad, kweirjad, s.m., cyfeiriad, D., s.v. directio ' ; ' direction' : 
9m mho:b hveirjad. 

krue'irjo, kwe'irjo, v., cyfeirio, D., s.v. ' dirigo '. (i) ' to make for ' : 
/' b le: daxi y hveirjo ? (2) ' to refer (to) ' : at be: daxi y hveirjo ? 

krvelin, s., cyfelin, D., ' cubitus, ulna ' ; pu:ys gwelin = pympuys 
ba:x o wla:n (O.H.). 

krverbyn y adv., cyferbyn, D., ' opposite ' : krverbyn a r ty:. Cf. 
kuderbyn. 

hverbmjoli adj., cyferbyniol, S.E., 'opposing; on the opposite 

side '. 

kwino, v., cynnefino, D., ' to be accustomed ' : may o wedi hem 
gmino (a ru&ati), ' it is an ingrained habit with him '. Also transi- 
tively ' to make accustomed, to acclimatize ' : ktvino devaid. 

kwiy, adj., kyving, G.C. 116. 4; cyfing, G.R. [m]. 10; cyfyng, 
D., 'narrow' = ky:l ; ar i gwiy g^yor, 'hesitating'. Cf. W.B. 
col. 46. 30; G.R. 6. 8; D., s.v. 'aporia'; B.C. 6. 13. 

kyvktj kovla^ s.m., cyfle, D., ' opportunity ' : mi ga:ni grula etto, 
' we shall have another opportunity ' ; lummy d mantas ar 9 tovta, 
' to take advantage of the opportunity '; pen weliB o i gsvla, ' when 
he sees his chance ' ; bo:b krvla ga: vo, ' whenever he got the 
chance '. 

kwlaB, s.m., cyflaith, D., ' treacle toffee '. 

kwlaun, adj., cyflawn, D., ' complete, entire ' : mi dalis {do vo y 
gwlaun, ' I paid him in full '. 

krvlenwad, s.m., cyflenwad, S.E., ' an ample supply '. 

krvlfys, adj., cyfleus, i Mace. xi. 37, 'convenient'. Cf. huylys. 

kmleystra, hvlystra, s.m., cyfleusdra, G.O. ii. 22. 13; T.N. 158. 
i, ' opportunity ' : a\yb 9 kzvleystra, ' to seize the opportunity'. 

kavlo, adj., pi. kyvleyon, cyflo, D., ' in calf : byuxgrulo. 

kwlog, s.m., pi. kruloga, kloga, cyflog, D., ' wages ' : dy:n dan 
gwlog bbnsbol. 

kwlogi [klogi']. 

kyvlenindar^ s.m., cyflawnder, D., ' abundance '. 

kwleuni, v., cyflowni, G.R., 66. 6 ; cyflawni, D., ' to fulfil ' : 
kmteunii d&ewid ; ga&o pe:Q a xwlwni. 

hvlym, adj., cyflym, D., ' quick '. Not often used = by:an,/ast, 
kwit, xwim, Pr> 3s y r if ar P' 

kyunewidjad) s.m., pi. krvnewidjada, cyfnewidiad, D., s.v. 'mutatio'; 
4 change '. 



326 hvnewidjol hvarduy 

kzvnewidjol, adj., cyfnewidiol, D., s.v. ' mutabilis ' ; ' changeable ' : 
terwyb ksvnewidjol ; dy:n hvnewidjol i veftul. 

hvnod, s.m., cyfnod, D., ' time, period of time ' : m ^ kwnod na; 
kdvnod o d0wy bra:v. 

kmog, s.m., cyfog, D., * vomiting ' : may n btgon i godi kmog ar 
ru:in, ' it is enough to make one sick ' ; mi do:0 9 kwog arna /', ' I 
was sick ' ; kwog gwa:g, ' ineffectual retching '. 

kwogi, v., cyfogi, D., ' to vomit '. 

kmoyB, hvoO t s., cyfoeth, cy woeth, D., ' riches '. 

kwran, s.f., pi. kwranna, cyfran, D., ' share '. 

kmraQ, s.f., pi. hvre'iOja, cyfraith, D., ' law ' : rnynd i aval (?) 
gwraB, ' to get within the grasp of the law ' ; gneyd rubaB 9n wymmad 
9 g9vraB (O.H.), ' to defy the law ' ; ay yaval hvraO i da:d, ' still 
subject to his father's authority ' ; ta:d sy ghavraQ, ' father-in-law ' ; 
* stepfather '. 

kwreiQlon, adj., cyfreithlon, D., s.v. ' legitimus ' ; ' lawful ' : 
luybyr kwreiQlon, ' right of way '. 

fovri, v., cyfrif, D. (i) * to count ' : kavri d&ja, arjan, etc. 
(2) 'to account, consider' : ma nu y gwri vo n ja:\ jaun, ' it is 
considered very wholesome '. 

fovriy s.m., pi. kwrivon, cyfrif, D. (i) ' amount ' : da\i y kovjo 
9 kwri?, ' do you remember how many you have ? ' (2) ' account ' : 
rhoi kdvri ar, ' to make account of, to esteem ' ; rhoi krvri o, ' to 
give account of ' ; du i im if r & ar y:n kwri . . ., * I don't want on 
any account . . .' ; may hi n mynd ty dra:u i gmrt, * it is beyond all 
computation '. 

kwrjoi v., cyvro, L.G.C, 342 [20], 'to cover'. 

kwrodab, adj., cyfrodedd, D., ' twisted together ', only in eda 
gwrodati, ' linen thread '. Cf. krsdeby. 

fovruy, s.m., pi. kwruya, cyfrwy, D., ' saddle '. 

kmniyo, v., cyfrwyo, D., ' to saddle '. 

fovruys t adj., cyfrwys, D., ' cunning '. 

kwruystra, s., cyfrwy sdra, D., ' cunning '. 

kwur \kwarv od\. 

fovyl, s., cyfyl, D., only in the exp. ar gmyl, ' near ' : vy:om i 8im 
ar i kwyl nu he'idju, ' I have not been near them to-day ' ; paid ti a 
mynd ar gwyl plant ty: nesa, ma nu n hem blant dru:g, ' do not go 
near the children next door, they are bad children '. 

k3Vdrdar> s.m., pi. kwtrdryd, cyfyrdyr, D., ' second cousin ' : may 
o y gzvsrdar a mi:. 

kzvarderas, s.f., cyferdderes, S.E., * second cousin '. 

hvzrduy, cyfrdwy, D. (Bot.) : rhedyn kwzrduy (O.H.), 'royal 
fern ' (Osmunda regalis). 



Xadal xurnas 327 



Xadal, xuKutal, conj., a gadael (?), ' compared with ', used after an 
adjective in the positive degree and equivalent to ' than ' after a 
comparative : may mma le divir \adal bo:d m * gwynt na, ' this is 
a pleasanter place to be in than out in that wind ' ; may hi n o:yr 
heno \adal o.yd hi nosweiBja o r blayn, l it is colder to-night than it 
has been lately ' ; ma: r maun m darvod m vy:an x<*dal 3 glo:, ( peat 
burns quicker than coal ' ; da\i wedi mendjo n aru x&dal 'oyHa\ibo:y t 
1 you are much better to-day than you were yesterday '. 

Xadal, xwadal, prep., chwedl, D., only in locutions of the form 
xadalfom, ' as John says '. Cf. xwedl. 

xbjany, sbjany, v., chwibanu, D. ; chwibianu, B.C. 100. 28, * to 
whistle '. 

xi: (unstressed xi), P ron -> cnw i> D., ' you '. The distinction be- 
tween li: and xz>, when the latter is used in the singular, is the same 
as in most languages, but the use of xi: seems to be spreading. 
f X*', * X* is very often used in an "ethic " sense after a statement. 
Conjunctive form xiBa ; emphatic form *#>. 

XiBa, pron., chwithau, G.R. [123]. 19, conjunctive form of xi.', 
' you ' : os na welso'xi: vi: welis i: m ona x^a, * if you did not see 
me, I did not see you ' ; ry: va:B a xifa (x*>), ' the same as you ' ; 
Xt'Ba ry:n mo:d, ' the same to you ' (answer to a good wish). 

xlotta, v., chwilotta, D., s.v. ' chwilenna ', ' to prowl about search- 
ing for something '. 

*//:, pron., tydi, G.R. [122]. 13, emphatic form of //>, 'thou, 
thee '. O.H. often has ri-di:, hevo Bdi: t a Bdi:. 

, pron., tydithau, conjunctive form of x/z>, ' thou, thee '. 
, v., chwydu, D.; cf. chwdu, M.LI. i. 237. 23, ' to vomit': 
i dervad. 

\unny, v., chwynnu, D., ' to weed '. 

xurlas (O.H.) ; xwtrtas (J.J.), s., chwerwlys, D. (Bot.), in the 
plant-name \urlas (xwzrlas) tr e'lBi'n = sayds gwy-i*> ' wo d ^ge ' 
(Teucrium Scordium). 

Xiriibugan, \urligugan t s., chwyrli gwgon, W.S.; whirligwgan, 
W.S., s.v. * troi ' ; chwirligwgonn, W.LI. ix. 80 ; chwirli gwgon, 
D., ' whirligig '. 

xurli:o, xur/jo, v., Eng. whirl, may o n xur'fco mynd, ' he is 
rushing along '. 

Xurnas, s., ' bull-roarer ' used by children (I.W.). 



328 

xurnur, s.m., pi. xurnurs, chwyrnwr, S.E. [a snorer, a snorter], 
general term applied to ' gurnards ' (Trigla). 

\urny, v., chwyrnu, D.; cf. chwrnu, C.C.M. 255. 5. (i) 'to 
snore '. (2) ' to snarl ' (of dogs). (3) ' to buzz ' (of insects). 

xustyd, adj., chwyslyd, D., ' perspiring ' ; also ' causing perspira- 
tion ' : durnod xuslyd, ' a hot, damp, sunless day ' = durnod heb 
hayl m sr ha: (O.K.). 

xusy, v., chwysu, D., ' to sweat, perspire ' : wedi xusy n domman ; 
also used of inanimate objects : may nu y gosod nu meun padal 
i xusy, ' they put them (the herbs) in a pan to sweat ' ; also ' to 
cause to sweat '. 

Xu6ad, xuQjad, s., chwythad, D. ; cf. chwthiad, G.R. 21. 9; 
chwythiad, S.E. (i) 'breath', esp. as synonymous with life: na: 
i Sim tru by xuQad ma i, I will not do so as long as there is breath 
left in my body ' ; pen Sary nu aval 9no vo t o:d na dim x^Bad mo 
vo ; 9 xuBjad duyBa, ' the last breath '. 

xufy, v., chwythu, D. Fut. S. 3. xuBiQ, xwy-'O, 'to blow' (trans, 
and intr.) : xuBad hmny x^Bo vo, ' let it blow as it will ' ; also ' to 
blow ' (of flies) ; ' to hiss ' (of geese). 

xu.yd, s.m., pi. xwyda, chwydd, D., ' a swelling ' : may gin i xuy 
ar 9 mo:x, ' I have a swelling on my cheek ' ; xuy$ gwyn, ' house- 
maid's knee ' ; xu:y$ bara, * obesity '. 

xwa:, s., chwa, D., ' puff', in the phrase / o:s na 8im x^ a ' o wynt, 
1 there is not a breath of wind '. 

xwam, s.pl., sing, x^^nnan^ f., chwannen, D., pi. chwain, s.v. 
' pulicosus ' ; ' fleas ' : ar hannar wiykjad xwannan, ' in a jiffy ' ; 
tra:y&> ' sand-hoppers '. 

, adv., chwaith, D., ' neither, not . . . either': / a: i: Sim 
I shan't go either ' ; neiB hunna dim xwaiO, ' that won't do 
either ' often used pleonastically : / zdu i Sim znfu:r x^at6 ; / ?du 
i Sim sy gubod vain} o wir/onaS sy no vo x^aiB. 

xwalur, s.m., chwalwr, Nah. ii. i, 'one who strews, spreads'; 
' hay-tedder ' (machine). 

xwa/va, s.f., chwalfa, D., s.v. ' dispersio ', ' dissipatio ' ; ' dis- 
persion ' : xvwlva ar deyly, ' dispersion of a family ' ; by:b na xwalva 
mo ru:an, ' the home will be broken up now '. 

xwafy, v., chwalu, D. (i) 'to strew, spread': xwafy gvoair, 
mj&la, tail. (2) 'to scatter abroad': x^aly devaid i r kmevin 
(O.H.). (3) ywaly gvwlj, ' to make the hair rough'. (4) 'to pull 
down ' : xwafy gwal, so also xwaty bulx> ' to make a gap ' (in a 
wall); similarly xwaty kartra, 'to break up the home'. (5) 'to 
fall to pieces ' : 9 ty: na sy wedixwaty' (6) xwaly a xwify'o \xwiljo\. 

xwanag, s. and adv., achwanec, W.B. col. 125. 9; ychwaneg, 
Ezek. xviii. 8, ' more ' : 'gsmmuxi xw ana g ?> ' w ^l 7 OU nave some 



xwanegy xwart 329 

more ? ' ; mdra i torn bytta \wanag, ' I cannot eat any more ' ; 
xwanag o venyn, ' more butter '. Cf. mu.y, rhagor. 

xwanegy, v., chwanegu, D., s.v. ' accresco ' ; 'to increase ' : ma 
nu wedi xwanegy ?n 9 ty: (teyly) aku ; xwanegy meun kruoyQ. 

xwannog, adj., chwannog, D., 'inclined, addicted': may hun a 
hun m xwannog jaun am vynd i r davarn ; may hi m burn n 
\wannog jaun, ' it is raining " with a will" ' (O.H.). 
xwant, s., chwant, D., * desire, lust ' : xwant am vu:yd. 
xwantjo, v., chwantio, B.C. 22. 23, ' to desire, lust after '. 
xwantys, adj., chwantus, S.E., ' lustful ' ; 'greedy for other people's 
property, etc.' 

xwara, v., chwarae and chwarau, D. Fut. xwara. Pret. xz&<zm. 
Imperative xwara \warux, ' to play ' : xwara f on d/nvy^ a game 
the object of which is to break an egg placed on the ground, the 
players being blindfolded ; xwara Hat, ' to play cat ' : two holes are 
made in the ground at a considerable distance from each other, at 
which each of the players stands armed with a stick. A piece of 
wood called Hat is bowled alternately by each player, the object 
being to get it into the hole ; the opponent trying to strike it aside 
while it is on its way ; xwara fas, ' to play touch ' ; xwara mi:g, 
' to play bo-peep ; hide and seek ' ; xwara mugud zrjeir, ' to play 
blind man's buff' ; \wara pe&i, ' to play tip-cat ' ; ^u^ara pe:l droyd, 
* to play football ' ; xwara ty: ba:x> ' to play at houses ' : so, x^ara 
asgol ba:x, etc. xwara bilifud^ ' to play the fool ' ; paid a mynd i 
xwara d riks ru:an, ' none of your tricks now ' ; ywarafon Suibig, 
' to hold now with one side, now with another '. Cf. G.O. ii. 58. 17. 

xwara, s.m., pi. xwareyon, chwarae and chwarau, D., ' game, 
play ' : xu-'ora ie:g 180, ' fair play to him ' ; ' we must admit that ' ; 
/ ei& o dim ar xwara ba:x, ' it cannot be done without an effort ' ; 
rhuy digri a xwara, ' between jest and earnest '. 

xwaral, s.f., pi. xwarela, chwarel, W.S. ; Eng. (Dial.) wharrel, 
1 quarry ' ; xwara/ vaur, xwara! ka:y, ' Penrhyn slate quarries '. 
(The latter name is an abbreviation of Cae braich y cafn.) 

xwaral, s.f. ' pane ' [kwaral]. 

xwaran, s.f., pi. x^^na, \warenna, chwarren, D., ' swelling, esp. 
of the glands on the neck or in the arm-pits ' : xmw& t*vy, ' swellings 
on the necks of children supposed to be caused by growing '. 

xwarelur, s.m., chwarelwr, S.E., ' quarryman ' ; in restricted 
sense 'a skilled workman in a quarry in contradistinction to a 
labargreigjur ', rubelur, meinar, etc.* 

xwa-reys ; xrfys, \raus (O.H.), adj., chwareys, Yny Ihyvyr hwnn 
[26]. 5 ; chwareus, S.E., * playful ' : may u:yn m \raus (O.H.). 

xwart, s.m., pi. xwar/ja, chwart, C.C.M. 210. 9, 'quart' (both 
dry and liquid measure) = talbo ; pedwartalbo = xwati maur ; 
pedwar \wart maur Kibin (O.H.). 



33 



Xivarfar 



Xwartar, s.m., pi. \warteri, chwarter, S.E., 'quarter': \wartar 
aur, ' a quarter of an hour ' ; \wartar wedi pymp, ' a quarter past 
five ' ; also ' quarter of a year, three months ' : Kin vod o n -tartar 
o:yd. 

xwarwan, s., chwerfan, D., chwarfan, s.v. 'artemon'. (i) 'the 
whirl of a spindle ' (J.J., O.H.). (2) ' a quick-witted, nimble, 
officious woman' (I.W.). 

XZMZ/, s., ' one who taunts, rails ' = "xvoelp : ia:u ir he:n xwat > f 
(O.H.). 

xuuat, adj. [swat], 

Xwayr, s.f., pi. xwioryb, chwaer, D., ' sister ' : -xyuayr zy yhruroQ, 
' sister-in-law ' ; ' step-sister ' ; \wa:yr i mam idi modryb, ' it is one 
and the same thing '. 

Xtva.yQ, s., chwaith, D., s.v. ' gustus ', ' sapor ' ; ' taste ' : dim at 
9 xwa:y& /', ' not to my taste ' ; paub at i xwa:y&, ' every one to his 
taste '. Cf. bla:s. 

xwedl, s. ? pi. -xwedla, chwedl, D., ' tale '. Generally in the plural 
e. g. hel xwedla, ' to gossip '. Cf. x^dal. 

xwedla, v., chwedleua, R. ; chwedla, S.E., ' to gossip '. 
, s.f., ' tale-bearer, gossip ' (O.H.). 

xwtd'Ifyur, Ttjwidlur, s.m., chwedlwr, S.E., ' tale-bearer ' ; 
\widlur penwaig, term applied to c terns ' of all species = deryn 
penwatg, gwennol 9 mo:r. 

xweigjan, s., pi. -xwege'inja, chwe ugain, ' ten shillings ', i. e. 
120 pence. Cf. wheigeint, K.H. 18. 12., etc. 

Xtveit, s., in phr. werO xwt'H, l worth while ' : may n wer6 xwe'M i 
X* vynd. 

xw'tinlid, adj., chweinllyd, D., s.v. 'pulicosus'; 'abounding in 
fleas '. 

XWtip, s., pi. xwtips* ' taunt, gibe ' = geirja ka:$ : dfyd riu he:n 
Xwetp ; lixjo xweips i ywymmad i. 

xweipan, s.f., ' taunt, gibe ' : mi rois i yyueipan. 

xweipjur, s., ' one who taunts, gibes '. 

xweitwafy weitwaf, s.m., ' whitewash ' : xweitwaf gwyn, ko:x, gla:s. 

xwettwqfo, weitwafo, v., ' to whitewash '. 



X*vt>'X> Xwe-'> s.m. and adj., chwech, D., ' six ; sixpence ' : 
Xannuyl, xwe: xrf<*&, xwe: akkar, xwe-' aur ; ^we: durnod^ 
mlmab, xwe: mlu:y, x^e-' mi:s y x^ e ' dy:n = xweX o bmjon ; 
fry = Xwe>'X o luya, xwe: fa:r, 'six pairs'; xwe>'X o dai ; 
igjan, ' 120 ' (but cf. xw&gja*) ; xwe-'X igjan a xwe-'X ' 126 ' ; \we:\ 
usnos ; tri: a xwe-'X, ' three and six (pence) ' ; pisin xwe:x> ' sixpenny 



xwibjanjad 331 

piece ' ; o:ys 'g3n3\i xwe:x o bre:s m {e: xwe:x wyn **> ' have you 
six coppers for sixpence in silver ? ' ; 'vasaxi Mm m mebul bod gini 
hi bay \we:x am su:^ l you would not have thought that she had iwo 
sixpences for a shilling' i.e. a penny to bless herself with. 

xwexad, adj., chweched, D., ' sixth '. 

xwelp, s.m., Eng. whelp, * one who rails, taunts' = xwati he:n 
\welp bydyr (O.H.). 

xwelpjo, v., 'to rail, taunt ' : paid a xwelpjo = paid a ftxjo d eirja 
ka:s, brmtjon (O.H.). 

XwefaB, s., chwellath, 'six yards '. 

xwennyx, v., chwennych, D., s.v. ' recupio ' ; * to covet '. 

Xwerdod, s., chwerwdod, S.E., ' bitterness '. 

XwerBin, v., chwerthin, D. Fut. S. i. xwerBa, 3. xwerBiB. Pret. 
XwerBis. Plup. xwerBsun. Imperative xwerBa ; xwerBux, 'to laugh': 
\wer6in am i benno, ' to laugh at him ' ; xwerBin dros bo:b man, ' to 
laugh loud, burst out laughing ' ; mi xwerBis i lond 9 rjhalon (9 mo/), 
1 1 laughed to my heart's content ' ; mi xwerBis i nes o:n i dgest a 
tori ar 3 nrha:us t * I nearly split with laughing ' ; x^erBin tan siglo 
i oxra, ' to laugh till one's sides shake ' ; r o:d o n x^erBin nes 0:8 
o n i day bubul ; xwerBin nes o:d o n wan ; xwerBin m i durn, ' to 
laugh in one's sleeve '. 

XwerBinjad t s.m., chwerthiniad, D., * laughter '. 



d, adj., chwerthinllyd, D., 'in a laughing, derisive 
manner ' ; also ' ridiculous '. 

XwerBur, s.m., chwerthwr, S.E., ' laugher '. 

xweru (sometimes xwerv, O.H.), adj., chwerw, D. (i) ' bitter ' : 
Kin xwerwad a hi&ig. (2) fig. provjad xweru, ' a bitter experience ' ; 
kayl fro: xweru. (3) ' bad-tempered, snappish ' : ma: r dyarguns ma 
n xweru jaun, * these terriers are very snappish '. (4) ' in a rage' : 
may o wedi mynd ?n xweru arna i, ' he flew into a rage with me '. 
(5) ' rough ' : xwara xweru jaun ?di o, ' it is a very rough game ' 
(i. e. xwara kodum Kevn\ (6) ' harsh, hard, severe ' : dy:n xweru = 
dy:n kalad, e. g. inclined to punish severely. 

xwervol, xwarvol, s., Chwefror, D. ; Chwefrol (Calendar in 1620 
Bible), 'February': xwarvol xwy:B 3 neidar odjar i nhy:B, 'February 
blows the adder from her nest '. 

xwi:ad, s.pl., sing, xwiadan, f., hwyad, D., ' ducks ' : may r mo:r 
3m bu xwi:ad, ' the sea is like a duck-pond ' ; Keiljog xwiadan, 
' drake ' : xwiadan wy.-y, ' mallard ' (Anas boscas) ; xwiadan dy:, 
'common scoter' (CEdemia nigra); xwiadan oa:x, 'wigeon* (?) 
(Mareca penelope). 

xwibjanjad, s.m., chwibaniad, D., s.v. 'sibilus'; chwibianiad, 
M.LI. i. 248. 3, ' a whistling '. 



332 



Xwibjanog 



Xwibjanog, s., chwibanogl, D., 'whistle' = pi:b. 

Xwidlur [xwedlur]. 

xwif, s., chwiff, S.E., 'whiff', e.g. of tobacco. 

xwi/jad, s.m., chwiffiad, S.E. (i) ' whiff' : du i n meindjo dim 
xwifjad 'arnati, ' I don't care a rap for you ' ; may xwifjad gla:u 
mi heno, 'the wind promises rain to-night'. (2) 'jiffy': meun 
xwifjad. 

xwi:l, adj., chwil, S.E. [whirling, twirling, reeling], (i) ' drunk ' : 
may o wedi mebwi n xwi-'I, may o n xwi:l ylu biff, ' he is dead 
drunk ' ; hannar xwi>'l, ' half seas over '. (2) ' frisky, wild ', e. g. of 
a calf. (3) intensive adverb : xzw>/ bo.yQ, ' piping hot ' (also 
xwilboyd) ; wedi mynd m xwi:l abvad, ' over-ripe '. 

xwilan, s.f., pi. xurilod, xwilsod, chwil and chwilen, D., ' beetle ' : 
ma na riu xwtlan w i benno (m i goryn o), ' he has a screw loose ' ; 
cf. ' she has a bee in her bonnet '. 

XwilbqyB, adj., chwilboeth, R., ' piping hot '. 

xwildrins, xwildris, s.pl., ' small pieces ' : mi mala i di n xwildris 
ma:n ; applied to drunken persons : 9n vedu xwildris mam ; may 

n xwildrins (ylu), ' he is drunk '. 

XwilfaBa, v., chwiltath, D., s.v., ' chwilenna ' ; ' to prowl about in 
search of something ' (I.W.) = \lotta. 

xwt'tgi, s.m., chwilgi, T.N. 348. 5, ' drunkard ': 9 xwilgi bydyr ; 
Xwilgi 'dirgwilib ; x^ilgi straflyd (O.H.). 

xwiljo, xwi/jad, v., chwilio, D., 'to look for': mi a: i alan i 
xwiljo am bed, ' I'll go out and look for some ' ; xwaty a xwi{jo, 
' to search minutely '. 

Xwilvriu(W.H.; I.W.) ; xwi'lriu (E. J. ; J.J.; O.H.),adj.,chwilfriw, 
D., s.v. ' assulose ' ; ' torn to pieces, broken to bits, crushed to 
atoms ' : may o n xwib'iu ma:n ; may o wedi valy n xwilriu 
ma:n, xivilriu bugan). 

xwim, adj., chwim, S.E., ' quickly ' : mynd 3n xwim / troi n 

1 to turn sharply '. 

xwim, s.m., 'a changeable man, a man one is never sure of: 
he:n xwim (O.H.). Cf. 'x^im'xwam. 

xwimjad, v., chwyfio, ' movere ', vulgo chwimio, D., ' to move ' : 
ne'i'6 o 8tm x^imjad am usnos, ' he will not move for a week ' (i. e. 
because he has been injured), O.H. 

'XWtiB'Xwam, adj., Eng. (Dial.) whim-wham [a weather-cock, 
etc.], Lane., ' fickle, variable ' (J.J. ; O.H.) : dy:n 'xwim'xwam. 

xwiygi, s.m., achwyngi, ' sneak ' (O.H.). 

Xwiyk, s., Eng. wink : X/KW i dim xwiyk o hanas am dano vo, ' I 
never heard the slightest breath of scandal about him' (O.H.). 
Cf. 



xwiykjad xwiu 333 



XWt'ykjad, s.m., pi. xwiykjada, Eng. wink : meun xwtyty'ad moxyn, 
' in a twinkling ' ; gweitjux, zv&z i dim \winkjad na vtia i m barod, 
1 wait, I shall be ready in a moment ' ; for meun xwiykjad/, ' be off 
this instant! ' 

Xwiykjan, v., * to wink, twitch the eyelids ' : / ydi o Mm m 
xwiykjan / o:s na dim ma:B o vvuuyd mo vo. 

xwiyklin, s. : x/it.w t dim xwiyMin o hanas am dano vo, l 1 never 
heard the slightest breath of scandal about him ' (O.H.). Cf. \wiyk. 

xwip, s.f., pi. xwipja, chwip, W.S. ; cf. I.G. 539. 14; 540. 6, 
' whip ' : ifur a hi: vel xw*py ' off she went in an instant '. 

\wipjo, v., chwipio, W.S. ; C.C.M. 425. 6, ' to whip ' : may hi n 
\wipjo ghewi, ' it is freezing hard ' ; xuripjo r ga:6, ' to go about 
tailoring from house to house ' ; r o:d m i jfwipjo hi l%u: r "kolidgis 
na, ' he went through the colleges with flying colours ' ; xw*pj& n d* 
vlayn, l press on '. 

xwippin, s., chwippyn, M.LI. ii. 94. 13 ; Eng. whip : vrta i dro: 
\wippin a mynd, ' I shan't be long ' ; dma appad xwippin /, ' there's 
a quick answer ! ' (O.H.). 

Xtvisl, s., ' whistle '. 

Xivislan, s.f., chwistl and chwistlen, D., ' mus araneus ' ; ' a small 
conceited woman ' = merx ve\an lartf (}.].) ; rubaB larlf audyrdodol 
(E.J.); he:n \wislan vel r\li: zn mynd i wsgy i: I (E.J.). Cf. B. 
Gwell genni'n llawen heffer gornwen | Nag un fy>rsen chwslud 
chwislen goegen houden hyf. 

xwislo, v., 'to squirt ' : xwislo du:r. 

\wistras (J.J.); xwistral (O.H.), s., chwistrell, D., s.v. 'syrinx'; 
1 a squirt'. 

o (J.J.); xwistro (O.H.), v., ' to squirt '. 

t, adj., chwitt-chwatt, C.C.M. 179. i ; chwitchwot, 
Sion Tudur in G.R. [369]. 14; Eng. (Dial.) whitwhat [unstable, 
changeable], Rdn., ' fickle, variable ' (O.K.). 

xwith'n, s.m. : x^llin gla:s, * coal-fish ' (Gadus virens) = folog. 

xwi:6, adj., chwith, D. (i) ' left ' : 9 la:u xu)i:6, ' the left hand ' ; 
as subst. ar 9 xwi:6, ' on the left ' ; da! i r xwi:6, ' to keep to the 
left '. (2) ' at a loss ' : teimlo n xzw:0, ' to feel at a loss ' ; vrta i 
n \wiB: ar 9\ o:l \i, ' I shall miss you ' ; may n xw*>'6 jaun arno 
(= 180) vo, ' he is in reduced circumstances, in a forlorn state*. 

, s., chwithdod, S.E., ' a sense of loss ' ; ' a forlorn state '. 
ig, adj., chwithig, D., ' wrong ' : attab m xwMig, ' to answer 
wrong ' ; gneyd rubaB o: xwMigj l to do something wrong ' ; ty: 
\wiBig alan , ' wrong side out '. 

adj., in the exp. xwiu teidar, 'arrant thief. 



334 



ladal 



t'ujo, v., chwiwio, S.E. [to turn or dart about ; to fly here and 
there], expressive of quick motion : xwiujo burn, used of rain with 
a high wind blowing, driving rain (O.H.) ; hmzla n -)(^oiujo ag m 
sgybo (O.H.) ; *xwiujo mynd, ' to go like the wind '. 

xwi'vfo, v., chwyfio, D., 'to wave, wave about* : \wivj haykas 
pokkad ; dilad 9n xwivjo ar 9 Vein ; dail m xwt'vjo. 

\wytio, v., chwyddo, D., ' to swell ' : r o:n i dgest wedi xwyfo, 1 1 
had just begun to feel proud of myself '. 

xwyn, s.pl v sing, xunnyn, m., chwynn, D. ; ' weeds'. 
xwynab, xwymmad [gwynab]. 

xwyrn, adj., chwyrn, D., ' swift ' : 9y gwlym aryBrol ag an 
xwyrn (O.H., speaking of a hawk) ; dy:n xwym, ' a man who is 
full of life and vigour, quick in his work and in every action ' opp. 
to lysgyn (O.K.). 

xwy:s, s.m., chwys, D., ' sweat ' : r 0:8 o n x^y:s dweryd, ' he was 
running with perspiration ' ; r o:b o meun xwy>'s vel byrym ; r o:d 
9 xwy:s m drtivo vel gla:u trana, ' the perspiration was pouring off 
him like thunder rain ' ; xwy:s arQyr, ' meadow-sweet ' (Spiraea 
Ulmaria) Bangor = brenhinas 9 werglob. 



s. and adv., chydic, L.A. no. 13; ychydig, D., 
1 little, a little, a few ' : go: zwdig, ' very little ' ; 3X*dig jaun sy 
i ga:yl, ' very little is to be got ' ; 2X 3 dig 9n o:l, * a short time ago ' ; 
meun x^dtg, ' shortly ' ; &y:d go x^dig o amsar ar o:l te:, ' there won't 
be much time after tea ' ; 9x?dig o vo:x, ' a few pigs '. 



lab, s.f., lab, D., ' a blow ' ; ar lab, ' on credit ' : ka:yl ar lab. 

labargreigjur, s.m., in slate quarries, ' bad-rock man ; one be- 
tween a labourer and a quarryman who has had some experience in 
blasting and bringing down the rock in the most effective way '. 

labjo, v. (i) ' to strike, belabour '. (2) * to get on credit'. 
labro, v. (in quarries), ' to clear away rubbish, etc/ 

labrur, s.m., pi. labrurs, 'labourer'; (in state quarries) 'a 
labourer paid for clearing rubbish away*. 

labut, s., ' a tailor's lap-board for ironing clothes ' ; ir u:y a labut, 
* the goose and lap-board '. 

ladal, s.f., pi. ladeli, ladyl, W.S. [A Ladell] ; ladl, G.R. 35. 3, 
' ladle ' : ladal dyn, lot, bren, ( a tin, earthenware, wooden ladle ' ; 



ladipopty la:renwt 335 

also ' an implement for collecting money in a place of worship ' : 
dal 9 ladal i gnokka. 

ladipopty, s.f., ' mop for cleaning ovens ' : Kin fy:ad a r ladi- 
popty ; also a term of reproach for a woman, implying dirtiness : 
hem ladipopty grtral / (O.H.). 

labar, s., ' lather * ; also used to denote things with which one is 
daubed or covered : may o ny:n labar o va:u, xztfy.'J, vydne&i (O.H.). 

lamp, s.f., pi. lampja, lamp, D.G. xv. 2 ; Gen. xv. 1 7 ; D., ' lamp ' ; 
gwydyr lamp, ' chimney of a lamp '. 

landar, s.m., pi. landar s, Eng. lander, 'the horizontal spout 
which receives the water from a roof. 

lantar, s.f., pi. lanlerni, lanter, W.S. [A launterne], 'lantern '. 

lapjo, v., lappio, W.S. [Lappe], ' to wrap ' ; also fig. ' to screen ' : 
os by:b ru:in m du:yn ne vurdro ma nu n i lapjo vo (O.H.). 

lappad, s., pi. lapedi, labed, T.N. 467. 23, 'lappet': lapedi 
meinjon. 

!ard/o, v. (i) ' to work hard, but in a clumsy, haphazard fashion ', 
' to slog away ' : lardjo a gwe'iBjo ; lardjo gwe'iBjo ; kufjo a lardjo. 
(2) 'to break down ': lardjo ko:yd, ty:, klaub (O.K.). 

lardy, s.m., pi. lardai, lladd-dy, D., s.v. 'carnarium' ; 'slaughter- 
house ' ',Mdy at Tregarth (I.W.). 

lari, s.m., ' a roisterer, a turbulent fellow ' : riu he:n lari gwirjon ; 
lari di:og ; lari medu. 

larmon, s.m., ' ragamuffin ' : hem larmon me&u ; lari larmon, 
1 a roistering ragamuffin '. 

lartf, adj., Eng. large, ' proud, conceited, vain' : ma: nu n rky: 
lartfifarad hm'rang, ' they are too proud to speak Welsh '. 

lartfruyb, s.m., ' pride, conceit, vanity \ 

lary, v., alaru, D., s.v. nauseo ' ; ' to be tired of, sick of : may 
o wedi lary ar i vuyd ; du i wedi lary ar da su:n di (ar d) hem 
gkpdi). ' 

la:s, s.f., pi. laf'a, las, W.S. [A lace], (i) (in slate quarries) a 
kind of flaw running along the grain or the slate, sometimes almost 
invisible (laf'a dy:ori), but opening when exposed to the weather, 
sometimes easily visible when the edge of the slate is examined 
(laf f a gun/on). Cf. Eng. (Dial.) lace [A small crack or break in 
stone], Yks. (2) in pi. ' lace ' (not ' shoe-lace ' = kara). Cf. the 
doggerel nursery rime : leyad ba:x m ola | aflant ba.-\ m xwara \ a 
ladron 9n du:ad dan wey laf'a. \ a'men, meba r /on, \ dugyd trisult o 
fop dgon. 

Ja:s'enu, s.m., llysenw, D., ' nickname '. 

% la:s'enwi, v., llysenwi, D., ' to nickname '. 



336 lav an lib art 

lavan, s., lafant, D. (Bot.), ' lavender '. 

lavruyn (JJ.); lavruyn (O.H.), s.pl., lafrwyn and llafrwyn, D., 
* jointed-leaved rushes ' (Juncus lamprocarpus, etc.). 

ledjo, v., ledio, W.S. [Lede] ; C.C. 70. 28, 'to lead' (esp. of 
singing). Cf. arwain, tusy. 

leikjo, v., leicio, letter from William Morris (1752) in G.O. ii. 40 ; 
T.N. 19. 6, 'to like': hy:d 9 'leikjuxi, l as long as you like'; 
leikjun i dim deyd, ' I shouldn't like to say ' ; 'leikjaxi fe'irjo 9 du.y 
dor 6 na ?, ' would you like to change those two loaves ? ' 

Kin, s.f., pi. leinja, lein, T.N. 401. 6, Mine': lein sayr ma.yn, 
' a stonemason's line ' ; dilad ar 9 lein ; lein dusy, ' leash ' ; m 9r 
y:n lein may nu n rhedag o hy:d; dwa r lein (' way, style ') i vynd 
tru: r by:d. 

leinjo, v., lainio, R. ; G.O. ii. 173. 29; laenio, T.N. 141. 7, 'to 
thrash .' 

leinfans, s.f., leysens, W.S. ; leisians, G.O. ii. 164. 12, 'licence'. 

leinfo, v., ' to lance '. 

&, s., Meak'. 

lekf'un, s.f., lecsiwn, B.C. 20. 8, lecsiwn, 136. 19, ' election*. 

lemon, s.m., pi. lemons, ' lemon '. 

lent, adv., eleni and yleni, D., ' this year '. 

lerpul ; also nerpul, ' Liverpool'. For nerpulcf .G.O. ii. 144. 14, 
156. 20, 158, 28, etc. 

leva!, adj., lefel, W.S, Qeuell], ' level'. 

leval, s.f., 'instrument for testing a level surface'; (in slate 
quarries) pi. levelyd, ' level, gallery '. 

levan, s.m., lefein, Lev. vi. 17,' leaven ' : bara levan, ' bread made 
with a sponge ' ; Kin syrad a levan. 

levely, v., lefelu, D., s.v. ' perlibro ' ; 'to make level ', e. g. the 
top of a wall. 

levran ; also levran (I.W.), s.f., Eng. leveret (with change of 
termination), (i) ' a young hare'. (2) applied to a young girl: 
levran o enaO, f a slip of a girl ' ; rhiu levran ivayk idi hi. Also 
in bad sense : r he:n levran bru:g. 

levrjo, levljo, v., ' to level, to make of an even surface ', e. g. on 
a slope. 

levryn, s.m. : levryn o hogyn, { a slip of a boy '. 

libart, s.m., Eng. liberty, (i) ' a piece of ground round a house ' : 
ty: m sevy^ ar i libart i hy:n ; ty: -dir libart. (2) ' a holding, rented 
or otherwise ' : h>: may tervyn dy libart? (3) ' right of way '. (4) 
' hen-run '. 



lib-bab hi 337 

lib-bob ; 'lib'lab (O.H.), adv., cf. lib-lab, M.F. : farad m 'lib'bab, 
' to talk unceasingly ' ; a i davod m 'lib'lab o hy:d. 

li\mi'lax, s., ' a harum-scarum person ' : riu 'li\mi'lax sdi o 
(E.J.; W.H.). 

h'h\ s.f. and pi., lili, D. (Bot.), Mily'; as pi. cf. D.G. cxc. 27 
and St. Matt. vi. 28 ; lili r du:r, ' water-lily ' ; lili r dtfryn, ' lily 
of the valley '. 

-lilmi'lol, 'lolmi'loly s., ' humbug, nonsense ' = lol bottas. 

lindis, lindist, s. and s.pl., lindys, D., ' caterpillar'. As term of 
reproach : he:n lindist o he:n ty:n, meaning not quite clear : 
O.H. says he:n ty:n 3m by if a paub krinta\lyd snesgar. 

lintar, s.m., pi. lintcri. (i) ' lintel of a door or window'. (2) 
lintar fenast, ' window-sill ' (Bangor). (3) (in slate quarries) ' thick 
pillar (pilar) about two yards long and seven or eight inches square '. 

lty y s., * ring ' (O.H. frequently) : h'y i roid 9 day strap, 
liygroy v., ' to dawdle, loiter ' : tiygro gneyd peB. 
h'ygron, s.m., ' loiterer, dawdler ' : r hem Itygron I 

h'yk'loyk, adv., ' slow and swaying from side to side ' : "liyk'Ioyk 
vedu. 

-tiykyn'loykyn, adv. : mynd m 'h'ykyn'loykyn, ' to saunter slowly 
along, looking about and stopping occasionally '. 

link, s., ' diarrhoea ' = rfodni, pi:b. 

livin, s., Eng. living : may hunna meun livm go da: rula, said of 
some one who is sleek and good-looking. 

h'vra, s.f., lifrai, D. ; cf. D.G. xxxii. 38 ; ex. 1 5, ' livery '. 

lob, s.m., ' fool ' : r he:n lob gwirjon. 

lob'sgmis, s.m., Eng. lobscouse, ' Yorkshire stew ' : lob'sgews 
trodnoQ, without any meat in it. 

lodas, s.f., pi. lodesi, herlodes, D., ' girl ' : pulfyn o lodas, ' a big 
strong girl '. 

lg> logy") s.m., pi. logja, Eng. log, * a large lump ' : log o lo:, 
bren, gi:g ; logja o vala maur ; log o dy:n nodi, ' a fine strong 
man '. 

loig, s. (i) ' tail-board of a cart ' (I.W.). (2) ' part of a plough ' : 
pin loig (I.W.). 

loisi ; luisi (O.H.), v., arloesi, D., { to clear ', e.g. of land which 
has not been cultivated before ; 4 to carry rubbish away ', e.g. in a 
slate quarry = karjo ba:u. 

loksyn, s.m., pi. loksys, Eng. locks, ' whisker '. 

lol y s.f., 161. B.C. 39. 29, ' nonsense ' : he:n lol, 'nonsense '; lol 
bottas /, ' nonsense 1 ', ' rubbish ' ; cf. lol bottes, G.O. ii. 77. 5. 

1432 Z 



338 lolan lu:yn 

Man, s.f., ' a foolish talker '. 

loli, pet name for Rowland. Cf. di:an. 

loljan, v., lolian, T.N. 113. 19, 'to talk nonsense ' : loljan a diljo. 

lolyn, s.m., lolyn, T.N. 332. 31, 'a foolish talker': hem lolyn 
gwirjon. 

lorn, s.f., pi. lonyb, Ion, R., Mane': lo:n bo:st (= for 8 bo:sf) y 
' high road ', \>\. Jfyrt po:st ; 9 lorn go:\, ' the red lane ' (i.e. childish 
name for throat). 

Ion', s.f., ' lorry '. 

lot, s.f., ' a lot, a great many, a great deal ' : lot o duru, lot o gaus, 
etc. ; lot vaur. Also adverbially : mi bary weydy lot, ' it bled a 
great deal '. 

loyran, s.f., lloeren, D., ' a red spot on the skin ' : mi godob m 
Ib'yran go:x- 

loys, s.f., gloes, D.; cf. C.C. 334. 24, 'dan lawer Iocs', (i) ' pang ', 
e. g. caused by the death of one loved ; ' wound to the feelings such 
as is caused by rejection by a lover, or by harsh words'. (2) 'a 
feeling of great disgust ' : wedikayl lo:ys, ' to be greatly disgusted ' ; 
lo.ys drom. 

loysur, s.m., arloeswr, 'a man employed in carting rubbish away ', 
e.g. in slate quarries. 

loytran, v., loytran, C.C. 14. 7 ; loetran, 543. 22, 'to loiter'. 

luk, s.f., Iwc, W.LI, xxxiv. i, ' luck ' : uB luk, ' luckily ' ; luk ido vo 
hmny, ' that's lucky for him ' ; luk i xi weld o, ' it was lucky for you 
that you saw it ' ; u6 riu luk, ' as good luck would have it ' ; luk i 
i:d mod in? ty:, ' it was lucky I was in the house '. 

lukkys, adj., Iwckus, W.S. [Lucky] ; comp, Iwccusach, B.C. 67, 27, 
' lucky '. 

tu/an, s.f., pi. Mod, elwlen, Iwlen, R., ( kidney '. 

lump, s.m., pi. bmpja, Iwmp, R., ' lump ' : lump o dy:n te:u, l a 
big fat man ' ; lump o venyn, ' a lump of butter ' ; dma griu o bmpja 
hogja f, l there's a pack of hulking boys ! ' 

lumpjo, v., 'to throw flop': dwa nu n lumpjo vo i r mo:r\ 
lumpjo i hy:n i r mo:r ; lumpjo Kerig i r mo:r. (O.H.) 

lumpyn, bmpyn, s.m., ' lump '. 

luvans, s.f., ' allowance ' : luvans o vu:yd, o arjan ; may o wedi 
kayl i adal ar luvans, ' he has been left on an allowance '. 

luvjo, v., lowyo, W.S. [Alowe] ; hvfio, R.; T.N. 185. 20, < to 
allow ' : luvjo arjan ; neu\i luvjo i mi gay I koli durnodf, ' will you 
let me have a day off? ' 

lu:yn, s.f., pi. luim, luyna, llwyn, D., 'loin ' : lu:yn o Kavod ; 
also ' suet ' =fiuat. 



tylolai 339 

lylo, s.m., cf. llelo, O.P., ' fool ' : lylo gwirjon. 

bgindjo, v., * to hang on to ' (I.W.). 

bJ) bgj an > v > Eng. lug, ' to catch hold of, to drag '. 

lumbar, s.m., pi. bmbars, Eng. lumber, said of something useless : 
he:n bmbar o hem efyl t drol, arad t etc.; dim ond bmbar meun 
hmdei6as ; also as term of reproach : g he:n bmbar di:og / ; may 
o n bmbar gla:n. 

bmmyn, cf. noeth lymyn, W.S. [Stryp naked] ; noethlummyn, 
D. ; D.P.O. 155. 32; noeth lumman, B.C. 7. 19; noeth lymun, 
T.N. 466. 1 8, only in the exp. no:y6 bmmyn (gro:yri), ' stark-naked '. 

bmpan, s.f. : hem bmpan o fonas, ' a short, stout woman '. 

bmpin ; also limpin (O.H.), s., ' linch-pin ' : koft i bmpin, ' to lose 
one's temper '. 

bmpjo, v., 'to hack ' : paid a bmpjo fgarag vel na (Llanfairfechan). 

bsti, adj., Iwsti, W.S. [Lusty]; lysti, C.L.C., iv. 17.5; T.N. 
83- 3- (i) 'strong'. (2) 'stout, fat'. 

bsty:o, v., ' to become stouter '. 



i'j s.m., llabi, D., * a tall, overgrown young fellow ' : r o:& o n 
fabi o hogyn ; abi gwan. 

labust, labuQ, s.m., llabwst, D., ' a tall, slovenly young fellow ' : 
labust ble:r. 

ladradj s.m., lladrad, D., 'theft': ladrad noyQ, 'a bare-faced 
robbery '. 

ladronas, s.f., lladrones, D., s.v. ' latro ' ; ' a female thief '. 

ladroni, v., lladroni, O.P. (i) 'to pilfer ' : may o n ladroni = may 
i la:u m vlewog. (2) 'to pilfer from ' : may o n ladroni \i. 

ladronfyd, adj., lladronllyd, * thievish '. 

]a:d, v., ll^dd, D. Fut. S. 3.lato'0 [la:d]. Pret. S. 3. jatot. PI. 3. 
ladson. Imperative a:d ; labux* Pret. Pass, laduyd. (i) ' to kill ' : 
mi ladod o y gelan varu, ' he killed him on the spot ' ; digon haub 
gubod h: fa&ud dy lo: di, ' it is easy to know where your calf was 
killed', said of some one who has a longing for some place. (2) 
' to cut down, cut off ' : !a:8 gwair, ' to cut hay ' ; ta:8 di sglodyn, 
'cut a piece off' (e. g. a stone); la:d 9 kodum, ' to soften one's fall '; 
la:8 ar ru:in } ' to run down, calumniate some one'. (3) la:d ivmy /, 
call to a dog to make him go higher when collecting sheep on the 
mountains. 

labdy [lardy]. 

ladva, s.f., lladdfa, D., ' slaughter '. 

lai, adj., adv., and s., llai, D., ' less * (comp. of bs\an and 

Z 2 



34 



laid -lai 



may hi n lai na vo:, ' she is smaller than he ' ; y:n lai, ' one less ' ; 
mynd 9n lai 'lai o hy:d, ' to keep becoming smaller '. Equative : 
leiad, li:ad : meun Kin li:ad o amsar, ' in such a short time ' ; pe:B 
rhzvaft bo:d Kin li:ad o new&jon 9no vo, ' it is odd there should be so 
little news in it '. Superlative : Veia, li:a : pa: vi:s o r vluybyn d by: 
merxaid an farad li:a ?, ' in which month of the year do women 
talk the least ? ' ; 9 rhei li:a sy: ma> ' the smallest that are there '. 

laid, s.m., llaid, D. (i) ' slime '. (2) Moo: a disease of the 
hoofs of horses '. 

tain, s.f., pi. leinja, llain, D., f a long, narrow strip of ground ', 
generally lam o di:r. Cf. sliy. 

lais, s.m., pi. leifa, llais, D., ' voice ' : may lais main gmo vo, he 
has a high voice ', opp. lais maur, lais kry: ; rhoid i lais alan, 
' to speak loud ' ; gweibi nerB i lais, ' to shout at the top of one's 
voice '. 

laid, adj., llaith, D., 'damp': t0wy laiB (= tamp)] bol laid, 
1 soft roe ' = bol leiBan (I.W.). 

lak, adj., pi. leikjon, llacc, D., ' slack, loose ' : may o wedi gneyd 
9 sgrius m lakkax, ' he has loosened the screws ' ; wedi mynd z ih'8 
nes may r kro:yn 9n lak, ' shrunk so that the skin has become 
loose'; lak i aval a gyl (prov.), ' he whose grasp is loose shall 
lose ', nearly equivalent to ' the weakest go to the wall ' ; ti:r lak, 
' loose, friable land ' (as distinguished from heavy, clayey land) = ti:r 
rhy:, ti:r brak. 

lak, s.m., pi. lakja, ' a hollow on the sea-shore containing water ' 
= pantla ar 9 tra:y& rhuy 9 gwrsmja (JJ.) ; lak o 8u:r (O.H.) ; 
lak kregog, ' a place where the water is slow and the bottom covered 
with shells ' (e.g. in a stream where it enters the sea), Aber. 

lakjo, v., cf. llaccau, D., to slacken '. 

lax, s.m v llach, O.P. ; Eng. lash (?). (i) in the phrase may paub 
a i lax arno, ' every one has a bad word for him '. (2) ' a tall, 
hulking, clumsy fellow ' : may o n he:n lax bydyr (O.H.) ; also in 
good sense : lax o dy:n gweiBgar sddyn, ' a vigorous worker (O.H.). 

laxjo, v., llachiaw, O.P., ' to speak evil of, to lash with the tongue '. 

laxjur, s.m., llachiwr, O.P. [cudgeller], in the exp. laxjur o 
weiBjur, ' a vigorous worker ' (O.H.). 

lai, pron., pi. leil, Hall, D., ' (the) other ' : / 9di o dim Kimmint a r 
lai, ' it is not so big as the other ' ; may 3 nail ar o:l 9 lai m mynd 
3no, ' one goes there after another ' ; / 0:8 9 bay dim dn farad 9 nail 
hevo r lai, ' the two used not to speak to one another ' ; may y:n la:u 
9n vu:y na r lai idi hi, ' one of her hands is bigger than the other ' ; 
hun a r lai, ' some one or other ' ; h9nny a r lai, ' this, that and 
the other '. 



am <trp 341 

lam, s.f., pi. (amma, Ham, D., *a skip, a jumping or running 
stride '. 

faimbad, Llanbedr (y Cennin) : fair lam bad. 

(ambedrijol, s.m., pi. lambedtijols y cf. llam-bedyddiol, M.F. ; 
llamhidydd, D., ' porpoise . 

(amgoisi t v., ' to stride along '. 

\ammy, v., llammu, D., ' to skip along, to advance by jumping 
from one foot to the other ' ; [ammy dros fctrig m *r avon ; lammy 
a rieidjo. 

Ian, s., llann, D., * the part of a village near a church in places 
whose names are compounded with an : fair 9 an, ' Llanllechid 
fair' (so called in the vicinity); in place-names : fambad, 'Llanbedr'; 
jamberis, ' Llanberis ' ; landrgai, ' Llandegai'; l<i(n]vrve\an (a?ivar), 
' Llanfairfechan ' ; ^an'ru:st, a'ru:sJ, ' Llanrwst '. 

fanast, s.f., llanestr and llanastr, D., ' mess ' (of things strewn 
about, etc.) : may 'gmo\i lanast vaur zmma, ' you're in a nice mess 
here ' ; ty: a fanast 9no vo, * a topsy-turvy house ' ; da\i wedigneyd 
fanast garu, maxgan il 

lanu, s.m., llanw, D. (i) ' tide ' : bla:yn lanu, ' turn of the tide ' ; 
pen yy:d hi ar dop anu, l when it is high tide ' ; hannar lanu y ' half 
tide ' ; pen vy:d ? lanu ar Ian, ' when the tide is in ' ; 3 lanu m puyso 
n erbyn 9 gwynt^ ' the tide flowing against the wind ' ; cf. also 
-gorlanu, trai> distil (2) ' the filling in of anything as compared 
with the exterior ' ; in building haystacks lanu is what is placed in 
the centre of a stack after placing a kurs round it : rhoi kurs a 
lanu bo:b m ail ; of walls : lanu gwal ; kadu r lanu = kadu 3 
kanolzy gry: ; gair lanu, ' a word put in to fill up ', Fr. ' cheville '. 

layk, s.m., pi. laykja, llangc, D., s.v. ' puer '. (i) * a young fellow 
between a boy and a man '. (2} said of one who thinks a great 
deal of himself: layk garu zdi o; may o n layk jaun. (3) ' bachelor, 
unmarried man ' : layk ta gu:r adi of, * is he a married man or 
a bachelor ? ' ; he:n layk, ' old bachelor '. 

laykas, s.f., pi. layKesa, llangces, D., s.v. ' puella ' ; 'a young girl 
of about 2 1 ' ; hem laykas, ' an old unmarried woman who has had 
children '. 

lapruB, s.m., cf. llaprwth, M.F., * a lazy fellow ; lout ' = dy:n slak, 
'diraval, 'dtrzsbryd, maru ; g hem lapruB di:og /, ' the lazy lout ! ' 

lare'idjo, v., llaryeiddio, D., s.v. ' mitesco ' ; llareiddio, P.G.G. 
64. 5, * to calm down, improve ' (of the weather) : may hi wedi 
larefy'o (O.H.). 

larjab, adj., llariaidd, D., 'mild, gentle'. 

larp, s.pl., larpja, Harp, D. (i) * shred, piece ' : may o wedi tori 
n lar$ja, ' it is broken to bits ' ; r o:d i nrherusys wedi mynd m larpja 



342 l*rpjo 'lau'geyad 

ma:n, ' my trousers were torn to shreds '. (2) of persons : larp o 
dy:n, ' a big man ' ; larp o hogyn, ' a strapping lad '. 

larpjo, v., llarpio, D., 'to tear to pieces'; 'to maul' (of an 
animal) : may o wedi ka:l i larpjo gin 9 moxyn, 9 Ki: sy wedi (arpjo 
9 devaid ; (fig.) ' to do for (some one) ' : mi larpja vo meun 
mynyd. 

la:d, s.f., v\.ladenm(d. ladan), Hath, D., 'yard'; kanla:d (kanhB\ 
1 ahundred yards ' ; fair lad a drodvad, ' ten feet ' ; may o dros du:y 
la:B o daldra, ' he is over six feet in height ' ; la:d bren, ' yard 
measure '. 

ladan, s.f., pi. ladenni, llathen, D. (i) ' yard ' : ladan a hannar, ' a 
yard and a half"; tair ladan a drodvad, f ten feet ' ; ladan fiat, ladan 
ar i wynab, ' square yard ' (JJ.) ; ladan sola/, * cubic yard ' (J.J.) ; 
ladan o r y:n bredyn zdi r day, ' they are chips of the same block ' ; 
dim m laun pen ladan, ' not all there, simple '. (2) ladan vair, 
' Castor and Pollux ' (name of constellation). 

ladar, adj., llathr, D., 'bright': may golug ladar arno vo ; 
edrax m ladar ; gleini ladar (O.H.). 

ladrum, s.m., cf. llaffrwm, M.F., ' a slovenly fellow ' : r he:n 
ladrum bydyr ; r he:n ladrum ble:r (O.H.). 

la:u, s.f., pi. dylo, Haw, D., ' hand ' : la:u de:, ' right hand ' ; la:u 
\wt:d, ' left hand ' ; also adjectively (cf. leruxwid\ y:n m la:u \wi:Q 
a r lal 9n la:u de:, ' one left-handed and the other right-handed ' ; 
lond la:u, handful ' ; leysy i 8ylo, ' to slacken one's hands, to be- 
come slack, to lose earnestness ' = dim 9n rhoid i dylo ar waid ; 
, . . a hogyn ba:x zn i la:u, ' holding a little boy by the hand ' ; r 0:8 
i dylo gsno vo, ' he had the use of his hands ', e.g. when hanging by 
a rope over a precipice ; dary o godi la:u arna i, ' he waved his 
hand to me ' ; may o n weidjur da: ond t eid dim tru i dylo vo, ' he 
is a good workman, but (for some reason or other) he does not do 
much work, has little to show for his work ' ; mynd 9n o:l la:u (fig.), 
' to go downhill, to be on the decline ' ; bo:d dan i dylo, ' to be 
groping, feeling one's way ', e. g. of people in the dark; also fig., 
speaking e.g. of negotiations in which one is engaged : r o:n i dan 
9 nylo n holol ; mynd m la:u (pi. teuja) garu hevo ru:tn, to get on 
very good terms with some one, to be hand in glove with some 
one', so also: mynd 9n dylo i gih'd reit del; also as endearing 
expression: syt may hi, r he:n la:u ? ; dy:n dylo blewog, (i) 'a 
peevish man'; (2) 'a pilferer' : la:u vlewog s gmo vo, * he can't 
keep his hands off other people's property '. 

laud, s., llawd, D., said of a sow maris appetens : ma: laud ar w 
hu:\. 

lau'geyad, Haw gayat, L.A., 144. 16. (i) s., ' a closed fist', i.e. 
1 nothing ' : wa:yd t ti beidjo mynd atto vo, 'lau'geyad gei dL (2) adj., 
' close-fisted, niggardly '. 






faun lawar 343 

faun, adj., pi. fyrunjon, llawn, D. (i) ' full ': m faun o &u:r, m 
laun du:r, ' full of water ' ; Jgyad (aun, ' full moon ' ; r o:yb 9 kappal 
m (aun dan i say (m faun dyn dop say), ' the chapel was crowded '. 
(2) ' quite, fully ' : may hi n faun bry:d, ' it is fully time ' ; adv. dim 
\aun mor swil, l not quite so shy ' ; heb vo:d m faun gaffan, ' not all 
there, weak in the head '. 

faur, s.m., pi. (or fa, llawr, D., ' floor, ground ' : gol\i 9 jaur, ' to 
clean the floor ' ; kada\ (aur, ' floor-cloth ' ; fid a r $aur, ' along the 
floor ' ; ar laur, t on the ground, down ' ; S9r6jo ar laur ; may o 
ar laur ; may r hedyb m nrty ar laur, ' the lark makes its nest on 
the ground ' ; ghoid ar laur, ' to put down ' (e.g. in a book) ; bo:d 
ar laur hevo rubaB, ' to have run out of something ' ; (py ar laur, 
' a ship aground ' ; farad ar ben laur, ' to speak foolishly ' ; i laur, 
' down ', adv., mynd (i) laur, ' to go down ' ; may r gwynt in mynd 
i laur i r goglab, l the wind is going round to the north ' (but i 
V9ny with all other parts of the compass), O.H ; gorvab, ista i laur, 
' to lie, sit down ' ; i laur m van na, ' down there ' ; may r gwynt 
wedi tori i laur, l the wind has dropped ' ; tmnux 9 tettali laur, ' take 
the kettle off the fire ' ; tippin i:s i laur, l a little lower down ' ; ar i 
laur, ' downhill ' ; prep. : mynd i laur 9r a:U, ' to go down the hiir. 

avar, s.m., llafar, D., in lavar gwla:d, ' dialect, patois, speech of 
the country '. 

lavn, s.m., pi. lavna, llafn, D. (i) ' blade' : lavn hfa&, pljadyr, 
'blade of a knife, scythe '. (2) 'a boy of about fourteen and upwards ' : 
lavn o hogyn, lavn o lank, lavn ivayk ; pen o:n i riu lavn. (3) lavn 

voxyn, ' a full-grown pig but not yet fattened '. 

Javnas, s.f., llafnes, T.N. 222. 33 : lavnas o hogan, ' a well-grown 
shapely young girl ' : lavnas o hogan ivayk glrvar ; of old women, 
a term of reproach : he:n lavnas o hem dtnas, he:n lavnas dru:g. 

(avnjo, v., llafnio, ' to pull about so as to tear the clothes '. 
lavruyn [lavruyn\. 

lavyr, s.m., llafur, D., ' labour ' (in general) ; ti:r lavyr, ' tilled 
land'. 

lawan, adj., llawen, D., ' merry ' : noson lawan ; mor (awan a r 
go:g (ar 9 gaiyk), * as merry as a lark '. 

lawar, llawer, D., ' much, many '. (i) s. ; pi. tawerod, e.g. la:d 
awero8 o 'honynu ; gawar o bobol, vara, du:r ; vtia vo torn (awar 

1 ti gneyt i, ' it would not be much for you to do it '. (2) adjectively : 
du i wedi ka:yl fawar kodum meun tmvyb vel hyn, * I have had many 
a fall in weather like this ' ; bbwbob lawar (= {awar o vlm3%o$), 
* many years '. (3) adv.,yjra</ [awar ; da\i dim 9m bytta jawar 
arno vo, ' you don't eat much of it ' ; o lawar (with adjectives or 
adverbs), mu:y o lawar, ' much, many more ' ; gwe o lawar , ' much 
better'. 



344 lawas le:d 

lawas, s.f., pi. lewis, llawes, D., ' sleeve ' : mynd i vmy i lewis o, 
1 to get into his favour ' ; also mynd i u lawas. 
lawenyb, s., llawenydd, D., 'joy '. 

lay, s.pl., sing, leyan, llau, D., ' lice ' : gla:u mat ta:8 lay (weather 
proverb). 

lay, lei-hay, v., lleihau, D., ' to lessen '. 

lays, adj., pi. leif'on, llaes, D., ' long, trailing ' : gwadt lays, 
4 long hair ' ; gwi:sg lays, ( long dress ' ; tr0usys lays, ' long trousers ' 
as opp. to treusys kutta, ' knickerbockers ' ; gwevla leif'on, ' pouting 
lips ', said e.g. of children on the point of crying. 

layB, s.m., llaeth, D., 'milk' (the generic term, but as a com- 
modity layB always = ' buttermilk ' and levriB = ' milk ') ; bleinjon 
= 3 layB sala uB odro ; tikkal = r olaor layB daxiy ga:l ; cf. also 
armal ; ty: layB, ' dairy ' ; lay& newyb, ' beestings ' ; layB enwyn, 
1 buttermilk ' (for the sake of distinction) ; layQwediKeylo, ' curdled 
milk ' ; layB kadu, ' milk (armal] put to stand for making butter ' ; 
posal day layB, ' a drink made of milk and buttermilk ' ; 3 layB an 
troi at galon byux, said when a cow does not give her milk properly ; 
may r gwarBag wedi mynd ar x^dig o layB, ' the cattle are giving 
little milk '. 




place for the fox to lurk ' ; le: -dinab'man, ' an out-of-the-way place ' ; 
o b le: /", ' from where ? ' ; ajan o le:, ' wrong ' ; ma na rubaB alan o le:, 
' there is something wrong ' ; da\i *n yx.le:, ' you are right S ; da\i 
3n bgad 9x &', ' you are quite right ' ; r on i n medul mod iwedineyd 

n i le:, * I thought I had done it right ' ; may o n agos i u le:, 
' he leads a correct life ' ; dy:n ail iu le:, ' a good man '. (2) ' room, 
space ' : / 0:8 na bim le: i baf'o, ' there was no room to pass '. (3) 

* situation, employment ' : puy geiB i le: tabad?, ' I wonder who will 
get his situation '. (4) ' stead ' : m i le:, ' instead of him ' ; 3n le: 
vi:, 'instead of me'; used adverbially 'where' (more rarely dm 
mike: /) : je: -by:oxi ('vy:oxi) /, ' where have you been ? '; le: Keisti o P, 

* where did you find it ? ' also in indirect questions or relatively : 
un i bim je may o, ' I don't know where he is ' ; le bmnag wela i di, 

* wherever I see you ' ; m 3 van e: . . ., ' in the place where . . .'. 

}eban, s.m., lleban, D., 'lout': leban di:og, feban 'dirg9xuyn. 
lebindjo, bbindjo, v. (i) ' to hang on to ' : may o n bbindjo uBa 

1 o hy:d, i.e. to my skirts. (2) 'to pull about, to ill-treat, to half 
kill ' : lebindjo plentyn, Hi:, ka:B, gwarBag (O.H.). Cf. fcgindjo. 

le:d, s.m., pi. leda, 116d, D., ' breadth ' : ar le:d, ' breadthwise ' 
(cf. ar hy:d, ' lengthwise ') : may hlaQa n rhedag ar hy:d a tr0ustja ar 
le:d, '"tylathau" run lengthwise and "trawstiau" breadthwise' 
(across the ceiling) ; ar le:d = also ' abroad ' : mibo:Bgair ar le:d, 



345 

' the report got abroad ' ; huiljo ar le:d, < to sail on a long voyage ' ; 
du:y la:B o le:d, ' two yards wide ' ; dim ond tair (a:6 oyd (e:d 9 
ford, l the road was only three yards wide ' ; / aun i dim (e:d 9 nrhoyd 
i neyd o, ' I wouldn't stir an inch to do it ' ; da\i dim (e:d kay ifur, 
1 you are not altogether wrong ' ; r y:n hy:d a r y:n U:d t ' as broad 
as long'. 

je:d, adv., lied, D., ' rather, fairly ' : m (e:d da:, ' rather well ' J 
kadu vo n (e:d wastad, ' keep him fairly flat on his back ' ; r o:d 9 
kay ar i le:d o\or t ' the field was rather sloping ' ; r o:n i n fc:d 
dibjo, ' I rather thought '. 

(edan; (edar (O.H.), s.f., pi. (edod, lleden, D., 'flatfish': jedan 
du:od, ' dab' (Pleuronecteslimanda); frdanxwM t 'turbot' (Rhombus 
maximus) ; (edan lyvn, ' lemon sole ' (Solea lascaris) ; fedan sbottyn 
ko:\, (edan vre:x, If dan go:x, * plaice ' (Pleuronectes platessa) ; (edan 
vud, (edan by:, fedan (aid, ' flounder ' (Pleuronectes flesus) ; jedan 
wadan, ' sole ' (Solea vulgaris). 

fedar, s.m., pi. (edra, lledr, D., ' leather ' : tri:n (edar, ' to tan, 
dress leather T ; fcdar duf, ' washleather ' ; gumman (edar, ' a kind 
of sea- weed '. 



, s.f., llediaith, D., ' imperfect speech, foreign accent '. 

fcdol, s., lledol, L.G.C. p. 149 [19] ; B.C. 14. 29, in phr. ar i ledol, 
' behind him, following him ' ; plismon m mynd ar ledol dy:n y ' a 
policeman shadowing a suspected character '. 

jedy, v., lledu, D., ' to widen, extend ' : ledy ford, ' to widen a 
road ' ; fedy i welva, ' to pout ' ; fady esgi{, ' to spread wings ' ; may 
hi n ledy hadan, ' she takes up more room than she should ', ' she 
shows off '. Also intr. 

frdv, adj., lleddf, D., ' flat ' (in music) : ku:ar (edv, ' flat key '. 

lebvy, v., lleddfu, D., in obliquum ferre vel ferri, 'to quieten 
down ', e.g. of the sea or a sick man = tawely, ravy. 

lefeirjo, bfeB&rjo, v., llyflfetheirio, D., s.v. ' impedio ' ; 'to fetter f 
(of sheep, horses, etc.). Cf. IfeBar. 

(egax, adj., llegach, D., ' feeble, weak, poorly ' : may o n lega\ 
jaun (= 9n dinslip, wayl] ; sy da\i h'e'&ju ? digon lega\. 

leibjo, v., lleibio, D., ' lingere, lambere ' ; 'to snatch ' : feibjo r 
kulul (O.H.) ; leibjo bytla, ' to steal food, to eat what does not 
belong to one ' (O.K.). 

(eidar, s.m., pi. (adron, lleidr, D., ' thief : govyn i mam 9di nha:d 
?n(eidar(pTov.) ; (eidar pen ford, ' highwayman ' ; (adron pen penman, 
thieves formerly frequenting Penmaenmawr, commemorated also 
in place-names of the district, e. g. kors 9 (adron, fznnon 9 (adron, 
pant 9 (adron; (adron (anvrvexan, epithet of the inhabitants of 
Llanfairfechan (cf. piujad duygyvrtxi, moiljad abar). Cf. the popular 
rime %haid i /adron (anvrvexan \ osod (id/art ar vu/x? penman \ rhag 
i biujad duygyvzl\i \ dramuy mo 9 no:s i gary (J.J.). 



346 



leidjog 



leidjog, adj., lleidiawg, O.P., ' soft and slimy ', e. g. of the ground : 
kors leidjog. 

le'if'o, v., lleisio, D. : may o n le'ifo n da:, ' he has a good voice '. 

VeiBan, in bol le'Man, < soft roe ' (I. W.). Cf. laiB. 

le'iQdar, s.m., lleithder, D., s.v. ' liquor ' ; ' damp ' : mi 8o:0 le'iQdar 
i r lyvr, ' the damp got into the book ' ; tinny leiQdar i V9 bgad i, 
' to bring tears to my eyes ' (e. g. of a pathetic story), I.W. 

lekkyn, s.m., pi. lakja, llecyn, ' place, spot ' (dim. of le:) : lekkyn 
klu:s, l a pretty little place ' ; lekkyn divir jaun, ' a pleasant spot ' ; 
lakja bytia, ' the parts where the cows have grazed in a field ' ; 
lakja mo:yl ar i benno, ' bald spots on his head '. Cf. lak. 

lex, s.m., ' a sneak ' = kxgt ; riu he:n lex^y gneyd peOa dan dim. 

le:x, s.f., pi. lexi, H6ch, D., ' slate ' (generally le\ari) : 9 glai le:x, 
4 slaty deposit '. 

le:x, adj. : mynd 9n Ie:x y { to faint, to have a fit '. 

lexan, s.f., pi. frxi, llechen, D., ' slate ' : lexan la:s, go:x, lu:yd, 
' blue, red, green slate ' ; lexan werd is of a more decidedly green 
tinge = apparently lexan luydwyn (J.J.) ; \waral lexi, gerig, ' slate 
quarry ' ; lexi i dot tai, ' roofing slates ' ; lexan sgwenny, * writing- 
slate ' ; pleri lexi, ' slate palings ' ; lexi krmjon^ l round pieces of 
slate for putting over milk, etc/ Cf. also karag and sglaitf. 

lexgiy s.m., pi. lexguns, llechgi, G.O. ii. 251. 27, 'a sneak'. 

lexj'an, v., llechian. (i) ' to shirk ' : lex/an peQa ; lexjangweiQjo, 
lexjan u6 weiQjo. (2) ' to skulk ' : hogyn ba:x *n Uxjan o gumpas 
9 ty: ; lexjan alan a sort ar i vuyd, lexjan kqy mynd i r 9sgol 
(all O.rf.). 

lexwaS, s., llechwedd, D., ' slope ' (generally o\or, but the word is 
still in use); lexwabyxa, lexwad isa, * Arllechwedd Uchaf and Isaf', 
the two commotes of Arllechwedd. 

lexwino, v., llychwino, D., 'to stain, soil, tarnish', e.g. of a 
garment, or fig. of the character. 

lexy, v., llechu, D., ' to lurk ', e. g. of a fox, a criminal, etc. also 
' to shelter ' : rhoid 9 ku:x i lexy / fyxy am orja o dan gar ag, e.g. of 
people lost on the mountains in a mist. (Cf. moxal.) 

lelod, s., cyllellawd, O.P. [A cut with a knife], a sheep's ear-mark 
so called \no:d']. 

lembo, s.m., ' lout ' : he:n lembo di:og = dy:n di:og a ble:r (O.H.). 

lamp, s., in such phrases as riu lemp o Inay, ' careless cleaning '. 
Cf. slemp. 

lempan, s.f., term of reproach for a woman : lempan vydyr. 
lempjo, lempjan, v., llepian, D. ; cf. llempio, M.F. (i) ' to lick up ' : 
lempjan du:r ; ar i di:n m 9 davarn an lempjan kuru (O.H.). (2) 



347 

' to snatch ' : {empjo r kubul ; (ernpjo bu:yd ; fempjo rubaB sy:& ar 9 
burb hebga:l or dors (O.H.) ; be u:ti n fempjan 9/ugur na (O.H.). Cf. 
sgramjo. J.J. explained the word as bytta dy:n araf m birgelab. 
(3) ' to slobber, to kiss ', also jempjo kysany, e. g. 9 vam m fempjo 
kysany iflentyn. 

jempjur, s.m., ' one who snatches ' (O.H.) ; also a very oppro- 
brious epithet, not necessarily implying snatching or stealing. 
When used a common reply is be du i wedi lempjo / (O.H.). 

jenwi, v., llenwi, D. Fut. S. i. {enwa, 2. {enwi, ^.fenwiB. PI. i. 
knwun, 2. ^enu\, 3. fcnwan. Imperfect fenwun. Pret. S. i. jbmui's. 
PI. 3. jenson. Plup. frnsun. Imperative jenwa ; bnu\. (i) 'to 
fill'. (2) ' to flow ' (ot the tide) : p %y:n la tri:o ta fenwi may o ? 

(eygid, s.f., llengig, llieingig, D., ' peritoneum ' : tori i leygid, ' to 
rupture oneself. 

leykyn, s.m., llengcyn, Susannah 45, dim. of ftxyt : hem leykyn 
dtian, l an amusing old bachelor '. 

leppan, s., lledpen, D., ' side of the head ' : frppan d? ben di 
(O.H.) ; also leppan mmyS, * side of a mountain '. Cf. the Bangor 
place-name Cae Llepa. 

//?AT, s.m., 116s, D., ' good, benefit ' : may hi 'wedi ' grie'yd le:s (= djoni) 
i mi, ' it has done me good ' ; ar le:s ije\id, ' for the good of his 
health '. 

le:sg, adj., 116sg, D., ' weak, feeble, tottering '. 
lesk-ha:y, v., llesgau, D., ' to weaken '. 

lestar, s.m., pi. lestrt, llestr, D. (i) ' vessel ' : lestripri:b, ' earthen- 
ware ' ; gol\i r hstri^ ' to wash the (dinner, etc.) things ' ; helu\ 9 
lestri bydron ar 9 /re:, ' put the dirty things on the tray ' ; mynddros 
ben lestri, ' to do or say something out of all reason '. (2) * the 
matrix of a mare or cow '. 

letty, s.m., Hetty, D., 'inn' : htty tngo> name of the traces of a 
building at Llanfairfechan once used as an inn (O.K.); hsgy n 
htty r valwan, ' to sleep under a hedge or wall '. Cf. the popular 
rime : prjt:d 9 gwelsox vi Kin veSwad \ na naun 9 yor\ul vynd a 
du:ad, \ du:ad adra o fair a mar\nad \ heb g9du:m (?) na duyno 
nilad, \ a x*$gy ri'o:yd m Utly r valwan, \ na faun i x m9nwas xft, v* 
miulan (= fy ngwiwlan?), E.J. ; byu ar letty r glem, ' to live from 
hand to mouth ' ; mynd i r letty lum, ' to come to destitution '. 

leBar, s.m., pi. leOra, llethr, D., * slope ' : Xerig wedi rhedag i laur 

leBra 9 brynja, ' stones which have rolled down from the slopes of 
the hills ' ; mynd i vmy ar i leBar, * to go up somewhat on the slant ' 
(= tippin ar osgo\ O.H. 

le&y, v., llethu, D., ' to sink under a load ' : bron a ^By o dano vo y 

1 almost sinking under it '. 



348 le:u lfanta 

le:u, s.m., pi. lewod, Hew, D., ' lion ' : daint 3 le:u, l dandelion ' ; 
le:u o 8y:n, ' a strong-minded resolute man '. 

levarjan, v., llefarian, ' to talk nonsense ' ; as subst. riu hem 
levarjan, ' idle talk ' (O.H.). 

leveryti, s., lleferydd, D., ' speech ' : riu vai ar i leveryd o, ' some 
impediment in his speech ' (I.W.) ; dasgy ar davod leveryd, ' to learn 
by heart'. Cf. G.R. 3. i. 

levnyn, s.m., llefnyn, D., s.v. 'lamina'; cf. G.O. ii. 29. 13, dim. 
of lavn, ' a boy of fourteen or so ' : levnyn b^xan ; o levnyn i layk ; 
also levnyn o voxyn. 

levran \levran\. 

levriB, s.m., llefrith, D., ' milk ' (the ordinary term for milk as a 
commodity) : vel ka:& am levriB, ' (as eager) as a cat after milk '. 

lewig, s., llevvyg, D. [a fainting fit], in the plant-name lewig zrja:r, 
' henbane ' (Hyoscyamus niger). 

lewyrx, s., llewych, llewyrch, D. (i) ' spark, atom ' (in speaking 
of fire or light) : / o:s na bim lewyrx o da:n, o ola (O.H.). (2) ' a 
flourishing, thriving appearance ' : iasa na dim lewyrx ar 3 gwarQag 
vasa dim gwerB mynd a nu i rfair. 

lewaxys, adj., llewychus, llewyrchus, O.P., 'of a prosperous, 
thriving appearance ' : going lew^xys (O.H.). 

leyad, fy:ad, s.f., lleuad, D., ' moon ' : leyad laun, ' full moon ' ; 
may r ley ad m i xwar/ar duyBa, ' the moon is in its last quarter ' ; 
noson leyad, ' a moonlight night ' ; r o:d 9 ley ad m ola (bra:v\ ' the 
moon was shining (brightly) ' ; r 0:8 2 leyad wedi 6081 meun du:r, 9y 
gorvaft ar i hoxor vel ku:x, l the moon was drowned in water, lying 
on its side like a boat ' (J.J.). 

leyog, adj., lleuog, D., * lousy*. 

teysod, s.f., llaesodr, D., ' pavimentum, stratum ' ; ' litter for cattle 
to lie on ' (but, according to O.H., ' a piece of wood three or four 
inches high to keep the litter in its place '). 

leystur, s., llaesder, D., ' the state of being long or trailing '. 
leysy, v., llaesu, D., ' to slacken, let down ' : ma: x tr0usys wedi 
mynd ?# rhy: gutta, if>o leysy nu ; leysy dylo [/.]. 

leyBa, v., llaetha, D., ' to give milk ' : may r vyux ?n leyBa n da:. 

leyBog, adj., llaethog, D. (i) 'giving good milk': byux ley&og. 
(2) ' milky ' : 3 luybyr ley Bog, ' the Milky Way '. 

Ifanta, bfanta, bvanta, v., llyffanta. (i) 'to wander about looking 
for something ; to hang about; loiter with evil intent ' : bvanta o 
gumpas 9 ty: ; mi welt's i hun a hun m bvanta n van aku, said e.g. 
when something has been missed and is suspected of having been 
stolen (O.H.) = -ti-.n-droL (2) ' to be a busy-body' = ovarholjo 
peBa pobol eril a troi a trosi nu (O.H.). 



349 

IfcBar, s.f., pi. fefeQtirja, fcfe'irja, {fiirja, llyffethair, D., ' a cord 
\viih a noose at each end, attaching one fore-foot and one hind* 
foot of an animal together ', ' fetter '. 

Igadog, adj., Hygadog, D., * wide-awake ', ' with one's eyes open ' : 
dy.-n Igadog. 

, s.f., llygotwraig, O.P., ' mouser ' : ydi r ga:0 m {gotrag 



Igolta, v., llygota, O.P. (i ) 'to catch mice Y (2) ' to pry about ' : 
be u:ti n go//a 9 van ?mma / (O.H.). 

Igollur, s.m., llygotwr, T.N. 22. 21, * rat-catcher ', 'mouse- 
catcher ' : ma: r Ki: n jgottur da:. 

It':, s.f., pi. Ifvja, llif, D., ' saw ' : ft: drausjj: groys, ' two-handed 
saw ' ; t: gron, ' circular saw ' ; pul It:, ' sa wing-pit ' ; //.- puf >, 
' saw used with a sawing-pit ' ; blaud t': t ' saw-dust '. 

jf: t s.m., pi. livogyS, llif, D., ' flood ' : mynd &id a r //':, ' to go 
with the stream '. 

(i:an, s.m., lliain, D. (i)' linen': krzsbas Iran, 'a jacket with 
sleeves worn by workmen underneath the coat'. (2) pi. fne'inja, 
' table-cloth ', ' towel ' : li:an durd and li:an s?%y for distinction. 

li:aus, s., lliaws, D., ' the multitude, the majority ' : m vantas vaur 
i r fi:aus. 

libin, adj., llibyn, D., 'limp, poorly ' : libinjaun zdi o, ' he is not 
at all well ' ; golug libin, l a limp, withered appearance '. As subst. 
term of reproach': Ubin -dirwerO (O.H.). 

librin, s.m., in such phrases as gbxy n Ubrin ; wedt gbxy nes o.-n 
i n librin gly:b. Cf. liprin. 

li:d, s.m., Hid, D. (i) 'vengeance': buru i li:d ar, 'to vent 
one's vengeance upon ' ; di:al i li:d, ' to wreak one's vengeance '. 
(2) 'malignancy ' of a gathering, sore, etc/ 

lidjart, s.f., pi. lidjarda, llidiart, D. ; O.E. hlidgeat ', still sur- 
viving in dialects in the forms ' lidgate ' and ' lidyate ', ' gate ' = 
ga:t. 

lidjog, adj., llidiog, D. (i) 'jealous '. (2) ' malignant ', of a gather- 
ing, sore, etc. 

h'gor, adj., llygoer, D., s.v. ' congelidus ' ; * lukewarm '. 
ligzmjo, v., llurgunio, B.C. 63. 24, ' to hack, maul '. 

lixjo, v., lluchio, D. (i) 'to throw': h'xfo &rig, 'to throw 
stones ' ; h'xfo du:r am 9 mhenni, ' to throw water over me ' ; h'xjo i 
hy:n tru: r fenast ; lixjo Kcrftad, 'to walk with much vigour of 
movement ' ; m lixjo ag m tavly, ' making vigorous insinuations and 
denunciations ' ; similarly lixjo xweipSi l/XJo^'ifja bnntjon, ' to taunt, 
to rail '. (2) ' to sprout '. 



350 ^nUu 

fan, s.m., llin, D. (i) ' flax ' : ha:d li:n, ' linseed ' ; li:n 3 mmyb, 
li:n 9 MuyB te:g, ' purging flax ' (Linum catharticum) ; li:n sgwarnog, 
a plant (sp. ?) which, according to O.H., is very destructive to corn, 
and is the only plant which will grow on peat when ploughed, 
unless the land has been properly prepared. (2) ' grain ' (in stone), 
in the expressions li:n bra:s, li:n ma:n ; the latter is smooth like 
glass to the touch, the former rough; applied to Penmaenmawr 
setts (O.K.). 

limn, s.m., pi. linma, llinyn, D., ' string ' : pelan o linin, ' a ball 
of string ' ; meBy kayl 9 Bay pen linin at i gilid, ' to fail to make two 
ends meet ' ; linin 9 dro:yl, ' the cord round a spinning wheel ' ; 
linin 9 Kevn, linin 9 gwegil, ' spinal cord ' ; tori linin i gevn, ' to 
break one's neck ' ; koli r linin, ' to lose the thread of an argument '. 

linjary, v., lliniaru, D., ' to mollify, soften ' : linjary ty: ag atto vo. 

linjaB, s., lluniaeth, D., ' provisions ' : o:s 'gmoxi digon o linjaB an 
9ty:i> 

linjo, v., llunio, D., ' to form ' : linjo Keluyd, l to concoct a lie ' ; 
linjo r gwadan vel bo: r tro.yd, ' to cut one's coat according to one's 
cloth '. 

liygar, adj., llungar, T.N. 115. 40, 'of good figure, shapely, 
comely '. 

lippa, adj., llippa, D., 'flabby, limp* (of persons, clothes, etc.): 
rhiu he:n air (attab) lippa geis i gmo vo, ' he put me off ', ' he 
evaded my question '. 

tiprin, s.m., pi. lipnnnod, llipryn, D., 'flaccidum & pendulum 
quid ' ; 'a milksop : r he:n liprin medu, ' the old drunken sot ' ; 
liprin main. Cf. librin. 

li:6, s.f., pi. (Mod, llith, D., ' reading, lesson ' (in ecclesiastical 
sense) : darlan li:6, ' to give a lecture '. 

li:B, s.m., lltth, D., ' drink ' : may r Ia:y6 wedi mynd 3n li:B i r 
loya, ' the buttermilk has been used for the calves ' ; esp. ' a mixture 
of water and meal given to horses and cattle '. 

liQrig, adj., llithrig, D. (i) 'slippery': may r for8 m liBrig. 
(2 ) ' fluent ' : farad 3n liBrig. 

liBro, v., llithro, D., ' to slip ' : liBro deyd rubaB, ' to let slip a 
remark involuntarily '. 

tiu, s.m., pi. liuja, lliw, D., 'colour ' : may nu o bob fy:n a h'u, 
4 they are of allshapes and colours ' ; may po:b liuja -arnynu, ' they 
are of all colours ' ; fig. : / o:ys na dim liu ar da stori di, ' your 
story doesn't hold together ' ; ' what you say won't hold water ' ; 
rhoid 9 liu gweyBa ar rubaB, ' to put the worst construction on some- 
thing'; welis i dim liu o hono vo, 'I saw no signs of him'; 
liu (liu) dy:b, no:s, 'by day, by night ' (cf. W.B. col. 109. 20; D., 
s.v. ' diu ') ; uB liu dy:d } ' by daylight '. 



351 

{iu, s.m., llyw, D., ' helm '. 

h'ugar, adj., lliwgar, W.LI. Ixxxii. 6 ; T.N. 98. 36, ' of a healthy, 
good, or fresh appearance ' : golug (iugar ar 9 vyu\, 3 Ki:g, etc. 

fiujad, s.m., lliwied, D., ' exprobrare ' ; ' an upbraiding '. 

jtujo, v., lliwio and llifo, D., in phr. : r o:* hi n de\ra liujo no:s ; 
' night was coming on ' ; (iujo (= (injo) Kduyk, ' to tell a lie ' ; wedi 
hannar [iujo pe8, ' having insinuated something ' (= truly deydrubaff). 

liujo, v., llywio, D., ' to steer '. 

, s.m., lly wiwr, O.P., ' helmsman '. 

o, v., lluwchiaw, O.P., ' to drift ' (of snow). Also trans, may 
r gwynt wedi ffuxjo r e'ira. 

Ifvjo, v., llifio, D., 'to saw '. 

Ifvjur, s.m., llifiwr, D., s.v. ' serrarius ' ; ' sawyer, one who saws ' : 
r 0:8 o n Ijvjur arber\og. 

livo, v., llifo, D., ' to flow '. 

(fvo, v., llifo, D., 'to grind, sharpen'. Only in ma.yn fivo, 
1 grindstone '. 

gvo t v., lliwio and llifo, D., ' colorare ', etc. ; ' to dye ' : rhaid 
kayl liu kin livo (prov.), ' no smoke without fire ', i. e. there must be 
some cause for a scandal to arise. 

livur, s.m., * dyer '. 

Imtitjan, v., llymmeitian, D., ' to drink, to swig '. 

{nay, v., glanhau, D. Fut. Ineya. Imperf. Inaun. Pret. S. i. 
Ineyis, 3. Ineyod. P. 3. Ineyson. Imperative Ina: ; Inaux.lneux- Pret. 
tass. Inaud, * to clean' : Ineux ty: a r ta:n, ' clean up the hearth ' ; 
Inay kay, ' to clear a field of stones ' ; cf. loisi. Generally used 
only in the radical form, e.g. neuyi Inay hunt, 'will you clean 
this ? ' 

lo: y s.m., pi. liiya, llo, D ; for pi. cf. lloyeu, D.F. [134]. 8, 14, 
' calf ' : buru lo, ' to calve ' ; lo: gly:b, ' an unweaned calf ; also ' a 
raw youth ' ; ' a dull person' ; edra\ ml lo:, ' to look stupid * ; 
lo: magy, ' a calf which is being fattened ' ; Wya fy.-n, epithet of 
the inhabitants of Lleyn. 

lo/a, v., lloffa, D., ' to glean '. 

lofjon, s.pl., lloffion, D., s.v. ' specilegium ' ; * gleanings '. 

loft, s.f., pi. lofty*, llofft, W.B. col. 238. 21 ; D.G. ccv. 42 ; D. 
(if ' loft ' : loft sgybor, loft stabaL (2) ' the upper story of a house ' : 
may o n 9 lo/t, ' he is upstairs '. (3) ' a bedroom in the upper 
story '. 

lp:g, s.m., pi. loga } Hog, D., ' interest ' : haul a log, ' principal and 
interest '. 

logal, s., llogell, D., ' pocket ' (obsolete = pokkad) : ma: gin hun 



352 



o 



a hun gurs m i logal, ' such and such a one has plenty of money in 
his pocket ' was a phrase formerly in use (O.H.). 

logi, v., llogi, D., ' to hire '. 

loirig, adj., lloerig, D., said of one who is given to fits of temper : 
dy:n loirig = dy:n avlawan, tempar dru:g, bli:n, ka:s gwo vo (O.H.). 

Ipxas, s.f., pi. loxesa, lloches, D. (i) 'a lurking-place', e.g. of 
a fish under a stone. (2) * a hiding-place for secreting money '. 
Cf. T.N. 126. 13. 

Ion, adj., lion, D., ' cheerful, blithe ' : golug Ion ; ku:ar Ion (in 
music), ' sharp key '. 

lond, s.f., llonaid, D.; cf. llond, B.C. 121. 27, < the fill of any- 
thing ' : kammar lond dz vol, ' take your fill ' ; fair lond luy, ' three 
spoonfuls ' ; lond 3 ty: o blant ba:\, ' a houseful of little children ' ; 
o:d o n lond 9 dru:s, l he was very broad ' (broad enough to fill a 
door) ; mynd lond 9 lo:n, ' to strut along as if the place belonged to 
one ' ; may hi wedi mynd m lond 9 ty:, she rules the house ' (said 
e.g. of a servant who lords it over her mistress); mu:g lond po:b 
man. 

lonyd, adj., lonydd, D., ' still, quiet ' : sa: lonyd, l stand still ' ; Kin 
lombad a davod, ' as quiet as a sheep ' ; gadal Iony8 (/), ' to leave 
alone ' ; ga: i lonyd 'gzno\i!, ' will you be quiet ! ' ; du:r Iony8, 
' stagnant water '. 

lontiux, s.m., llonyddwch, D., ' quiet ' : kayl tippin ba:x o seibjant 
a lonriux, ' to get a little rest and quiet '. 

lonni, v., llonni, D., ' to be cheerful, to cheer up ' : r o:d o wedi 
lonni truybo ; also trans, vzda vo n lonni r ty: (9 kumpeini). 

loy, s.f., pi. toy a, Hong, D., ' ship ': loya huilja, ' sailing ships ' ; 
luyQo loy m 9 Kei, ' to load a ship at the quay ' ; se:r loy, ' the Great 
Bear'? Cf. G.O. i. 75. 3. 

loyur, s.m., pi. loyurs, llongwr, D., ( sailor '. 

lorgan, lloergan, D., ' luna splendens ' ; noson (ola) lorgan leyad, 
* a moonlight night '. 

lorjad, s., llyriad, D. (Bot.) dail lorjad, ' broad-leaved plantain ' 
(Plantago major) = kabatfz laur. 

lorfo, v., llorio, D., s.v. ' consido ', ' desido ', etc. ; ' to floor '. 

lorjo, v., Eng. lower, 'to let down to the ground, to lower': 
kortyn m digon o hy:d i lorjo vo (O.H.). 

lorp, s.f., pi. lotpja, D., ' shaft of a cart ' the usual term, but O.H. 
always hasy2z/7. Cf. brayx. 

lo:sg, s.m., pi. losg'veyd, llosg, D., * a burn, scald ' : lo:sg ta:n ; 
lo:sg eira, ' a chilblain on the foot '. 

losgt, v., llosgi, D., 'to burn ', ' to be burnt ', 'to burn oneself ; 
' to scald ' : dary mi losgt 9 yhe:g hevo nu, ' I burnt my mouth with 



353 

them ' ; wedi gos/i (tos&i) y grimpin, mylu, ' burnt to a cinder ' ; 
paid a mynd m %hy: agos i r tarn ^hak ovn i ti los&i, * don't go too 
near the fire for fear you burn yourself ' ; *tendju\i los&i, ' take care 
you don't burn yourself ; (fig.) may o wcdi jpsgi n 9 /op, ' he has 
lost his temper '. 

losgva, s.f., pi. (osfrvVyt, llosgfa, D., s.v. ' vstio ' ; 'a burning 
sensation ' : fhiu losg'vfyb m 3 knaud. 

loBan, IpBmnan, s.f., pi. frOod, llyfrothen, D. [no meaning] ; O.P. 
[A water- snake, a gudgeon], 'butterfish' (Centronotus gunnellus), 
but cf. neidar vo:r. 



.K.) ; jnttjo (J.J.), v. ; cf. llawd, llodig, D., said of a sow 
mars appetens. 

frufy'o, v., llawcio, T.N. 2 19. 8, ' to gulp, gobble, bolt one's food '. 
Cf. oox/o, hafjo bytta, sla/jo, hBry. 

fouxwM, adj., llaw-chwith, Judges iii. 15, 'left-handed*. 

foundar, s.m., llawnder, D., 'fulness, abundance': byu meun 
fyrundar. 

tywodraB, s.f., llywodraeth, D., ' government, control ' : LerwodraO 
ar i deyly, ar i hy;n. 

fyrwodreydy, v., llywodraethu, D., s.v. ' impero ' ; * to govern, 
control ' : I&ivodrey6y i dempar, i davod. 

loygar, Lloegr, ' England '. 

lo.yr, s., lloer, D., occasionally used for 'moon', e.g. syt may r 
lo:yr (= Kyad), used facetiously in inquiring as to the mood of a 
dym loirig [fotrig]. 

IH:, s.m., pi. frvon, llw, D. ; for pi. cf. B.C. 119. 17; 146. 24, 
' oath ' : fomra V9 lu:, ' I will take my oath ' ; 9 bvon muya ovnaduy 
glu:is i o ben dy:n erio:yd, ' the most terrible oaths I ever heard pass 
the lips of a man '. 

Iu:a0, lewaQ, adj., lloweth, D. (i) 'brought up by hand': o:yn 
lu:aB ; magy plant sn lu:a&. (2) in derogatory sense: may o n 
y:n lu:aQ, he is a milksop ' ; edra\ m Iu:a0, ' to look sheepish ' 
(opp. to talgry, gurol, OJH.). 

ludun, s.m., pi. bdnod and my:lt t llwdn, D., ' wether '. 

lugur, s., llwgr, D., ' rottenness, corruption '; ' damaged, corrupted 
part ', e. g. of hay in a haystack. 

lugy, v., llewygu, D., c to starve, die of hunger': wet gmo vo 
lugy na begjo ; by:b 9 dy:n m higy os na 



luidni, s.m., llwydni, D., ' mould '. 

, adj., llwyddiannus, D., ' successful '. 



A a 



354 



luity'ant luydo 



luity'ant, s.m., llwyddiant, D. ; cf. llwiddiant, G.R. (i) 2, 'success': 
po:b luityant i x*'* 

lu:x, s.m., llwch, D., ' dust ' : kodi lu:x, ' to raise dust ' ; t9nny 
lux, ' to dust ' ; may hi y kodi n lu:x, f the dust is rising ' ; gustun 9 
lu:x, ' to lay the dust ' ; r o:y 9 kloty'a n lu:x, ' the hedges were 
covered with dust ' ; pren pudur wedi valy n lu:x, ' a rotten log 
crumbled to dust '. 

luxyn, s.m., llychyn, O.P., ' a particle, scrap ' : luxyn ba:x o t>ri:d, 
bakko; / o:s na ry:n luxyn o da:n (O.H.). 



lum, adj., fern, lorn, pi. bmjon, llwmm, D., ' bare ' : Heya turn, 
1 fields bearing poor crops ; devaid bmjon, ' shorn sheep '. 

luyk, s., llwngc, D. : luyk 9 gudu, ' the gullet ' ; luyk o levriQ, ' a 
drink of milk ' " 



luykjad, s.m., llyngciad, O.P., ' draught ' : y:n luykjad. 

lutrax, s., llwtrach, O.P., * anything soft and jelly-like ' ; * slush ', 
e. g. of a road when the snow is melting : m lutrax o va:u; also as 
term of reproach applied to men or women : r he:n lutrax bydyr 
(O.H.). 

luvr, adj., llwfr, D., ' cowardly ' : m rhy: luvr i ambifin i hy:n. 

luvrdra, s., cf. llyfrder, D., * cowardice '. 

luvrfyn, s.m., llyfrddyn, C.C.M. 109. 24, ' coward'. 

luvrgi, s.m., llyfrgi, ' coward ' (O.H.). 

lu:y, s.f., pi. luya, llwy, D., ' spoon ' : lu:y de:, l tea-spoon ' ; lu:y 
bren, pi. luya prenja, l wooden spoon ' ; luya olwyn dur, * the floats 
or buckets of a water-wheel '. 

luyad, s.f., pi. hiyeidja } llwyaid, O.P., ' spoonful '. 

luybyr, s.m., pi. luybra, llwybr, D., 'path': luybyr hvreiQlon, 
* right of way ' ; gne:yd luybyr i r la:u, ' to pilfer ' (J.J.). 

lu:yd, adj., pi. luidjon, eq. luyttad, llwyd, D. (i) ' brown ' : pappy r 
lu:yd, ' brown paper '. (2) ' grey ' : bgad lu.yd, ' grey eye '. (3) 
' green ' (of slate) : lexan lu:yd. (4) ' pale ' (of the face) : Kin luyttad 
a xalxan, ^ fydu a bmry a pe m bytta gwedt i wely (O.H.). 
(5) ' dusky ', in luyd ola, ' dusk '. (6) ' poor ' : -gausoxi gwarvod 
go da:? na: wi:r t lu:yd jaun o.yS o. As subst. lu:yd 3 klaud, 
1 hedge-sparrow ' (Accentor modularis). 

luydad, adj., llwydaidd, O.P., ' palish '. 

luydby, adj., llwyd-ddu, D., s.v. 'pullus'; 'dark grey': byux 
7uyd8y. 

luydo, v., llwy do, D. (i) 'to turn grey': r 0:8 i wadt wedi 
luydo. (2) ' to turn mouldy ' : bara wedi luydo. (3) ' to turn pale ' : 
wedi luydo ar i we:d. 



luydwyn lym 355 

{uydwyn, adj., llwydwyn, W.LI. Ixxvii. 39. (i) Might green', 
e. g. of slate : fcxan luydwyn. (2) ' silver-grey ' (of the hair). 

luy&o, v., llwyddo, D., ' to succeed ' : da\i wedi (uy&o i gayl o ? ; 
also impers. : dim by:d m luybo ito vo. 



lu.yn, s.m., pi. (uini, llwyn, D. (i) ' grove, wood ' (obs.) : mynd 
i r (u:yn Kinpfjodi, ' to have relations before marriage ' (obs. O.H.). 
(2) ' bush ' : \u:yn o gy[, ' hazel-bush '. 

juyn hidi* (Llanllechid) ; [u:yn hidil (J.J.) ; (u:yn hidtf (O.H.), 
s., llwynhidydd, D., ' ribwort plantain ' (Plantago lanceolata). 

(uynog, s.m., pi. juynogod, llwynog, D., ' fox ' : hrujon juynog, 
' fox cubs ' ; deyar (uynog, ' the earth of a fox ' ; durnod fuynog, * a 
treacherous day ', i.e. 'a day which begins fine and turns suddenly 
wet ' ; fosgy luynog, ' simulated sleep ' ; 9 whe^ may [uynog m la:b 
(prov.), said of one who does his iniquities away from his acquaint- 
ances ; dail (uynog, l foxglove plants ' = dail kra:\ (Digitalis pur- 
purea) ; ^uynog 9 mo:r t f thresher or fox-shark ' (Alopecias vulpes). 

luynogas, s.f., llwynoges, D., ' female fox ', 

Iu:y6, s.m., pi. luiBi, llwyth, D., ' load, cargo ' : lu:y& trol, ' cart- 
load ', pi. luiBi trolja; fu:y6 o wair, ' load of hay ' ; Iu:y6 sglaitf, ' a 
carsro of slate ' ; glo: o:yb i lu:yB i, ' her cargo consisted of coal ' ; 
Iu:y6 gwa:s di:og, said when some one tries to carry too much at 
a time to save himself a journey ; fig. mi vy& paub 9mma n Iu:y6, 
' people will come in crowds '. 

luyBo, v., llwytho, D., ' to load ' : luyBo 9 Kerig ir loy objar 3 graig, 
* to ship the stones from the rock '; fuyOo Kettyn, ' to fill a pipe '. 

luyBog, adj., llwythog, D., ' loaded, laden ' : r o:d 9 loy m fay Bog 
o vo:x, ' the ship was laden with pigs '. 

luyBur, s.m., llwythwr, O.P. (at the Penrhyn slate-quarries), ' one 
who loads waggons with slate for Port Penrhyn ' (J.J.). 

luyvan, s.pl., sing, bvannan, Ivannan, llwyfen (sing.), D., ' elm- 
trees '. 

}y:, s., pi. ly:oti, llu, D., ' host, crowd ' : mynd m {y:ob y ' to go in 
crowds '. 

lydu, s., lludw, D., ' ashes '. 

, s., lludded, D., ' fatigue '. Scarcely used except in the exp. 
a fydad, ' toil and drudgery '. 

, s., llyg, D., ' shrew ' ; term applied to persons who are 
slow and purposeless in their actions ; ly:g hyl, ' an ugly brute ' 
(W.H.). ' 

lym, adj., km. km, ^\.bmjon, llymm, D. (i) ' sharp '. (2) ' severe': 
dy:n ym, golug ym, hvraQ lem, &lirja lym; provadigaB km, ' a 
severe trial '. 

A a 2 



356 lymman tyvn 

lymman, s.m., llumman, D.P.0. 145. 1 6, 'a tall, ungainly fellow ' : 
lymman hyl; also ' a worthless, good-for-nothing fellow ' : be uti n 
ka$yn 9 lymman tlaud ana ? ; lymman di:og. 

lyn, s.m., pi. Imnob, llynn, D., ' lake, pool, puddle ' : lyn anavon, 
lyn mavon, ' " Aber " Lake ' ; lyn melin, ' millpool ' ; lyn tro:, 
' whirlpoor, but cf. D., s.v. ' fossatum ' and B.C. 9. 18 ; burn n lyn 
maur, said of heavy rain ( J.J.) ; may hi wedi bum nes ma: rford m 
bnnod, ' it has rained so much that the road is all puddles '. 

ly:n, s.m., pi. Knja, llun, D., ' form, picture ' : fy:& fy:n nadrob ar 
bail r eur, ' there is a mark like an adder on cow-parsnips ' ; / o:s 
dim ly:n dim arno vo, ' it is like nothing at all ' ; o bo:b liu a fy:n, 
' of all shapes and colours ' ; mi gna:6 o rhiu ty:n, ' he did it after a 
fashion ' ; may o y gweld i ly:n m 3 lu:y, ' he sees himself in the 
spoon ' ; tmny linja, ' to take photographs ' ; da\i wedi tmny x 
ly:n /, ' have you had your photograph taken ? ' 

ly:n, s., Llun, dy (y:n, ' Monday ' ; no:s !y:n, ' Monday night ' ; 
dy ly:n 9 pa:sg, ' Easter Monday ' ; dy ly:n sylgwyn, ' Whit Monday '. 

fy:n, Lleyn, Gwlad Lyn, D., ' the Lleyn promontory '. 

lyndan^ Llundain, ( London '. 

lyrgyn, s.m., llurgyn, D., ' cadauer ' ; a term of reproach : r he:n 
lyrgyn medu I (rhuy kropjan a Kerbad ag 3n drewi o hogla kurtt). 
Often applied to children : ta:u sr 7ie:n lyrgyn bydyr 1 ; wel, 
le: 'by.osti 3 lyrgyn bydyr ? r u:ii n va:u i gi:d (All O.H.). 

ly:s, s.m., pi. hsod, llys, D., ' court ' : holi meun fy:s t ' to summons ' ; 
mynd o vla:yn jy:s, ' to go to court '. 

jy:s, s.pl., sing. hsan t llus, D., ' bilberries ' (Vaccinium Myrtillus) ; 
koyd fy:s, ' bilberry plants '. 

ly:sg, s., llusg, D., only in kar^y.-sg, ' mountain sledge for carrying 
hay, etc.' 

lysgan, s.f., llusgen, O.P., ' dawdler, shirker ' : he:n lysgan garu 
adi hi. 

lysgo, v., llusgo, D. (i) ' to drag ' : fysgo sle:d, ' to drag a sledge ' ; 
Jysgo drain, Kerig, ' to drag thorns, stones ', e. g. with a chain ; 
lysgo Hi: ; paid a lysgo da dra:yd, ( do not drag your feet '. (2) ' to 
drag along ', e. g. of working when demand is slack : riu lysgo 
gweiOjo ma: nu. 

[ysgyn, s.m., llusgyn, * dawdler, shirker '. 

yux, s.m., pi. lyux'veyb, lluwch, D., 'snowdrift'; also of dust: 
may o n du:ad zny:n lyu\. 

yvn, adj., fern, levn, pi. bvnjon^ llyfn, D., ' smooth ': msny^lyvn 
gwastad ; kraig wastad levn ; for& levn ; gwynab fyvn ; Kerig 
bvnjon ; m Jyvn vel burS ; m i byky nu n Jyvn, ' swallowing them 
voraciously ' ; wad kuru n fyvn, l swilling beer ' ; gwarjo i arjan m 
lyvn, ( squandering his money recklessly ' (All O.H.). 



357 

lyvr, s.m., pi. frvra, llyfr, D., ' book '. 

fcdan, adj., comp. fetta\, llydan, D., 'broad, wide ' : Kin fettad a 
dru:s melin, ' as wide as the door of a mill ' (said of a mouth) ; may 
yhevn m bigon frdan, * my back is broad enough ' ; gwal bdan, 
* thick wall ' ; agor dru:s m frdan, l to open a door wide '. 

fyfant, s.m., pi. (y/aint l(9)fantod, llyffant, D., ' frog ' : fr/ant dy:, 
' toad ' ; ^fant melyn, ' frog (for the sake of distinction) ; frfant dik 



; ^ 

pennog (I.W.), fefant {hy:d 9 dennog (O.H.), llyffaint dafadennog, 
M.LI. ii. 121. 13, ' toad ' ; bu.yd fcfaint t kaus fc/ainl, ' toadstools ' ; 
Infant 3 mo:r, ' father-lasher ' (Cottus bubalis) ; ma nrhayd mor o:yr 
a [faint, 'my feet are as cold as stones'; mi eya i dy e:g Kin 
svundad a \e:g tyfant sm mi:s mai (O.H.) ; also ' frog ' of a horse's 
foot. 

tfeBar \lfe6ar]. 

bfeOeirjo \lefeirjo]. 

\9gad, s.m., pi. bgaid, l(*)gada, frgid, llygad, D., 'eye': bgaid 
gleif'on, dy:on, lu:yd, ' blue, black, grey eyes ' ; kannuyl 9 frgad, 
' pupil ' ; gwyn 9 bgad, ' the white of the eye ' ; tul 9 frgad, ' eye- 
socket ' ; ble:u bgad, ' eyelashes ' ; r 0:6 i bgad ty go:\, ' his eye was 
bloodshot ' ; Igada gwan, ' weak eyes ' ; jfgad vel barKid, ' keen 
sight ' ; bgaid fym, ' a stern look ' ; frgaid ar wynab 9 kro:yn y 
' projecting eyes ' ; may g?no vo bgaid vel du:y watf (].].), ' he has 
goggle, staring eyes ' ; bgada m bantja dmnjon, * deep-sunken eyes ' ; 
bgad kro:ys t ' a squint ' ; ka:yl bgad dy:, ' to get a black eye ' ; 
bgad tfeni, ' glass eye ' ; may berwyd 9n i bgad, ' he has bright, 
sparkling eyes ' ; may i bgaid 9m pevrjo n i benno, ' his eyes 
are shining brightly ' ; gneyd Igada, ' to make eyes ' ; gneyd 
bgad ba:x, ( to wink ' ; edrax 9m myu 9 bgad, ' to look straight in 
the face ' ; may bgad m i ben, ' he has his wits about him ' ; a i 
bgad ar i *sguyd 'on the look-out ' ; 9 pe:6 muya ovnaduy welts 
i a bgad 9 mhen eri'oyd, ' the most terrible thing I ever set eyes 
on ' ; may i bgad 9n vu:y na i vol, ' he helps himself to more than 
he can eat ' ; x^ i &'#* Kimmint a r0un i n V9 bgad (dim ond 
Kimmint a bgad ja:r), ' I did not get the smallest trifle ' ; Sary 
o dim agor V9 bgad, ' he did not put me up to it ' ; ar o:l tmny 
r bgaid kravy r tola, l to add insult to injury ' ; in various trans- 
ferred senses, (a) of the sun : m bgad 9r hayl, ' full in the sun ' ; 
may n Igada poiQjon jaun, ' there are very hot intervals of sun- 
shine '. (b) ' centre ' : fcgad 9 berw, ' the centre of something 
boiling ' ; iavla dippin o du:r o.yr i bgad o, ' pour some cold water 




9n 9 weiran, ' a noose in the wire ', e. g. to catch rabbits, 
(d) animal and plant names : (fgad m9haran, ' limpet ' (Patella) ; 
fcgad (bgaid) * dy$ t ' daisy ' ; bgad ebril, ' the lesser celandine 



358 bgadrrty bGyr 

(Ranunculus Ficaria) = dail 9 peih; bgaid r eyron, ' cranberries ' 
(Vaccinium Oxycoccos) ; bgada bugan, ' poppy ' (Papaver Rhceas). 

bgadrrty, v., llygadrythu, B.C., 12. u, 'to stare'. 

-bgat-tdnny, v., llygadtynu, Gal. iii. i (e/3a0-/cave), ' captivate, 
fascinate, bewitch '. O.H. has dmjon dru:g 9n 'bgat'tznny xi i 
Srsgjoni ; merxaid dn 'bgat'tznny danjon. 

b&edyn (W.H. ; I.W.) ; l&dyn (O.K.), s.m., llygedyn, O.P., 
' a gleam of light, a bright glimpse ' : bgedyn po:y& o hayl, ' a bright 
glimpse of sunshine ' ; mi ge:s i ambal i bgedyn, ' I had a bright 
glimpse now and then ' (i. e. among my gloomy thoughts) : ligedyn 
ba:x o dam, o ola (O.H.). 

bgindjo, v., cf. llygindio, M.F., ' to ill-treat, to maul ' (JJ. ; O.H.). 

bgod, s.pl., sing. Igodan, bgodan, llygod, D., f mice ' : bgod maur, 
freinig^farnig, l rats ' ; bgod da:x, ' mice ' (for the sake of distinc- 
tion) ; bgod 9 du:r, ' water-rats ' ; bgod deyar (O.H.), ' dormice ' (?). 

bgrab, s., llygredd, O.P., f corruption '. 

bgry, v., llygru, D., ' to corrupt, become corrupt, rotten '. 

bxan luxyn and bxyn, q.v. (O.H.). 
, adj., llychlyd, D., ' dusty '. 

s.m., llychyn, O.P., ' particle of dust, speck ' : po:b bxyn, 
' every speck ' (O.K.). Cf. luxyn. 

bmgi, s.m., llymgi, T.N. 20. 31, 'a worthless scamp': bmgi 
bydyr, dt:og t dru:g, hurfyd, medu. 

bmmad, s.m., llymmaid, D., ' a drink ' : bmmad o Su:r ; menyn 
wedi toi n bmmad, l butter melted into oil '. 

bm'ri:ad, s., llymriaid, R., ' sand eel ' (Ammodytes lanceolatus 
and A. tobianus). 

bmry, s., llymru, D., ' flummery ' : gweylod blaud Keirx wedi berwi 
i vytta hevo levriQ (E.J.). 

bnab, adv. and s., ellynedd, D., ' last year ' : 9 vluybyn Kin bna. 

bjir, s.pl., sing, byzran, f. ; pi. also bysrod (O.K.), llyngyr, D., 
' worms ' (in the body) ; bywan hi:r, ' tape-worm '. 

byky, v., llyngcu, D., ' to swallow, absorb ' : byky n ]yvn, ' to 
swallow at a gulp ' ; byky y gro.ys, ' to swallow the wrong way ' = 
byky tammad o: xwiQig j may o wedi byky gor mod, ' he has had too 
much to drink ' ; byky my:l, f to sulk '; byky polyn, ' to be stiff, to 
have swallowed a poker '. 

bf'a, s.pl., llysiau, D., ' herbs ', but only in plant-names : bf'a r 
gweydlyn = milbail, ' yarrow ' (Achillsea Millefolium) ; bf'a ivan, 
' mugwort ' (Artemisia vulgaris) ; bf'a pen tai, ' common house- 
leek ' (Sempervivum tectorum). 

b&yr, s.m., pi. IQtra, bfora, llythyr, D., ' letter ' : postjo b6yr, ' to 
post a letter '. 



maMygar 359 

, s.f., pi. frtirenna, llythyren, D., ' letter of the alphabet '. 

l?vjad, s.m., llyfiad, G.O. ii. 33. 6, ' a licking' : frvjad fyux, ' a 
tult of hair on the forehead '. 

fcvjad, s.m., dylyfiad, D., s.v. ' oscitatio ', only in the exp. frvjad 
ge:n, ' a gape ' (Bangor). 

(wndeu, adj., llyfndew, 'sleek', 'fat enough to conceal the bones'. 
, v., llyfnu, D., 'to harrow '. 

iQan, s.,llyfrithen, O.P. [A pimple], 'a sty in the eye'. 
{wy, v., llyfu, D., ' to lick '. 



m, 'm, adj., ' my ', after a ' with ', and a relative. In the first 
case only in connection with frgatd and klistja, as we/is i ri-o:yd a 
m bgaid 3 va:B be:B, ' I never saw such a thing in my life ' ; x/:;> i* 
ri'oyd a m klistja m ono vo, ' I never heard of it in my life '. In the 
second case only in such expressions as djail a m pi: I, djaul a m 
sgybo /, dyu a m helpo i ! 

ma, yma, D., after a noun preceded by the article (the latter 
being sometimes suppressed), ' this ' : 9 dy:n ma, ' this man ' ; (?) 
pnaun ma, ' this afternoon ' ; (9) bora ma, f this morning ' ; (y) for 
ma, ' this way ' ; (^) van ma, ' here '. ma is never stressed \9mma\. 

ma:b, s.m., pi. meibjon, mab, D., ' son ' : ma:b ?y gfovraO, ' son-in- 
law ' ; ' stepson '. 

mabuifady, v., mabwysio, D., ' to adopt '. 

madal, v., ymadael, D. (i) intr. ' to move', e.g. from a house 
or situation to another, ' to leave ' : madal o r iy:, ' to move from 
the house ' ; nezvyd vadal ma:y hi, ' she has just left her situation ' ; 
dy:n m madal o r \waral; ka:yl madal a, ' to get rid of. ( 2 ) trans. 
' to move ', e. g. furniture, etc., Irom one house to another : hun 8ary 
vadal 3xpeO<*) ' the man who moved your things '. 

madrob, zmadrod, s.m., ymadrodd, D., ' speech ' : daun zmadrob; 
daun madrod liBrig, ' the gift of ready speech '. Cf. (everyb, parabl. 

madry, v., madru, D., ' to decompose ', esp. of flesh. 

mada, v., maddeu, D. Pret. maSeyz's. (i) 'to part with, let go* 
only in such expressions as du i n meQy ma&a 180 vo, ' I can't part 
with it, let it go ', e. g. of a tasty morsel (I.W.). (2) 'to forgive, 
excuse ' : %haid i \i va8a i mi am vo:d mor vle:r, ' you must excuse 
me for being so untidy ' ; rhaid i ni va8a riu \tdig i rei ni, ' we 
must make some excuses for those '. 

matieyant, s., maddeuant, D., ' forgiveness '. 

mabeygar, adj., maddeugar, D., s.v. ' comis ' ; ' forgiving '. 



3 6 



mag main 



mag, s., ' halfpenny ' : niuk a mag, * a penny halfpenny ' (slang). 

ma:g, s.m., mag, * fry ' (of fish), J.J. ; O.K. : la:d ma:g zr avon, 
e. g. by turning the river from its bed. 

magal, s.m.f., pi. magla (also bagal, baglan), magi, D., ' snare ' : 
magal i 8al gwniyod, ' snare for catching rabbits ' consisting of an 
upright stick to which is attached a wire noose ; bagal rhaun, ' a 
snare for catching birds '. A sharp-pointed stick is driven into the 
earth ; to this is attached a cord of horse-hair with a noose at 
the end, by which the bird is caught by the feet. (O.K.) 

magan, s.f., ' halfpenny ' : / o:ys &in i dim magan m 3 mhokkad 
(cf. mag). 

magly, v., maglu, D., ' to trip up ' [bagly]. 

maguraB, s.f., magwraeth, D., * bringing up ' : may n dayos ar 
ynwaQfaf'un vaguraQ may y:n wedi xayl ( JJ.)> ' ^ shows what kind 
of bringing up one has had ' ; wedi ka:l maguraB da: ag wedi mynd 
an dlaud (O.K.). 

magy, v., magu, D. (i) ' to bring up, rear ' : daxt wedi \ magy 9y 
wh9mry ?, ' were you brought up in Wales ? ' ; zmma ganuyd a maguyt 
i, ' it was here that she was born and brought up ' ; magy jeir, ' to 
rear fowls ' ; 9 deryn (Km) vegir (vagir) dnyfarn, 3nyfarn 9 myn vo:d 
(prov.), 'habit is second nature '. (2) ' to breed, produce, form ' : 
rubaQ sy n magy knaud, ' flesh-producing substance ' ; magy gwar, 
' to stoop ' ; magy bol; magy luidm, Ken, ' to get mouldy ' ; 
magy snavad, ' to get slimy ' ; u:ti n i magy hi?, ' are you nursing 
it up ? ' (said to a disobedient child, i. e. ' are you going to make 
the punishment worse when it comes?') (3) 'to grow': magy 
edyn, ' to grow wings '. 

maharan (W.H.) ; mtharan (I.W. ; O.H.) ; mharan, s.m., pi. 
meheryn (W.H.) ; m9heryn(I.W. ; O.H.) ; m3herod(O.U..); maharen, 
D., ' ram ' : frgad maharan, ' limpet ' (Patella). 



mat, s.m., Mai, D., ' May ' 

mat, conj., mai, D., ' that ' 

I thought these were yours ' 



9 dy:8 kmta o vat. Cf. klamma. 
r qydun i n medul mai \i: bia rhei n, 
di:olx mai 9'hi: sy n mynd, nid 2'vi:, 

thank Heaven that she is going and not I ' ; r o:n i n medul mai 
vel na 9 basa hi, ' I thought that would be the way '. Cf. na. 

matd, s.m., maidd, D., ' serum lactis ' ; only in matd dr ja:r 

tori u:y i vasn a rhoi fugur a i gsmdsgy vo n da:; zna rhoi du:r 

barwedig arno vo a i roid o ar vara wedi valy meun basn aral (E.J.). 

main, adj., pi. meinion, main, D. (i) 'fine, thin, slender': 

baxgan main, ' a slender fellow ' ; m vain vel milgi, Kin veinad a 

bruynan, \o:ys robin go:\, a r g&unan (O.H.) ; egin main 9r 

y:d, ' slender shoots of corn ' ; ty: ba:xy:n korn, mu:g main, ' a small 

cottage with one chimney ancf slender smoke ' ; gwevysa meinjon, 

'thin lips'. (2) 'fine, sharp' (of a point): bla:yn main. (3) 

' straitened ' (of circumstances) : may n vainjaun arno vo. (4) ' keen ' 



main/ mal&i 361 

(of the wind) : may r gwynt ?n vain ; da\iy klu:ad*r awal m vain ? 
(5 ) ' keen, acute ' (of hearing) : may nu y klu:ad mor vain, ' their 
sense of hearing is so acute'. (6) 'high-pitched* (of the voice): 
may (ais main gmo vo. (7) substantively : ' fat ' = Ki:g gwyn, e. g. 
tippin o vain (J.J.). 

main/, s.m. (but r y:n vain/), maint, D., ' size, quantity, amount ' : 
ry: vain/ a hunna, ' the same size as this ' ; ma: nu y kodi r y:n 
vain/ m in/on, ' they charge just the same amount ' ; mi gostiQ ry: 
vain/ i grvrjo vo a \a:\iy:n newyb, * it will cost as much to cover it 
(the umbrella) as to get a new one ' ; m 9 maint may r gwahanjaQ, 
* the difference is in the size ' ; yn i vain/, ' in its full size ' ; * full 
grown ' ; pobol meun maint, ' grown-up people ' ; r o:& 9 kubul wedi 
mynd i mhaint, ' they were all grown up '. See also vain/. 

maiyk, s.f., pi. meiykja, maingc, D. ; cf. dwyueing, L.A. 93. 3, 
' bench '. 

maip, s.pl., sing, meipan, f., maip, D., * turnips ' : may gmo vo ben 
vel meipan, ' he has a head like a turnip ', i. e. ' he is stupid * ; maip 
mair, maip aba, l the roots of the black bryony ' (Tamus communis) ; 
maip gwiltjon, plant-name (sp. ?). 

mair, Mair, 'Mary'. Cf. also mart, mali, malan, meri ; guyl 
vair, ' Lady Day '. 

mai6, adj., maith, D., 'long': er s amsar mai6, 'a long time 
ago ' ; ' for a long time ' ; er s fawar bluybyn vaid, l for many a long 
year ' ; du i dim am vynd 9n vaid, ' I'm not going to be long ', 
i. e. ' tell a long story ' ;forb vai6; pregaQ vai6. 

matral, s.m., pi. mekri^ maccrell, D., ' mackerel '. 
maxal [baxal]. 

maxljad, s.m., cf. machludiad, Joshua i. 4, 'sunset': may hi n 
vaxljad hayl. 

maxlyd, s.m., machlud, D., ' sunset ' : may hi dgest m vaxlyd 
hayl; may hi ar s maxlyd hayl ; may hi ar vaxlyd hayl common 
expressions when clocks were not in ordinary use (O.H.). 

maxlyd, v., ' to set ' (of the sun) : may r hayl in maxlyd. 

malan, pet name for ' Mary ' [mair]. 

malas, s.m., malais; cf. D.G. clxxix. 9; D., 'malice': malas 
dru:g. Often implies a tendency to pilfer : dym ar i valas am 
ruba6 o hy:d (O.K.). 

male'isbrug, adj., ' malicious ' = maleysys. 

maleysys, adj., maleisus, D., ' malicious '. Often implies a tendency 
to pilfer (O.H.). 

malgi, s.m., maelgi, S.E., s.v. ' angel-fish ' ; ' angel-fish ' (Rhina 
squatina). 



362 



mali man 



mali, pet name for ' Mary ' \mair\ ; cf. piftkus mali (q.v.). 

'malifut, term of reproach : be u:li n farad, r hem giu 'malifut 
(EJ.) ; r he:n 'malifut djaul (O.K.). 

malirjo, v., malurio, D., ' to crush ' (e. g. of a man crushed by a 
fall of stone in a quarry) ; ' to break up small ' : 3 Seyar wedi 
malirjo gin 3 rhe:u ; ' to moulder ' (trans, and intr.) hyperbolically 
' to thrash ' : mi d9 valirja i di ! (O.H.). 

maljo, v., maliaw, O.P., * to care, heed ' : be du i n valjo 9no vo />, 
' what do I care for him ? ' ; / 9du i dim 3n maljo r y:n tattan 
(bottum, bottum korn, ba:u) zno vo, ' I don't care a rap for him '. 

malk, s.m., pi. malkja, male, D., ' grumus, porca ' ; ' a piece of 
earth accidentally left unturned by the plough ' : may hi n valkja i 
gt:d ar i o:l (O.U.). 

malkjo, v., malcio, D., s.v. ' imporco ' ; ' to plough in such a 
manner as to leave pieces of earth unturned'. 

malur, s.m., malwr, D., s.v. ' molitor '. (i) ' one who grinds, etc/ 
(2) * one who speaks beside the mark ' (O.H.). Cf. maly 3. 

malwan, s.f., pi. malwod, malwen, D., ' snail ' : malwan 8y:, ' slug ' ; 
malwan grogan, ' snail ' (for the sake of distinction) ; mor ara a 
malwan, ' as slow as a snail ' ; may o n du:ad r y: va:6 a malwan 
meun tar, ' he is coming like a snail crawling in tar ', i. e. very 
slowly ; malwan vo:r, a kind of shell-fish (Trochus cinerarius). 

maly, v., malu, D. (i) 'to grind, break up small, crumble' : 9 
kmta i r velin geiB valy (prov.), 'first come, first served'; may 
o n valy vo n va:n, ' it chops it up small ' ; maly n xwilvriu ma:n, 
xwilvriu bug an, ylu ma:n ; maly gwair, ' to chop hay ' ; maly 
prikja, ' to chop sticks '. (2) ' to maul, fray ' : ma: r bre&yn wedi 
maly, ' the cloth is frayed '. (3) ' to speak beside the point ' = dim 
dn farad i burpas, mynd oru6 9 puyk, mynd i rambljo (O.H.) : r u:ti 
m ponf'o ag 9n maly n ormod o lawar (O.H.). 

mal, adj., mall, D., 'unwholesome, putrid, bad': sr y:d dn val, 
bara mal; tasa r haib ?y gino basa y gneyd9r haib m val (O.H. ). 

mam, s.f., pi. mamma, mam, D. (i) ' mother ': mam dy yfavraQ, 
' mother-in-law ', ' stepmother ' ; as plant-name ' pansy ' ; mam wen, 
' stepmother ' (I.W.). (2) ' matrix ' (of women). 

mammaQ, s., mammae th, D., ' nutrix ', in the exp. hurb mammaB 
[hurd]. 

mammog, s.f., pi. mogad, moga, mammog, D., s.v. 'matrix', 
' mola ' ; ' ewe with young ' : vaint o moga ag u:yn s 'gmoxi lenif, 
' how many ewes with lambs have you this year ? ' 

man, s.ra.f., pi. manna, mann, D., ' place ' : m 9 'van ma, 'van ma, 
vamma, 'here'; (m f) 'van na, (?n i) "van no, 'there'; an 9 van 
akku, 'van aku, 'vay ku, ' yonder ' ; meun rhei manna^ ' in some 



man manteif'ol 363 

places ' ; may r van ma y goyol gwnas jaun, ' this is a warm 
corner ' ; (/ aun i) byB o r van ma / ' upon my word ! ' ; *n r y: van 
a vi ':, 'in the same place as I '; mi bikja i i r van a r van, ' I'll 
hurry off to such and such a place ' ; ma: n du:ad i r y:n van, ' it 
comes to the same thing ' ; in 9 van bela, ' at the most, at the 
furthest ' ; m 9 van kwna, ' at the deepest ; dim pobol 9ny:n man, 
' no people anywhere ' ; used instead of /<?.* (place) before (e: (where) : 
9n 9 van fa r o:b o y gw'eiQjo, ' in the place where he was working ' ; 
m 9 man, ' by and by ' ; ru:an ag 9n 9 man, * now and then ' ; m 
9 van, ' immediately '. 9m mho:b man, * everywhere ' : may n srxy m 
mho:b man hevo r gwynt ma, ' this wind is drying up everything ' ; 
may po:b man 9$ glasy, ' everything (Anglo- Welsh ' everywhere ') is 
turning green '; -^erQin dros bo:b man, ' to roar with laughter ' ; 
d9nas m i mhan t ' a grown up, responsible woman '. 

man, ma:yn, s., in man (mayn) &eni, mann geni, D., 'birth-mark'. 

mam, adj., man, D. (i) ' small ' (of things in numbers of particles, 
but adar ma:n, * little birds ', more frequent than adar ba:\), opp. to 
bra:s : maly n va:n, ' to grind small ' ; Kerig mam, ' small stones ' ; 
glo: mam, ' slack ' ; kulins mam, ' small remnants ' ; arjan mam, 
' small change ' ; mam ~bly:, ' down ' ; m am donna, ' small waves ' ; 
ma: nu vel margrig o vam, ' they are tiny little things ' (speaking e. g. 
of children), lit. ' they are as tiny as ants ' ; krsbibjon, xwrtvriu, 
teilxjon, tipja, ylu, ysu mam, 'smithereens, shivers, tiny bits'. (2) 
' fine ', e. g. of a net : %hu:yd vam, * a small-meshed net ', as opp. to 
rhu:yd vra:s. 

manag, s.f., pi. menig, maneg, D., ' glove '. 

manjon, s.pl., manion, ' small particles ', e. g. man/on eidin. 

manny, v., mannu, ' to affect' (I.W.): dw.W(say) mjaun a paid 
a manny (O.H.); / 9di o n manny dim arna i, 'it does not affect 
me at all '. 

manolt, adj., manhollt, only in kym manolt \ky:ri\. 

mantal, s.f., pi. manteli, mantell, D., ' hooded cloak formerly worn 
by women over the pais a bekkun '. 

manias, s.f., pi. manteifon> mantais, D. (i) ' advantage ' : ktmmyd 
man/as ar 9 krula, * to take advantage of the opportunity ' ; tori 
sgolpjad er mu.yn gneyd manias i dori r garag, ' to cut a piece otf 
in order to cut the stone to greater advantage '. (2) ' profit ' : pe:6 
a manias vaurjaun arno vo. 

manteif'o, v., manteisio, D., ' to take advantage ' : ma: nu n 
manteif'o ar bo:b pe:6 i neyd pe:s, ' they take advantage of everything 
to make money ' ; 9 kry: 9n manteifo ar 9 gwan, ' the strong taking 
advantage of the weak ' ; ma: nu n manteif'o 'arnoni, ' they have the 
advantage over us '. 

manieif'ol )&&}., manteisiol, T.N. 464. 24. (i) 'advantageous'. 
(2) ' profitable '. 



3 6 4 



mantol marxnatta 



mantol, s.f., mantol, D., ' balance ' (of scales), only in the phrase 
may hdnny wedi troi r vantol, ' that finally decided me '. 

manunna, s.pl., manwynnau, D., s.v. ' scrofula ' ; ' scrofula ' = 
klu:y r brenin. 

manuyl, adj., manwl, D., ' accurate, exact ' : sbi:o n vanuyl, ' to 
scrutinize ' (O.K.). 

manys, s., manus, D., s.v. ' achyron ', ' acus ', ' palea ' ; ' chaff'. 

maygljo, v., ' to become entangled ' : pssgod wedi maygljo m 9 
rhu:yd; Vein an maygljo (O.H.). Also baygljo. 

marblan, s.f., pi. marblis, ' a marble ' : march's ko:yd, ' oak-apples ' 
(so called by children). 

mardun, s.m., marwdonn, D., ' scurf, dandriff in the hair '. JJ. 
had bardun. 

mardur, s.m., marwddwfr, O.P., ' neap tide ' : ar vardur, ' at 
neap tide ' ; also ' still water '. 

margjad, Marged, W.LI. i. 55, ' Margaret'. 

margrig, s.pl., sing, morgrigin, margran, morgrug, D., * ants ' : 
tumpaB margrig, 'anthill'. 

man, ' Mary '. Cf. mair, malt, meri. 

marjandtr, s.m., mariandir, O.P., * a place covered with small 
loose stones, e. g. such as have fallen from mountain slopes '. 

marjon, mar/an, s.pl., marian, D., ' small loose stones, e. g. fallen 
from mountain slopes or taken from a gravel pit ' ; marjan Kerig, 
' a heap of loose stones ' (I. W.) ; hem varjon briks, ' a heap of broken 
bricks '(O.K.). 

mark, s.m., pi. markja, marc, D., c mark '. 

markjo, v., marcio, D.G. clxxi. 53 ; G.R. 42. 20 ; D., s.v. ' annoto ' ; 
B.C. 136. 26, 'to mark', e.g. markjo u.yn, 'to mark lambs with 
pitch ' ; also ' to make a line across a stone with a mallet and 
chisel, etc., etc/ 

marx, s.m., pi. me'trx, meix, march, D., ' horse ', in the expression 
kasag dygovyn marx(= Kefyt) ; also karag varx, ' mounting stone '; 
marxmo:r, ' (fabulous) sea-serpent ' ; gwenyn meirx (meix}, 'wasps', 
sing, gwemnan veirx; hada marx meri (cf. marchfieri, D.), 'hips' 
(berries). 

marxa, marxjo, v., marcha, said of a mare maris appetens. 

marxalan, s.,marchalan,D.(Bot.), 'elecampane' (InulaHelenium). 

marxnad, s.f., pi. marxnadob, marchnad, D. (i) 'market': 
durnod marxnad, ' market-day '. (2) 'bargain': gneyd marxnad t 
'to strike a bargain', 'to come to terms '. 

marxnatta, v., marchnatta, D. (i) 'to market'. (2) 'to make 
a deal, do business ' : o:ys posib i mi rieyd marxnad i varxnatla hevo 
Xti?, l is it possible for me to strike a bargain so as to make a deal 
with you ? ' (O.H.). 



maswad 365 

, s., marchwellt, ' tall, coarse grass '. 

mar/an, s.f., pi. marljod, merlen, T.N. 472. 40, ' female pony '. 
Cf. merlyn. 

marljo, v., Eng. (Dial.) marl [to spread marl on land], used of 
the action of the weather on land, making it suitable for cultivation : 
giant, ghe.it, 53\dur m marljo r ti:r = gnfyd 9 ti:r m fit i gimmyd 9r 
hadyd m bigon ma:n, heb vod klobars maur mo vo (O.H.). 

martfant, s.m., marchant, C.C. 9. 19 ; O.F. marchant, ' merchant '. 

maru, v., marw, D., ' to die ' : may i braut i wedi maru, ' her 
brother is dead ' ; kaud o wedi maru, ' he was found dead ' ; mi vy:o 
vo varu ; kary o varu, 'he died'; neiB o varu?, 'will he die?' 
Generally used only in inf., but marwiB and marwob occur. 

maru, adj., marw, D., 'dead ' : mi gadoS oy&elan varu, ' he killed 
him on the spot ' ; Kin varwad a sglodyn, (a/ennog), ' as dead as a 
door-nail ' ; fig. ' stolid, impassive ' = "dirgmnur : may o n rhy: 
varu, ta:n maru, ' a dull fire '. 

marwad, adj., marwaidd, D.,' heavy; sultry': teimlo n varwa&j 
1 to feel heavy ' ; may hi n varwab, ' the weather is sultry ' (= gwigil, 
sur6, flat). 

marwol, adj., marwol, D., ' deadly, mortal ' : gwenwyn marwol, 
klevyd marwol. 

marwolaB, s.f., pi. marwoleyBa, marwolaeth, D., ' death '. Cf. aya. 

marwor, s.pl., sing:, mjoryn, moryn, marwor, D., ' hot embers ' : 
9n mynd velja:r ?y forbad ar varwor ta:n, i. e. ' to walk gingerly '. 

masarn, s.pl., sing, sarnan, f., masarn, D., ' sycamores '. So 
always O.H., but generally dgakmor. 

masga, s.pl., sing, mesgin, cf. masgl, D., s.v. ' macula ' ; Eng. 
maske of nette, macula, P.P. (i) ' meshes of a net': modvab 
a hannar adi r mesgin i vo:d, * the mesh is supposed to measure an 
inch and a half. (2) 'the warp and woof of cloth* (J.J.). (3) 
' the first stitches by which the stocking is held to the needles ' : 
rhoid hosan ar 9 masga ( = gwi:al), ' to put a stocking on the 
needles ' ; rhoid ar 9 masga = ' to begin '. 

masgy, v., cf. Eng. (Dial.) mask [to catch in a net], Ayr, ' to 
catch in a net ' : may r p9sgod wedi masgy. 

masrums, mafirums, s.pl., ' mushrooms '. 

mastif, s.m., mastiff, C.C.M. 38. 21, 'mastiff*. As term of 
reproach : ta:u, 9r he:n vastifl (O.H.). 

maswab, s., maswedd, D., ' ribaldry ', in phr. kany maswab ; 
as adj. ' soft ' : 9 pe&a muya maswad ga:xi t l the softest things 
you could find* (speaking of small twigs, etc., to be used as 



366 mat maur 

tinder) ; teimlo n vaswad, ' to feel soft ' (e. g. velvet) ; rubaQ maswad 
jaun zdi li:n, ' flax is a very soft material '(All O.H.). 

mat, s.m., pi. matja, c mat f : matja niuburx^ ' Newborough mats ', 
i. e. mats made of marram grass, used for putting under mattresses , 
on haystacks, etc. 

matras, s.m., pi. matresi, mattras, D., cf. D.G. xxxii. 43, cxviii. 21, 

' mattress '. 

matf, s., ' match ' : mi darob o ar i vatf, ' he met his match '. 

matf an, s.f., pi. matf is, ' match ' : gola, tanjo mat/an, ' to light 
a match '. 

mattar, s.m., pi. materjon, matter, M.LI. i. 145. 31 ; Acts xv. 6, 
' matter ' : be dir mattar (ar or hevo) ?, ' what is the matter (with) ? ' ; 
cf. Esther xv. 9 (= be sy /) ; tri:n mater j on pobol eril, ' to talk over 
other people's concerns ' ; ta vattar am hmny, ' if that is anything, 
for the matter of that '. 



ma:6, s.m. (but r y:n va:9\ math, D., ' sort ' : xwara po:b ma:B o 
gastja, ' to play all kinds of tricks ' ; / o:s na dim ma:B o verwyd mo 
vo, ' there is not a spark of life in him ' ; r y: va:6 a vy:8 o bob dy:8, 
'just as he does every day'; syt 9 may hi? r y: va:6, 'how is 
she ? ' ' Just the same ' ; daxi wedi du:ad r y: va:6 a xMa, ' you 
have come to yourself again '. Cf. ba:6. 

maQry, v., mathru, D., 'to trample ' : m maQry gwely bloda hevo 
i hegla (O.K.). 

maun, s.m., mawn, D., ' peat ' : haul tori maun, ' the right of 
cutting peat ' ; weyn vaun, ' peat bog ' ; /ord garjo maun, ' a road 
for carrying peat ' ; pul maun, ' a hole where peat has been dug '. 

maur, adj., pi. mewrjon, comp. mu:y, eq. Kimmint, sup. muya, 
mawr, D. (i) ' great, large, big ' : mi neiO o djom maur, ' it will do 
a great deal of good ' ; / o:yb na dim le: i baf'o a minna mor vaur, 
' I was too big to get through ' ; h%uyn ar vry:s maur, ' to start in 
a great hurry ' ; gneyd rubaQ o va:\ i vaur, ' to enlarge something ' ; 
sbel vaur, ' a long time ' ; giant maur, ' heavy rain ' ; may hi n eira 
maur, ' the snow is falling heavily ' ; ' there has been a heavy fall 
of snow ' ; may i wa:lt o n vaur, ' his hair is long ' ; aur vaur, 
' a good hour ', i.e. ' a full hour or more ' ; as adv., gneyd m vaur o, 
1 to make the most of ' : rhaid gneyd m vaur o bo:b durnod bra:v 
ga:ni ru:an; di:olxm vaur, c thank you very much '. (2) ' stormy ' : 
t0wy maur, ' stormy weather ' (cf. Fr. ' gros temps ') ; may r noson 
3n mynd m vaur, ' the night is getting stormy '. (3) as adverb in 
the form vaur : dim vaur wel, ' not much better ' ( = dim lawar 
gwel) t o.yd o vaur vebul mod i n mynd fur, ' he little thought I 
was going away ' ; vasa vo vaur neyt hynna tasa vo y gubod, ' he 
would never have done that if he had known '. (4) as subs. : dim 



mauredog medry 367 

vaur o g*xod, ' not many boats ' ; vy:b gini hi vaur o frindja nyn[a, 
' she will not have many friends anywhere ' ; vrta vo vaur i \i 
gneyt i, ' it would not be much for you to do it '; ' you might do 
it ' ; nid maur -gmonu am hmny, l they don't worry about that ' ; 
vaint ro:6 o at 9 kasgljad ? vaurjaun, ' how much did he give to the 
collection ? ' ' Next to nothing '. See also Kimminl, mu:y. 

mauredog, adj., mawreddog, D., ' assuming ', ' imposing ' : riu 
grjadyr maurebog )di o, ' he thinks a great deal of himself ' ; Ktfyl ?y 
kampjo a golug mauredog arno vo, ond m mynd Mm gwerQ. O.H. 

mavlyd, v., ymaflyd, D., s.v. luctor ' ; 'to catch hold of (one 
another) ' : wedi mynd i mavlyd m i &ilid. Cf. me{yd. 

mavon, s.pl., mafon, D., mavon (koxjori), 'raspberries 1 ; mavon 
gwi^tjon, ' wild raspberries '. 

ma.yts, s.pl., Eng. vails, ' tips, gratuities '. Cf. T.N. 163. 4. Ni 
cheisiwn fawr chwerthin oni welwn gael I'm gafel ryw fael ar gyfer. 

mayn, s.m., pi. meini, maen, D., ' stone ', implying generally one 
of large size, e. g. a prehistoric standing stone ; also ' a large stone 
laid on its side to form a coping for a wall ' (O.H.) ; karjo i va:yn i r 
wal, ' to carry one's point ', ' to drive the nail home ' ; ma:yn klo:, 
' keystone ' ; ma:yn (fvo t ' grindstone ' ; sa:yr ma.yn, ' stone-mason '. 

ma:yr, s.m., pi. meyron, maer, D., ' mayor'. 

mayQ, s.m., maeth, D., ' nourishment ' : / o:ys na dim ma:y& mo 
vo; ka:l may 6 da:; tonny 2 may 6. 

mdolig \dolig\. 

mdrexgar, mdreyva, mdrexy [?mdrexgar, etc.]. 

me:, s., childish word for ' sheep '. 

mebyd, s.m., mebyd, D., ' childhood ' : o vebyd, ' from childhood '. 

medal, s.f., pi. medala, 'medal '. 

medar, s.m., medr, R., ' skill '. 

medelur, s.m., medelwr, D., ' reaper '. 

medi, v., medi, D., ' to reap ' (with a sickle). 

medi, s.m., Medi, D., ' September '. 

medry, v., medru, D. Pres. S. i. medra, 2. medrt\ 3. medar, etc. 
Plup. medr sun. (i) 'to be able ' : vedar o dim farad gjstal a \i: t 
' he can't speak as well as you ' ; vedra vo dim du:ad, ' he couldn't 
come ' ; os medra i vynd, mi a.-v, ' if I can go, I will ' ; vedar ne:b neyd 
ond i ora, ' one can but do one's best ' ; vedrun in 9 myu e\ra> ' I 
couldn't begin for the life of me ' ; mi vedrifredag, ' I was able to 
run ' ; dy:n an rhedag hmny vedra vo (hmny vedra i v&ivydo, O.H.), 
' a man running as fast as he could ' ; dim m rhoid hsnny vedra 
vo; paub hmny vedar o, 'every one (at it) hammer and tongs'. 
(2) ' to know ' : may o n medry fom~ra:ig mjaun, ' he knows Welsh 



368 medrys medul 

well ' ; medry i veibil, ' to know his Bible ' ; medry i waiQ, etc. 



medrys, adj., medrus, D., ' bene moratus, se bene gerens ' ; 
' capable, skilful '. Cf. gafyog. 

me:d, meQ, s.m., medd, D., ' mead '. 

meda, v., meddaf, D., 'I say', in parenthetical clauses (only in 
the present and imperfect). Pres. S. i. me8a vi, 2. meda ti, 3. meda 
vo } etc. Imperf. medun i, ' 1 said ' : ' n da 'x*: am vynd i r nevod ? ' 
meda vo: ' ddu ', meda vo t ' ond dim hevo r sgzrfn ma ', meda vo, 
" ' aren't you going to heaven ? ', says he : ' yes ', says he, ' but not in 
this excursion train ', says he " ; ' Kerux ana ax hy:n ', meda vinna uQi 
hi, " 'go there yourself, say I to her". 

medal, adj., meddal, D., 'soft': e.g. dylo medal; of persons 
(i) ' soft-hearted ' : daxi n rhy: vedal o lawar. (2) ' weak ', e. g. not 
hard at a bargain, or unable to resist temptation : dy:n medal hevo 
di:od. 

medaly, v., meddalu, D., ' to soften '. 

meddod, s., meddwdod, D. ; cf. meddtot, W.S., ' drunkenness '. 

meMg, s.m., pi. medzgon, meddyg, D., ' doctor '. More commonly 
doktor. 

me&gmjaB, s.f., pi. mediinfey0a, meddyginiaeth, D., 'medicine, 
remedy ' : may n jyndan vebiginjaQ at bo:b pe:6 ond rhak hiraB, ' in 
London there is a remedy for everything except against longing '. 

medu, adj., eq. medzvad, meddw, D., ' drunk' : may o ny.nfottyn 
medu ; may o n liprin medu, ' he is a drunken sot ' ; liyk loyk vebu, 
' drunk and swaying from side to side ' ; Kin vedwad a r beipan ; 9m 
betpan vedu. Cf. xwi-'l' 

medul, v., cf. meddylio, D. Fut. S. i. dtfja, 2. Mi, 3. d?h'0, etc. 
Imperf. S. i. toljun. PI. 2. toljax. Pret. S. i. dzli's, 3. toljo*. PI. i. 
folson. Plup. S. i. folf'un. Imperative medul; m9toljux (i) to 
think, to hold as an opinion ' : dma vo:, du i n medul, ' that's it, I 
think ' ; du i n medul vo:d o wedi mynd, ' I think he has gone ' ; T 
oydam n medul mai xi' pi:& (bi:a) rhei n, ' we thought these were 
yours ' ; du i n medul dnfu:r bo:t i ar 9 frurd, ' I feel sure it is on the 
table ' ; pobol 'vasaxi ri'oyd m medul 9 basa vo n dzlanwady 'arnynu y 
1 people you would never have thought he would have influenced ' ; 
daxi n medul 3 kmniB of, 'do you think it will light ? ' ; r o:n i n 
medul 'faraxi dim 9n hi:r zn hogyn da:, ' I thought you wouldn't be 
a good boy for long ' ; mi dzljax na: Soda menyn n i x^'k i, ' you 
would think butter would not melt in her mouth ' ; r o:n i n medul 
vasun i by6 wj farad ano, ' I thought I should never get there ' ; mi 
dtfjax arno vo na vedar o m farad, ( you would think by the look of 
him he cannot talk ' ; vasun i dim m medul hnny ami hi xwaM, 
1 1 would not think that by the look of her either '. (2) ' to think 



medul mtidjo 369 

(as a sustained action of the mind), to meditate ' : medul rfanQa i: 
V9 hynan. (3) with am, ' to think of, keep one's mind upon ' : 
/ oydanu n medul am dim ond am vynd ajan a \adu ri:at, ' they were 
bent on nothing but on going out and making a disturbance ' ; basa 
n we[ i \i vedul mu:y am 3 pe:6 Kin farad, ' it would be better if you 
thought more about the matter before talking ' ; dary \i vedul am 
r hanas deydis i neiQjur ?, ' did you think about the story I told 
last night ? ' (4) * to think, take into one's head ' : 'vrianu Mm m 
medul sgwenny at 9 ^vja:yr, ' they never think of writing to my 
sister ' ; similarly, ail vedul, ' to change one's mind '. (5) with o, 
1 to think of ' (Fr. ' penser de ') : be da\i n vedul o hono vo />, ' what 
do you think of him ? ' ; dim m medul digon o hono i hy:n ; m medul 
rhy: v^\an o hono i hy:n. (6) * to intend, mean, expect ' : mi gwelis 
i hi heb vedul i gwelt i, ' I saw her by chance ' ; mi vy:om i n medul 
neyd o, ' I meant to do it '; / qydun i dim m medul i \i vynd, smaljo 
oydun i, ' I did not mean you to go, I was joking '. (7) * to mean, 
to allude to': hunna daxi n vedul?, 'is this what you mean?' 
(8) ' to mean, signify '. 

medul, s.m., pi. msdylja, meddwl, D. (i) ' thought ' : hel mrttfja 
dru:g, ' to take a pessimistic view of things '. (2) * mind ' ; korf a 
medul, ' body and mind ' ; may po:b ma:6 o beda n du:ad t medul i, 
' all sorts of things come into my mind '. (3) ' intention ' : may 
o rhuy day vedul, ' he cannot make up his mind ' ; mi a:Q mo 
a i mhedul gida hi, 'she went there with some definite intention'. 
(4) ' estimation ' : r o:yd gmo vo vedul maur o hono vo, ' he thought 
a great deal of him '. 

medwi, v., meddwi, D. (i) 'to become intoxicated* : wedimedwi, 
' drunk ' ; fig. ' to become excited ' : medwi hevo r puyk sy dan sylu 
(O.H.). (2) ' to intoxicate '. (3) ' to become giddy ' : -tendjuxi 
vedwi. 

medwol, adj., meddwol, ' intoxicating ' : di:od vedwol. 
medwyn, s.m., meddwyn, D., s.v. ' potator' ; 'drunkard'. 

medsgas, s.f., meddyges, W.LI, xxxii. 14, in the plant-name 
med^gas benlas, ' self-heal ' (Prunella vulgaris). 

medrigar, mzdzlgar, adj., meddylgar, D., ' thoughtful, heedful * ; 
* far-seeing, calculating '. 

megin, s.f., pi. megina, megin, D., ' a pair of bellows ' : tru:yn 9 
ve&in, ' nozzle of the bellows '. 

megis, adv., megis, megys, D. ; 'as it were ' : / ydi hi dim ond 
megis de\ra, ' it is only beginning as it were ' ; megis do:y, ' as it 
were yesterday '. 

mehevin, myhevin, s.m., Mehefin, D., 'June'. 

me'ity'o ; beidjo (the latter is rarely used), v., beiddio, D., ' to dare ' : 



3 70 meixja melys 

vasun i dim zn met&jo (yetijun i Sim) neyd o, ' I would not dare to do 
it ' ; os meity'uxitj f if you dare ! ' (cf. beitigar). 

meixja, s.m., pi. meixjavon, meichiau, D., ' surety '. 

meilun, meiluy, s.m., pi. meibya, meilwn, D., ' ankle*. 

met'lfon, s.pl., sing. meij/onan, meillion, D., ' bird's-foot trefoil' 
(Lotus corniculatus) and, no doubt, various species of Trifolium. 

meinar, s.m., ' miner '. 

meindjo, v., 'to pay heed, care for ' : meindjo dim by:d mo vo, c to 
pay no heed to him ' ; du i dim m meindjo dim by:d meun tattus, 
' I don't care the least for potatoes '. 

meiygevn, s.m., meingefn, Prov. xxx. 31, ' the small of the back ' : 
gaval am 9 meiygevn. 

meiygig, s.m., meingig, ' fat * : sglisan o veiygig mo:\ (J.J.) ; also 
at Llanfairfechan : meiygig gwyn wedi tori n Srabja Kiljon. 

meirjonyb, Meirionydd : fi:r veirjonyti, ' Merionethshire '. 

meitin, s., meityn, D., ' a considerable time ' : may r Kinjo m barod 
er s meitin, ' dinner has been ready for some time ' ; may hi n dexra 
tufy er s meiiinjaun, ' it has been beginning to get dark for a good 
long time '. 

me'i&rin, v., meithrin, D., ' to tend carefully ' : meiQrin koyd, 
devaid, gwarQag. 

me:l, s.m., m^l, D., 'honey': did me:l, 'honeycomb'; da\iwedi 
hel tippin go le:u o ve:l i r ku:x, 'you have feathered your nest 
nicely ' ; bytta 9 me:l o r ku:x, ' to live on one's capital ' ; may o n 
i)e:l ar i vssab o, ' it is honey on his fingers ' expressing joy at 
another's misfortunes. 

melin, s.f., pi. melina, melin, D., ' mill ' : melin 8u:r, gofi, bappyr, 
byppyr, etc. ; fo:ys melin, ' millstream ' ; melin wynt, ' windmill ' 
also used of an apparatus to frighten birds ; may o n mynd i neyd 
melin ag egluys, ' he is going to work wonders ' ; troi 9 du:r at i 
velin i hy:n, ' to turn something to one's own advantage '. 

melvad t s.m., melfed, L.G.C. 158 [41] ; G.I. xxiv. 9 ; D., ' velvet '. 
melva-red, s., ' corduroy ' (O.H.). 

nujydj v., ymaflyd, D., s.v. 'luctor'; ymeulyd, D.F. [94]. 3: 
melyd kodum, ' to wrestle ' (O.H.). Cf. mavlyd. 

melyn, adj., fem. melon ; pi. mbnjon ; comp. mbnax, ' yellow '. 
As applied to the complexion, ' brown ' : smotja melyn, ' freckles ' 
(= br?xni hayl) ; kro:yn melyn, ' brown skin ' ; kloban velan vaur 
ayfonnas, 'a great bouncing repulsive woman with a brown 
complexion '. 

melys , adj., melus and melys, D., ' sweet' : \eir mo r melys heb 9 



me:(f 'mcriKa 371 

xweru (prov.), ' every rose has its thorns ' ; gumman melys, ' edible 
seaweed '. 

me.'l/, s.pl., sing. me(tan, f., mfcllt, D., ' lightning ', in sing. ' flash 
of lightning ' ; may hi y gli'yo me:^, ' it is lightning ' ; may r vegan 
wedi trawo r goydan, * the tree has been struck by lightning ' ; fay 
gmtad a meftan, ' as quick as lightning ' ; slipja d) toy dro:ydy:n o 
dan bo:b Kesal a fur a ti vel median , a facetious way of telling some 
one to clear off quickly (O.H.). 

melti&edig, adj., melldigedig, D., s.v. ' deuotus ' ; ' cursed '. 
mel/M, s.m.f., pi. megtitijon, melltith and ymelldith, D., ' curse'. 
mel/Mjo, v., melldithio, D., ' to curse '. 
mena, Menai, D.G. xxxiii. 16 ; 9 vena, avon mena, ' Menai Straits '. 

mendjo, v., emendaw, L.A. 56. 17 ; ymendaw, S.G. 41.8; 'mendio 
(sic), D.G. cxcvi. 40 ; mendio, W.LI. xi. 27 ; M.LI. i. 253. 29 ; 
ymendio, D.P.O. 361. 13; Eng. amend, mend, 'to get better, 
recover ' (from an illness) : da\i wedi mendjo n aru \adal 'oyba\i 
%o:y, ' you are much better than you were yesterday ' ; kofi r aval 
ma:y o, vendiQ o Mm, 'he is going fast; he will not get better* ; 
also trans, mi ro:B o bekpynt i boktor, ga:yl mendjo vo, ' he gave ten 
pounds to a doctor to have him cured '. 

mennyd, s.m., ymmennydd, D., 'brain': da\i n bigon i towsy 
mennyd ?r y:n kradyr /laud, ' you are enough to muddle the brains 
of any poor fellow '. 

mentro, v., mentrio, W.LI. Ixvi. 48; M.LI. i. 145. 29; mentro, 
D.P.O. 28. 34; 42. 8, *to venture': os na 'ventru\i beB 'niluxi &m, 

* nothing venture, nothing have ' ; mi ventriQ 9-y glos jaun 'atto\i, 

* it will venture quite close to you ' (e.g. a bird) ; mi ventra i n fauns, 
' I'll chance it ' ; substantively : / o:ys na h'm mentro 'arnynu, ' they 
are not venturesome, enterprising '. 

menirys, adj., ' venturesome, enterprising '. 

menyn, s.m., ymenyn, D., 'butter': bara menyn, 'bread and 
butter ' (cf. bre\tan) ; bru:as menyn \bru:as\ ; printan o venyn, ' a 
pat of butter ' ; rhoi menyn te:u, ' to spread butter thick ' ; menyn 
gwyrb) ' butter without salt formerly kept to apply to sores, etc/ 

me:r, s.m., mer, D., ' marrow '. 

mertyn, s., pi. mzrtonod, murddun, D., ' ruins ' : ty: wedi x^aly 
n ver&yn. 

meri, s.pl., sing, meran. f., mieri, D., ' brambles ' : drain meri, 
1 blackberry bushes ' (O.H.) ; mar\ meri, ' wild rose trees ' ; hada 
marx meri, ' hips ' = mukkog ',fon o varx meran. 

meri, ' Mary ' : ma: gormod o meri dge:n yno vo, ' he is too much 
of an old woman '. Cf. m air, mart, mali. 

men'Ka, ' America ' ; always with the article, e. g. myndir meriKa. 

B b 2 



372 mer\ meun 




merxaid 9n reit vy:an i godi beta, ' women are very quick at finding 
fault ' ; may o n verx o dy:n, ' he is an old woman ' ; may o n farad 
vel merx, ' he talks like a woman ' ; he:n verx y ' old maid '. 

merxar, Mercher, dy merxar, ' Wednesday '. 

merxetta, v., mercheta, T.N. 26. 7, ' to go after women ' : le: 
:by:ostt n merxetta mor hu:yr ? 

, adj., merchetaidd, ' fond of going after women ' : dy:n 



merxetttfr, s.m., merchetwr, O.P., ' one who goes after women '. 
merlyn, s.m., pi. marljod, merlyn, { pony '. Fern, marlan. 
merjyd, adj., ' insipid ' = mervab. 

mervad, mervad, adj., cf. merf, D., ' insipid ' = 'dirvla:s ; also of 
water which has stood for a long time : hem vla:s mervad ar 3 du:r. 

me:s, s.pl., sing, mesan, m6s, D., ' acorns ' : kuppan mesan, * cup 
of an acorn '. 

mesyr, s.m., pi. mesyra, messur, W.B., col. 96. 21 ; mesur, D., 

* measure ' : rhoi mesyr 9 tro:yd, ' to have one's foot measured '. 

mesyr, v., mesur, 2 Cor. x. 12, 'to measure ' : mesyr paub u3 i 
laQan i hy:n, ' to measure all by his own ell '. 
metl/o, v., ' to break stones to mend the road '. 
metljur, s.m., '"road-mender '. 
mettal, s.f., mettel, L.A. 80. 27; L.G.C. 291 [31]; D., 

* metal ' ; also ' substance ' : karag o vettal jaun, ' good sound 
stone ' (O.H.) ; syntyr = 9 vettal gletia o 6ri:8 t an rhy: sy:r i dwy 
dim i hy:n (Q.H?). 

me& [me:&]. 

medadys, s.m., pi. meBadistjaid, ' Methodist '. Also adj. : kappal 
'meQadys. 

meBjant, me6jantys> adj., methiant, D., ' old and feeble '. 

me6y, v., methu, D. Pret. PI. i. meQson. Plup. nieQsun, 'to 
fail, to be unable ' : du i n meQy kovfo i enu vo, ' I can't remember 
'his name ' ; dary hi ve6y mynd neiQjur, ' she couldn't go last night ' ; 
0:8 hi n meQy gubod be neyda hi, ' she didn't know what to do ' ; mi 
veBis a xa:l dy:n i rieyd o t ' I couldn't get a man to do it ' ; meQy 
gweld ^ ko:yd gin brenja, ' not to see the wood for the trees '. 

meujan, v., mewian, D., ' to mew '. 

meun, mjaun, prep., mewn, D. ; cf. meawn, C.L.C. ii. 29. 9; 
C.C.M. 13. 6, ' in'. The distinction between meun and m corre- 
sponds to some extent to that between Fr. ' en ' and ' dans ', i. e. 



mevys mi 373 

rneiin is used when the noun is not preceded by a defining word : 
byu meun gobaiB, ( to live in hope ' ; pobol mean o:yd, * people getting 
on in years ' ; mi irho:B o meun kuppurb, ' he put him in a cupboard ' ; 
meun golug, ' in sight ' ; meun for 6 o farad \ ' so to speak ' ; meun 
po:yn, trafarB, helbyl, by:d, * in trouble ' ; meun dim, ' in a second ; 
within an ace (of) ' ; dim ty kgedy bo:ddyu meun bo:d, ' not believing 
in the existence of God ' ; kredy meun peBa ovargoylys, ' to believe 
in superstitions ' ; meun rhiu viffir i abar, ' within a mile or so of 
Aber ' ; r o:d hi meun lair i bedwar igjan, l she was seventy-seven ' ; 
meun x^artar aur, ' in quarter of an hour '. /' veun, i vjaun, adv., 
1 within, in ' : o:ys ne:b i veun />, ' is any one in ? ' ; d#u\ i veun, 
1 come in ' ; odi veun, * from within ; inside '. 

mevys, s.pl., sing, mevysan, mefus, D., ' strawberries '. 

mewaB, s.f., dimewerth, W.S., ' halfpennyworth '. 

meydan, s.f., maeden, B.C. 33.18; Eng. maiden ; ' slut ' : r he:n 
veydan vydyr. 

mfydy, v., maeddu rectius baeddu, D. Pret. me'ito's (I.W.). (i) 
' to dirty, spoil ' : may r plant m meyfy r [i:an, ' the children dirty 
the table-cloth ' ; ro:don meydy vi hevo i glistja, ' he (the dog) was 
messing me with his ears ' ; 9 peBa da\i wedi meyfy, * the things 
you have used ' (i. e. tea-things). (2) * to beat brutally '. More 
rarely beyfy, q.v. 

meyBlon, adj., maethlon, ' nourishing ' : be di r peB muya meyBlon 
i grsf'hay dy:n ? 

meyByn, mheyByn, adj., ammheuthun, D., with pe:B 'a. dainty, 
a treat ' : by:b hunna m be:B meyByn (n veyByn) i mi, ' that will be 
a dainty for me ' ; may o m be:6 mheyByn jaun weld o n mynd, * it is 
a treat to see him go '. 

ff^w0X,adj.,adv.,amgenach, comp.of amgen,D., 'better, different, 
otherwise ' : may hun 9 mgenax na hunna, l this is better than that ' ; 
m ay n lawar jaun mgenax vel na, * it is much better like that ' ; mi 
vasun i n disgul rubaB mgenax na hmny oruBaxi, ' I should have 
expected something better than that from you ' ; -wybonu Sim mgenax, 
4 they know no better '. 

mgernjal, mgernjo \imgernjai\. 

m&ity'ad, v., ymguddio, D., s.v. ' occulo ' ; 'to hide (oneself) '. 

mi, mi. Affirmative particle used, when making a statement, 
before all possible tenses and all persons of verbs except the 3rd pers. 
sing. pres. of bo:d, followed by r before the present and generally 
before the imperfect of bo:d. This word appears to have been 
originally the pronoun ' mi ' employed in such locutions as ' mi 
a'i gwelais ef, 'I saw him'; but it has now usurped also the 
functions of the literary ' fe ' as in ' fe welodd ef y dyn ', ' he 
saw the man '. Thus we have mi gwelis i o, but mi welob o 3 
dy:n. The use of the radical after mi is extended by analogy to all 



374 



mi: mi:n 



cases in which a pronoun is the direct object of the verb and the 
subject is a pronoun (expressed or understood), e. g. mi gwela i di, 
' I see you ' (also mi dz wela i di) ; miKeidihil, ' you'll catch it ! ' ; 
mi gwvudjoS vi, ' he made game of me ' ; but mi do: i, ' I shall 
come ' ; mi da:u o, ' he will come ' ; mi get di iveld o, ' you shall 
see him ' ; mi gripjob 9 ga:B vt, ' the cat scratched me '. 

mi: (when not stressed, mi), pron., mi, D., 'I, me', only used 
after the prepositions a, hevo, i; na (than), and dary. Cf. /':, vi:, 
rvi:, minna and mi (particle). 

mi:g, s., mic, D.F. [132]. 12, 'hide-and-seek': xwara mi:g ; 
also used in children's language for ' bo-peep '. 

'miga'moga \^igam'ogam~\. 

migmars (I.W.) ; migmas (J.J. ; O.H.), s.m., nigmars, D.G. 
cxliii. 17 (= necromancy); migmars, G.O. ii. 231. 2, 'gesture, 
sign', such as raising the finger, winking, etc.: gneyd (= tinny) 
riu vigmas arno vo gad io vo vynd akin, l to make some sign to 
him to make him go out '. 

migno(O.H.} ; migjo (J.J.), v., cf. migno, M.F., ' to trample, tread 
down ' : migno r y:d o dan i dra:yd (O.H.). 

migurn, s.m., pi. migzrna, migwrn, D., ' knuckle ' : welis i 8im na 
migurn nag asgurn o honi hi, ' I never saw a trace of it again ', 
speaking, e. g. of a cat which has run off with a chicken (O.H.). 

mikkuSy s., mikws, C.C.M. 324. 23 (? Eng. mix). Only occurs 
in the expression Kin syrad a r vikkus. W.LI. (Voc.) has micas, 
' browes ; migas ', which D. quotes (s.v. ' micas '), adding the 
definition : Offulae adipatae, panis jure madidus, adipatum. D. also 
gives " miccws, y w'r peth a fydd wrth y dwsel " quoting the same 
authority, but this is not to be found in Morrice's edition (W.LI, 
defines ' dwsel ' as ' powsed ', i. e. posset) J.J. explained the word 
doubtfully as gloyvon sikkan. 

milan, adj., milein, R.B. 280. 4; bilein, B.H. 129. 32 ; milain, 
W.S. [Rude] ; D. ; cf. D.G. Ivii. 28, xciv. 45, cxxxii. 27; O.F. 
vilain, 'angry, sullen, ill-tempered, furious, savage' (followed by 
the prep. u&) : golug milan kmdeirjog ; r o:n i n teimlo n vilan 
vrunt (O.H.); Kefyl, Hi: milan = bli:n, anod i dri:n. 

milSail, s., milddail, D., ' yarrow ' = bf f a r gweydlyn (Achillsea 
Millefolium). 

milgi, s.m., pi. milguns, milgi, D., 'greyhound' : mynd vel milgi. 
miltir, s.f., pi. mt'ltirod, milldir, D., ' mile '. 

mi:n, s.m., pi. minja, min, D., ' edge ' : rhoid mi:n ar rubaB, ' to 
sharpen something ' ; may digon o vi:n arno^o, ' it is sharp enough ' ; 
z ly: mi:n, ' the sharp side ' (e. g. of a blade) ; (fig.) rhaid i mi droi 
9 ty: mi:n tio (atto) vo, ' I must show him my sharp side ' ; ' I must 



minjar miu 375 

exert my authority with him ' ; mi:n 9 geya, l the verge of the 
winter ' ; ar vi:n hsgy, ' on the point of going to sleep '. 

minjar , s.f., in slate quarries, ' a kind of wedge-shaped chisel 
inserted in a joint and driven in by a mallet, in order to detach a 
piece of rock which has been already loosened by blasting ' (J.J.). 

minjog, adj., miniog, D. (i) ' sharp, keen-edged ' (of tools, etc.) ; 
3\sodannat,gwina& minjog', fig. tavodminjog. (2) 'caustic, sarcastic'. 

minna, pron., minnau, G.R. [121], 8, 1 1, me'. Conjunctive 
form of mi:, i:. 

min/'ar, s.m., minf'ars, mansier, W.S., ' manger '. 

mintis, s., mintys, D. (Bot.), ' mint '. 

mii/Keg, s.m., Eng. mint-cake, minc